Historic Area Graveyard Study

Caitlin Verboon with
Dr. Thomas H. Taylor

April 2005

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 0383
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library

Williamsburg, Virginia


Historic Area Graveyard Study

Photo of Headstones Photo of Headstone - My Jesse Photo of Headstone Photo of Headstone Photo of Headstone

Caitlin Verboon with Dr. Thomas H. Taylor
Department of Architectural Collections

April 2005



Photo of Headstones - Boswell in forefront

Coke-Garrett Graveyard3
Custis Tenement Graveyard4
Secretary's Office Graveyard7
Taliaferro-Cole Graveyard10
Benjamin Waller Graveyard12
Williamsburg Inn Pool Site Graveyard19
Wren Crypt21
Summary Report25

This report was prepared in the spring of 2005 by intern Caitlin Verboon, a student at the College of William and Mary



There are seven family graveyards in the Historic Area of Colonial Williamsburg that include over 70 individual markers. Including the vaults in the Wren Crypt, some of these markers and burial containers date back to the eighteenth century. Although many of these markers are not open for public viewing, they remain a valuable part of the historic area with historic significance; many of the markers memorialize members of prominent Virginia and American families, including governors of the colony and daughters of American presidents. Unfortunately, many of these graveyards have been allowed to fall into disrepair which has led the condition of the individual stones to deteriorate, sometimes severely.

The purpose of this study was to record the location, inscription, and condition of all the stones still remaining in these family graveyards. This study was made possible by the fact that the Benjamin Waller Graveyard in particular had recently been cleared of vegetation, making all markers visible.

RR0383-007(Above) Student intern Caitlin Verboon collects data in the Williamsburg Inn Pool Site Graveyard

RR0383-008(Left) Headstone of Hugh Mercer Waller in the Benjamin Waller Graveyard (BW-22a)


Coke-Garret Graveyard

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
GarrettCG-1In memory of
Col. Alexander C. Garrett
Born in Williamsburg Feb. 1, 1823
And departed this life June 13, 1854
SlabGray limestoneCoke GarrettGood


RR0383-010(Above right) This marker, CG-1, is the only one present today in the Coke-Garrett Graveyard; however, because of its placement, it is likely that there are other graves in this graveyard that are no longer marked.

RR0383-011(Right) Coke-Garrett Graveyard as viewed from the entrance on the south side.


Custis Tenement Graveyard

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
Maupin HarrellCT-1a Sacred to the memory of
Two beloved youth
Who died March 11, 1870
Jno. M. Maupin
Aged 24 years
Thomas J. Harrell
Aged 21 years
HeadstoneLimestoneCustis TenementBiological activity; heavy organic growth; vegetation
Maupin HarrellCT-1bJ M M
FootstoneLimestoneCustis TenementOrganic/fungal growth present; broken (loss of lower portion); worn edges but sharp inscription; vegetation growing over stone
CT-2aHeadstoneLimestone?Custis TenementMissing
CT-2bJ MFootstoneLimestone?Custis TenementLarge pieces broken off and missing; scalloped edges have been disturbed by ground movement and vegetation; significant moss growth around scalloped edges
MaupinCT-3In memory of John M. Maupin
Who died Dec. 26, 1850
Aged 43 years
SlabLimestone?Custis TenementTwo pieces broken off bottom corners; moderate erosion present; vegetation growing over stones
CT-4Our darling Jenny
Born Aug. 4, 1850
Died Feb. 12, 1860
HeadstoneLimestoneCustis TenementBroken off, leaning against south wall; heavy erosion; worn edges and small chips; organic growth; lower part broken off
CT-5none visibleGraniteCustis TenementOvergrown

All of the stones in the Custis Tenement Graveyard need to be reset. Several markers are broken, and at least one headstone is missing from the graveyard. The stones are severely damaged due to erosion, organic growth and vegetation, and breaks in the stones. See treatment proposal




RR0383-013(Far above) Custis Tenement Graveyard as viewed from entrance on east side

RR0383-014(Above) While the engraving of the stone (CT-1a) remains clear, it has broken off from its base (location unknown) and is negatively affected by heavy organic growth.

RR0383-015(Above) Lamb visits the graveyard. A herd of sheep has recently been relocated to the area surrounding and including the graveyard. Note: sheep living in the Taliaferro-Cole Graveyard have shown that they cause no significant damage to the markers.


Secretary's Office Graveyard

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
Mary Ann Tinsley Jones
Daughter of Samuel Hildrup and
Sallie King Tinsley
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficeSlab, platform and urn in stable condition
David Rowland Jones
Son of Meriwether and Kitturah Ann
Davis Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficeSlab in stable condition, hairline crack in urn
JonesSO-3Hattie Peterson Jones
Daughter of David Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficePlatform pulling apart at joint; two opposing hairline cracks in urn
JonesSO-4Helen Norfleet Jones
Daughter of David Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficeGood
JonesSO-5Emma Adelaid Jones
Daughter of David Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficePlatform pulling apart at joints; N. side of platform cracked; hairline crack in urn
JonesSO-6Ida Maude Jones
Daughter of Aid Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficeSlab tilted; two opposing cracks in urn
JonesSO-7Rosalee Jones
Daughter of Daivd Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficePlatform pulling apart; urn in good condition
JonesSO-8Mary Rowland Jones
Daughter of David Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarbleSecretary's OfficeSlab, platform and urn in stable condition
JonesSO-9Virginia Wills Jones
Daughter of Aid Rowland and
Mary Ann Elizabeth Jones
SlabMarble Secretary's OfficeSlab, platform and urn in stable condition
JonesSO-10To our father and mother David
and Mary Ann Jones.
This cross is dedicated as a tribute
of affection by Mary Rowland and
Virginia Jones
MonumentMarbleSecretary's OfficeGood

The graveyard is gated and the gate is locked.




RR0383-017(Left) All the graves in the Secretary's Office Graveyard are from the Jones family. Each grave consists of a marble slab and an accompanying urn. The monument (SO-10) is dedicated to David Rowland and Mary Ann Jones by Mary Rowland and Virginia Jones, also buried in this graveyard.

RR0383-018(Below) Many of the platforms of the slabs are pulling apart at the joints. The platform, of SO-5, has pulled apart; the small crack in the platform may have been caused as the concrete base shifted and the marble platform resisted movement.

RR0383-019(Above) Each slab in this graveyard follows the same pattern: a (Above) Each slab in this graveyard follows the same pattern: a marble slab with the name, the parents' names and a short verse. No birth or death dates are included.

RR0383-020(Right) The urn of SO-6 is severely damaged with two opposing cracks that could easily cause the urn to split in two. Conservation is required.


Taliaferro - Cole Graveyard

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
LabbyTC-1In memory of Geo. Washington
Third son of Pleasant Labby and a
native of the city of Lynchburg.
He was born the 22nd of Feb. 1825
And died Jany 25th, 1855
HeadstoneLimestoneTaliaferro ColeOrganic growth including several types of fungus; minor chips along edges; no visible animal interaction
TC-2LimestoneTaliaferro ColeFragment; no inscription visible
ColeTC-3aCatherine B. Cole
Child of R. E. (?) and E. R. Cole
Born 11 March 1845
Died 17 Dec'r 1846
HeadstoneLimestoneTaliaferro ColeSoiling; organic/fungal growth; loss/chps along top and sides; tilted but stable
ColeTC-3bC B CFootstoneLimestoneTaliaferro ColeSoiling; minor organic growth
TC-4Sweet Daisy
Aged 23 months and 4 days
HeadstoneLimestoneTaliaferro ColeSoiling; organic growth, particularly at base; loss around top edges; worn smooth due to animal interaction
ColeTC-5My Jesse
Son of R. E. and E. R. Cole
Died Fe. 23, 1866
Aged 16 years and 8 days
HeadstoneLimestoneTaliaferro ColeLeaning but stable; minor organic/fungal growth; horizontal scratches on East side; small chips

In general, the markers in the Taliaferro-Cole Graveyard are in stable condition. Except for TC-1, they are all min orly affected by the sheep living in and around the cemetery; many of the edges are worn smooth due to the sheep rubbing against the stones.

RR0383-023(Above) Taliaferro-Cole Graveyard as viewed from entrance on west side.

RR0383-021(Left) TC-4 is tilted but stable.

RR0383-022(Far left) TC-1 is the only marker in the graveyard that has not been affected by animal interaction.




Benjamin Waller Graveyard

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
StubbsBW-1T. Jefferson Stubbs, Jr.
Dec. 11, 1879 - Jan. 2, 1943
Elizabeth S. Stubbs
July 25, 1906 - July 24, 1992
HeadstoneRoughcut GraniteBenjamin WallerGood
StubbsBW-2Thomas Jefferson Stubbs
Sept. 14, 1841 - Nov. 17, 1915
Mary Cosnahan Stubbs
Oct. 5, 1850 -Apr. 29, 1917
HeadstoneRoughcut GraniteBenjamin WallerGood
CosnahanBW-3Mrs. Louisa Mercer Cosnahan
Wife of Joseph ? Cosnahan and
daughter of ?
Born Feb. ?
Died Oct. 30, 1856, Aged 30 years
SlabMarble with brick platformBenjamin WallerSevere erosion and organic/fungal growth
StubbsBW-4aLucy Taliaferro Conway Stubbs
Daughter of Thomas Jefferson
Stubbs and Mary Mercer Cosnahan
his wife
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerBarely attached to base; fungal/organic growth, vines growing on front and back; light staining
StubbsBW-4bL T C S (letters on top, not side)FootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning; organic/ fungal growth present
BW-5Benjamin WallerBroken off
Ballard Elliot Boswell
Son of Dr. John I. and Mary R.
Died Sept. 27, 1927
and his beloved wife
Anne Stubbs Boswell
Jan. 7, 1872 - March 12, 1864
HeadstoneGraniteBenjamin WallerGroundhog hole along east face of headstone; footing exposed
MercerBW-7Mrs. Mary C. Mercer
Died May 24, 1892
Aged 23 years
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerFungal/organic growth present; light surface erosion
MercerBW-8Dr. Jno. C. Mercer
Died Mar. 26, 1884
Aged 26 years
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerFew nicks along top edge; minor fungal/ organic growth; some erosion but remains legible
WallerBW-9Jno. Mercer Waller
Died Aug. 12, 1875
AGed 10 mon's
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoose; significant fungal/organic growth on east side in grooves of letters
MercerBW-10Thos. Hugh Mercer
Died Sept. 2, 1865
Aged 22 years
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerFungal/organic growth; scratches on west face; loss at top of east edge
WallerBW-11Sacred to the memory of
Julia Weedon
Daughter of Robt. P. & Julia Weedon
Waller his wife
Born Nov. 23, 1836
Died Oct. 30, 1860
Aged 23 years, 11 months, & 7 days
SlabLimestone with brick platformBenjamin WallerFungal/organic growth present; Nicks in beveled edge; significant algae growth on brick
MercerBW-12MercerMonumentMarble with limestone plinthBenjamin WallerLoss of top part of pedestal at SE corner; Fungal growth; vines present between base and plinth; crack in column on SE side (cause unknown); small hairline cracks on all sides of base
WallerBW-13Sacred to the memory of
Isabella Stuart
Daughter of Dr. Robert Page Waller
Died May 15, 1853
In the 22nd year of her age
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerBroken off; leaning against South wall; clean backside; fungal/organic growth; no significant erosion
BW-14FootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerBroken off; severe wear and erosion - no inscription visible; leaning but stable; organic/fungal growth present
BW-15Base of headstone, likely of BW-13LimestoneBenjamin WallerBroken off; loss along edge of base which caused weakness of headstone
WallerBW-16aSacred to the memory of
Littleton Tazewell Waller
Born March 12th, 1806
Died April 27th, 1870
HeadstoneLimestone on granite baseBenjamin WallerLoose; Moderate surface erosion; fungal/organic growth present
WallerBW-16bL T WFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning and loose; badly chipped edges with crack along top edge; fungal/organic growth present; algae present along base; moderate surface erosion
MercerBW-17Jno. L. Mercer Jr.
Died July 12, 1882
Aged 9 mon's
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoose; fungal/organic growth present; Moderate erosion
WallerBW-18Isabella S. Waller
Died May 15, 1853
Aged 21
Obelisk on pedestalMarble and limestoneBenjamin WallerSignificant erosion and loss of decorative elements; leaning eastward; fungal growth accompanied by growth of vines
WallerBW-19Sacred to the memory of
Corbin Griffin
Son of Dr. Robert Page Waller
Who died October 29th, 1841
Aged 23 years
HeadstoneBase limestone, headstone marble?Benjamin WallerFallen over, out of base; base broken; significant erosion and fungal growth; edges remain sharp
WallerBW-20aRobert Page Waller
Died July 21, 1872
Aged 81
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoose and leaning; significant erosion; fungal/organic growth present; staining on West side
WallerBW-20bR P WFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoose; minor chips along edges; fungal/organic growth present
WallerBW-21aSacred to the memory of
J. W. Waller
Widow of R. P. Waller
Died Dc. 10, 1883
Aged 80 years
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning but stable; fungal/organic growth present; significant surface erosion
WallerBW-21bJ W WFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoss at base; worn edges; fungal/organic growth present; loose
WallerBW-22aHugh Mercer Waller
Born December 3, 1829
Died May 31, 1896
Son of Julia Weedon Waller and
Robert Page Waller
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerFinial not attached and crack all over; heavy fungal growth around decorative carving
WallerBW-22bBROTHERFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLoose (base overgrown); fungal growth and light erosion present; major loss on NW bottom corner
Mary Mercer Page Stubbs
Wife of Rev. Robert Marshall Tomlinson
June 1, 1885 - April 16, 1946
Thick slabGraniteBenjamin WallerMinor fungal growth
TomlinsonBW-24Martha Marshall Tomlinson
Daughter of Mary Mercer Stubbs
Feb. 7, 1922 - Sept. 1, 1971
Plaque set in baseGraniteBenjamin WallerMinor staining/fungal growth
MercerBW-25B C MFootstoneMarbleBenjamin WallerLoose; small nicks on edges; minor soiling on lettered side
MercerBW-26 Blakeley C. Mercer
Died Feb. 11, 1852
Aged 3 Y's 4 M's 10 D's
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning but stable; scratched on both sides; erosion and fungal/organic growth present
WallerBW-27aLetitia Tyler
Daughter of ?
Born Dec. 18, 1848
Died Dec. 29, 1849
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning but stable; significant erosion and fungal growth present; no wear on edges; ivy growing on headstone
WallerBW-27bL T WFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerLeaning but stable; chip along top backside; fungal growth and surface erosion present
WallerBW-28Elizabeth Tyler Waller
Wife of Wm. Waller, Esq. of Williamsburg
And daughter of the President Tyler
of Virginia
Born July 11th, 1823
Died June 1st, 1850
Aged 26 years, 10 months, 18 days
Slab with brick platformLimestone and brickBenjamin WallerFungal growth; significant surface and edge erosion
BW-29Benjamin WallerBroken off
MercerBW-30Blakeley Carter Mercer
Aged 2 years, 6 months
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerBroken in half and fallen off base; significant fungal growth and surface erosion
WallerBW-31This stone is erected to the memory
of Mary and Eliza Waller, daughters
of Maj. Tho. Griffin of York
town by their affectionate father.
The first died 9th April 1827 and the
other on the 26th day of June 1823
and lie buried here.
"Beloved till life could charm no
And mourned till sorrows self be
HeadstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerBroken off base; significant surface erosion and soiling; Loss of edges; fungal/organic growth present
WallerBW-32G G WFootstoneLimestoneBenjamin WallerFungal growth, very light erosion; loose and leaning; wear on edges

Many markers in the Benjamin Waller Graveyard require immediate attention in order to prevent further damage. Several need to be reset. In addition, the heavy vegetation that is present in the graveyard for much of the year causes significant damage to the markers as well as increasing the difficulty of monitoring conditions of markers to prevent deterioration.




RR0383-026Benjamin Waller Graveyard viewed from east side just after mowing. Inset: Benjamin Waller Graveyard roughly a month after mowing. The course vegetation is heavy and grows quickly, obscuring and damaging markers.



(Left and below) The finial of BW-22a is significantly damaged. It is no longer attached to the marker and is just resting on it, leading to a risk of it falling off and being damaged further or of someone taking it. In addition, there are significant cracks on opposing sides which could easily lead to further breakage.


(Below) The broken foot of BW-19 may have caused the marker to fall out of its base.

Broken Foot

RR0383-030(Far left) Many of the decorative elements of BW-18 have been lost due to erosion; for example, the top flowers on the shown portion of the obelisk have been lost.

RR0383-031(Left) Large metal pins held BW-22b to its base (now overgrown), but a significant loss to the bottom corner contributed to it falling out of the base.

RR0383-032(Left) The inscription of BW-32 is unclear. While it is located roughly where the footstone of BW-19 should be, the spacing of the letters is odd and appears to read G G W instead of C G W.


Williamsburg Inn Pool Site

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
DebressPS-1Bell Debress
Wife of Edward Debress
Died Dec. 11, 1901
Beloved Mother of
Bettie Baker and Willie Debress
HeadstoneLimestonePool SiteFungal growth; minor erosion along edges
DebressPS-2aIn memory of Mary Ann Debress
Died July 15, 1825??
Aged 18 years
HeadstoneLimestonePool SiteTilted but stable; significant erosion, inscription becoming illegible; significant loss at top; fungal growth
DebressPS-2bM A DFootstoneLimestonePool SiteTilted but stable; chips at edges; organic/fungal growth present

This graveyard is located in a patch of woods just north of the pools at the Williamsburg Inn. While subject to expected erosion, largely forgotten and hidden, they are in fairly stable condition. yard.

RR0383-033(Above) PS-2a has been affected by severe surface erosion, making the year of death illegible.

RR0383-034(Left) PS-1 is in far better condition and is a much more recent addition to this graveyard.




Wren Crypt

Family NameRef. Num.InscriptionMarker TypeMaterialCemeteryCondition
RandolphWC-1Sir John Randolph
Died 1737
Lady Susanna Beverley Randolph
Died after 1754
VaultBrick, lead coffinsWren CryptOpened 1858 and 1862 (?)
RandolphWC-2John Randolph
Died 1784
VaultBrick lead coffinsWren CryptOpened 1858 and 1862 (?); repaired 1929
RandolphWC-3Peyton Randolph
Died 1775
Buried 1776
Elizabeth Harrison Randolph
Died 1783
Vault Brick, lead coffinsWren CryptOpened 1858, 1859, 1862 (?); Elizabeth's remains placed in Peyton's coffin and moved to WC-6 May 30, 1929
BotetourtWC-4Lord Botetourt
Died 1770
Vault Brick, lead coffinsWren CryptOpened, robbed in 1862 and 1969; opened by Lyon Tyler 1888-1919
MadisonWC-5Bishop James Madison
Died 1812
Possibly Mrs. Madison
Died 1815
Vault Brick, lead coffinsWren CryptOpened 1862 (?); remains placed in lead box and moved to WC-6 May 30, 1929
Randolph MadisonWC-6Bishop James Madison and Mrs.
Peyton and Elizabeth Harrison
Vault Wren Crypt
DewWC-7Thomas R. Dew
Died 1846
Buried 1939
VaultWren Crypt
NelsonWC-8Chancellor Robert Nelson (?)
Died 1818
GraveWren CryptExcavated 1858 and Aug. 1928

Located beneath the Wren Chapel, the Wren Crypt has been sealed off from the public. Over the past 150 years, the vaults have been broken into and robbed; this has caused significant damage to the vaults and to the crypt itself as the vaults have been broken and the crypt covered with graffitti done by fraternity brothers in the 1960s. Due to increased security as well as removal of asbestos from the crypt, the vaults and graves there are in stable condition.




RR0383-037(Left) WC-4, the burial place of Lord Botetourt has been broken into and robbed several times by Civil War soldiers and also by William and Mary students. It remains open today, leaving the interior exposed and visible.

RR0383-038(Below) The interior of WC-4 still contains the remains of Lord Botetourt's lead coffin.

RR0383-039(Above) Caitlin Verboon measures WC-2 assisted by Tom Taylor

RR0383-040(Above) Unlike any of the other vaults in the Crypt, WC-2 is supported by three vertical buttresses on the south side.



The lowest and often widest visible part of a marker, often distinctively treated. A base is distinguished from a foundation or footing in being visible rather than buried. A low, thickened section of a vertical tablet. Lower part of an obelisk, column, or table tomb, wider than the support, and may rest on a plinth, or pedestal.
Biological activity
Presence of micro-organisms small plants such as mosses, vines, and bird droppings.
Narrow fractures of variable length and direction.
Gradual loss of surface material and resulting in rounded edges and profiles, and (often) an overall granular texture.
That portion of the foundation of a structure which transmits loads directly to the soil; may be the widened part of a wall or column, the spreading courses under a foundation wall, a foundation of a column, etc. used to spread the load over a greater area to prevent or reduce settling.
Absence of original material, as judged by incompleteness of form, decoration, or inscription.
A support for a column, obelisk, statue, urn, etc. consisting in classical architecture of a base, dad, or die and a cornice, surbase, or cap; in modern design often a plain unornamented block.
A raised floor or terrace.
A square or rectangular base for a column, pilaster, or door framing. A solid monumental base, often ornamented with holdings, bas reliefs, or inscriptions, to support a statue or memorial. A recognizable base of an external wall, or the base courses of a building collectively, if so treated as to give the appearance of a platform.
Surface deposits of fine particulate matter, generally dark in color, modifying or obscuring the original appearance of the stone.
A thick slice or plate of material such as stone, wood, concrete, etc. Staining Discoloration of deposition of minute deposits of highly colored matter within the pores of the stone.
Significantly (greater than 15 degrees) or totally out of vertical alignment.

Summary Report

Although the condition of most of the grave markers is stable, some gravestones require conservation. The condition of loose stones should be stabilized by resetting. Before removing the gravestone, a 4-6″ perimeter strip of sod should be lifted and set aside. The gravestone should be carefully removed and its full height measured. A straight-side excavation should continue, extending 6-8″ below a depth of no less than 40% of the full height of the stone. #4-1 ½″ round "pea" gravel should be used to fill the first 6-8″ of the excavation. With the stone held upright, alternating layers of sand/gravel and wet soil should be used to fill the excavation almost to the top. Sod should then be replaced over this permeable, relatively noncompressible fill.

Gravestone fragments should be reattached using structural adhesives. On fragments that are large in size, it may be necessary to use an anchoring system. In some cases, disassembly of previous repair work and removal of old fills and adhesives may first be necessary. Grouting techniques should be used to prevent further detachment.

Some gravestones had open cracks or joints that allow for the entry of water. To arrest further deterioration of these stones, the entry of water through open cracks and joints should be eliminated. Brick supports should be repointed using an appropriate mortar. Stonework should be repointed as well. Equally important in preventing water intrusion is the filling of large, open cracks. Composite patching mixtures (of cement, lime, and sand or crushed stone) should match the color, texture, and hardness of the surrounding stonework.

Routine maintenance should be emphasized. As a result of conditions seen during the recent survey, several additions to the ongoing program are recommended. Heavy moss growth and ivy should be removed from the gravestones. Visitors should be discouraged from sitting or standing on the gravestones; graffitti and gravestone "rubbing" should be prohibited. Vegetation in the graveyards should be kept to a minimum at all times, but maintenance personnel should avoid scratching or abrading gravestones with lawnmowers.

(Excerpts from the Summary Report of the survey of conditions of Bruton Parish gravestones prepared by Tracy Coffing, Frances Gale, Norman Weiss (all of Columbia University) and Tom Taylor on August 10, 1984)