Research Report

Grissell Hay Lodging House Architectural Report, Block 29 Building 1, 1A, 3, 3A, 4A, 4B, 6, 11A Lot 171

Originally entitled: "Architectural Report Archibald Blair House and Outbuildings (Van Garrett House) Block 29, Building 1"

Thomas Tileston Waterman, Washington Reed, Jr. and Milton L. Grigg, rev. Howard Dearstyne
1932, rev.
1951

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 1560
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library

Williamsburg, Virginia

1990

ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE

RR156001

ARCHITECTURAL REPORT
ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS
(Van Garrett House)
Block 29, Building 1

The Archibald Blair House and Outbuildings are located on a plot of ground situated immediately north and west of the junction of Nicholson and North England Streets.

The buildings were restored by the Williamsburg Holding Corporation under the direction of Perry, Shaw and Hepburn, Architects.

The following are the dates of the beginning and completion of the restoration of each building:

Block Building Started Completed
29 1 Archibald Blair House Apr., 1930 Jan., 1931
29 3 Archibald Blair Kitchen Feb., 1931 July, 1931
29 3A Archibald Blair Wellhead Feb., 1931 Aug., 1931
29 11A Archibald Blair Smokehouse June, 1930 Jan., 1931
29 4B Archibald Blair Dairy June, 1930 Jan., 1931
29 6 Archibald Blair Corncrib (Garage) Feb., 1931 Nov., 1931
29 4A Archibald Blair Privy Feb., 1931 Nov., 1931

Office Personnel Engaged in the work

A. Edwin Kendrew was chief draftsman in the Williamsburg office of the architects.

The measured drawings were made by and under the direction of Singleton P. Moorehead. The men who worked on the drawings of the house, aside from Mr. Moorehead, were Milton L. Grigg, Clyde Trudell, John A. Barrows and Thomas T. Waterman. The drawings for the outbuildings were made by the following:

Kitchen Clyde Trudell
Dairy, Corncrib, Wellhead, Smokehouse and Privy Washington Reed, Jr.
All working drawings were checked by Walter M. Macomber and A. Edwin Kendrew.
This volume contains the following: Personalities Associated With the Archibald Blair House; Architectural Report on the House by Thomas Tileston Waterman, dated October 25, 1932, and Architectural Report on the Outbuildings by Washington Reed, Jr., and Milton L. Grigg, undated. The "Personalities" was composed by Howard Dearstyne, who has also revised, rearranged and illustrated the architectural reports. The volume was completed in May, 1951.

PERSONALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE

In viewing restored Williamsburg, two things, it seems, are of chief importance - the picture that it presents to the eye and the thoughts which this invokes. It is the architecture and gardens, of course, which make up this picture. The original eighteenth-century town was the stage where great and lesser deeds were enacted by great people, neargreat people and by ordinary folk. In considering the buildings, we should not forget that it is these people and what they did which counts most.

It is with this thought in mind that the editor of this report has devoted what, at first glance, may be deemed a disproportionate amount of space to the people who owned or lived in the Archibald Blair House. But a surprising percentage of these people were persons of importance and some, indeed, fall into the category of the near-great, as, for instance, Dr. Archibald Blair and his son, John Blair, Sr., Dr. George Gilmer, Jr., Dr. John Baker, the Reverend James Madison and John Wickham. Something should, therefore, be told about them since the house itself becomes vastly more interesting, if we consider it not alone from the standpoint of its architectural features, but from that of the people associated with it. So, the editor has prefaced the architectural report proper with biographical material. He considers this approach not only defensible but also highly desirable in the case of this house and all of the others, in fact.

In the case of the Archibald Blair House it is of interest to speculate on why so many persons of consequence were connected in one way or another with this particular building. One of the reasons for this probably is that the house was a large one and attractive as a residence on this account. The other is that its location facing the Market Square was one of the most advantageous in Williamsburg.

The editor wishes to acknowledge with thanks the aid received in compiling the material for this portion of the report from members of the staff of the Department of Research and, especially, from Miss Mary Stephenson and Mrs. Rutherfoord Goodwin. Much information was also derived from the Research Report on the Archibald Blair House, written by Miss Stephenson in May, 1948.

ARCHITECTURAL REPORT
ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE
PERSONALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE HOUSE

RR156002 PHOTOGRAPH OF ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE TAKEN BEFORE ITS RESTORATION BEGAN
BLAIR ACQUIRES LOTS IN 1716. PROBABLE DATE OF HOUSE
BLAIR ADDS TO HIS HOLDING
FIRST HOUSE PROBABLY DIFFERED FROM PRESENT ONE IN SOME WAYS

There is good reason to believe that the Archibald Blair House or, at least, some house on the lots 170-173 which are bounded by Nicholson and North England Streets and which run through to Scotland Street, was built between 1716 and 1718. On July 15, 1716 the trustees of Williamsburg conveyed the above-mentioned lots to Dr. Archibald Blair, under the condition imposed by the Act of 1805 [*] that he erect on them within 2 24 months either a brick or wood house of specified dimensions and with certain required features or forfeit the land to the city. Blair must have met the condition since there is no

RR156003 THE ABOVE DIAGRAM SHOWS THE OWNERSHIP IN 1716-1717 OF THE BLOCK OF LOTS BORDERING ON THE PALACE GREEN AND THE MARKET SQUARE. THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE IS INDICATED IN RED AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF #171, ALTHOUGH THE ORIGINAL DWELLING DID NOT NECESSARILY HAVE THE SHAPE AND LOCATION SHOWN.
record of the lot having escheated to the city. In fact, far from allowing these lots to slip from his fingers by failing to build a house on them within two years, we find him in 1724, in order to gain a greater frontage on North England Street and to round out his holding, purchasing from John Randolph lot 174 which, up to a short time before this, had belonged to Governor Spotswood. As in other cases of the building of these early dwellings in Williamsburg, we cannot be certain that the building he built was the original of the present house. But no foundation evidence has been discovered to indicate that he 3 built on a site other than the present one. We can, however, say that certain features of the house as restored, such as the porch, probably stem from late in the century and that the first house, however likely it is that it was erected on the present site, was different in many respects from the restored one.

DR. ARCHIBALD BLAIR

restricted image PORTION OF THE FRENCHMAN'S MAP (1782) SHOWING AT THE CORNER OF NICHOLSON AND NORTH ENGLAND STREETS A BUILDING OF THE APPROXIMATE SIZE OF THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE. A SINGLE OUTBUILDING ONLY IS SHOWN ALONG THE NORTH ENGLAND STREET BORDER OF THE PLOT, WHEREAS THERE ARE AT PRESENT SEVEN DEPENDENCIES OF VARIOUS SIZES IN THIS AREA. THIS WOULD SEEM TO SIGNIFY THAT ONLY ONE OUTBUILDING STOOD ON THE PLOT AS LATE AS 1782
FACTS FROM LIFE OF DR. ARCHIBALD BLAIR

The original owner of the property, Dr. Archibald Blair, surgeon, physician, apothecary and tradesman, was a Scotsman. He attended the University of Edinburgh, to which, by the way, many Virginians went to study medicine, and came to the colony in 1690. His brother, the contentious but capable Reverend James Blair was Commissary of the Bishop of London and promoter and first president of the College of 4 William and Mary. There is a record of the fact that Dr. Blair, in 1708, was paid for attending prisoners in the Public Gaol of Williamsburg. He was among the alderman named in the charter of the City of Williamsburg, and was a member of the House of Burgesses, representing Jamestown in 1718 and in 1732-34 and James City County in 1720-22 and 1723-26. Together with his brother, James Blair, Sr. and Colonel Philip Ludwell, Dr. Blair engaged in a business described by Governor Spotswood as "one of the most considerable Trading Stores in this Country." [*] He married three times and by his first wife had John Blair, Sr., who became president of the Council and acting governor of the colony. Archibald Blair died in 1735.

BLAIR BECAME OWNER OF FIRST THEATRE SITE

At his death Dr. Blair was owner, not only of the lots referred to above, but also of lots 163, 164 and 169, which he had acquired from William Levingston, who had given him a mortgage on them and had failed to pay this off. Thus he was owner of the land on which stood the first theatre, which had been erected about the same time as his house, that is, between 1716-1718.

BLAIR'S SUCESSORS ON THE PLOT

JOHN RANDOLPH THE NEXT OWNER

John Randolph, son of Sir John Randolph, followed Blair as owner of the property, but when he acquired it is not known. 5 Dr. James Carter, son of John Carter, keeper of the Gaol, occupied the house for a time during Randolph's ownership of it. Randolph sold lots 170-174 to Dr. Peter Hay in 1763. John Randolph was a Tory sympathizer and thought it wise, as the Revolution drew near, to clear out. He left for England via Norfolk in September, 1775.

THE HOUSE WAS THE HOME OF SEVERAL DOCTORS

We have just remarked that the James Carter who lived in the house for a time while Randolph held it (there are known to have been two James Carters in Williamsburg at this period) was a physician. Also, as we have seen, Randolph sold the house to Dr. Peter Hay. In addition, tracing the chain of title from that point down to 1930, when the restoration of the house was started, we find that it was owned or occupied at various times by four other doctors, viz., Dr. George Gilmer, Jr., great grandson of Archibald Blair, who bought the house in 1768 from the heirs of Dr. Hay; Dr. James Blair, son of John Blair, Sr., who inherited the property from his distinguished father in 1771, Dr. John Baker, a dental surgeon, who took up his residence there in January, 1773, and Dr. Van Franklin Garrett, who came into possession of the house and the land appertaining to it in 1914. It is a rather remarkable circumstance that this house, built by a physician, was, from the time of Dr. Blair's death in 1735 down to the year, 1930, owned or occupied by no less than six other members of the medical profession. In view of this, if the careful historians among our readers will tolerate an anachronism and permit us, we might call the house "The Sign of the Green Cross." Or, again, risking exposure to the choler of both the historians and the scholars of Greek mythology, we could say that Aesculapius slept there and often.

6 DR. JAMES CARTER. SECOND MEDICAL RESIDENT

A few words should be said about these doctor residents of the house since they were all prominent citizens of Williamsburg. It will be noted that several of them were apothecaries as well as physicians. This is not strange since eighteenth century doctors generally compounded their own medicines and not a few had shops in addition in which they sold drugs and healing herbs. The coupling of the role of apothecary with that of physician by Dr. James Carter, the second medical occupant of the house, is a case in point. Together with John Carter, a merchant, Dr. Carter in 1765 built a brick building on the north side of Duke of Gloucester Street, immediately west of the Raleigh Tavern. The building was divided into two shops, the eastern one being operated as a general store by John Carter, and the western half housing Dr. Carter's drug shop, the Unicorn's Horn. In 1774 the latter took his brother, Dr. William Carter into partnership with him in his business. Both men also served together as doctors at the College of William and Mary. Dr. James Carter died about 1794.

DR. PETER HAY. ALSO DOCTOR-APOTHECARY

Dr. Peter Hay, who purchased the former Blair property from John Randolph, is mentioned in 1744 in the records of York County as a "Practicer of Physick in Williamsburg." He was also a purveyor of drugs and at one period rented the Lightfoot House on Duke of Gloucester Street. He is known to have had an apothecary shop just east of the latter house by virtue of the fact that a notice appeared in the Maryland Gazette of April 15, 1756 stating that the contents of this shop had been completely destroyed by fire on the Sunday 7 previous. Dr. Hay purchased the former Archibald Blair House seven years after this disaster (1763) and lived in it until his death in 1766. Dr. Hay left his widow, Grissell Hay, dower rights in the property but apparently not too much cash, for she was constrained to take in roomers, advertising in 1768 "... that I have very commodious Lodgings to let for a dozen gentlemen, and their servants with stables and provisions for their horses, and shall be much obliged to those who will favour me with their company."

THE TWO DR. GEORGE GILMERS
DR. GILMER, SR. PROMINENT IN WILLIAMSBURG

The next owner of the property was Dr. George Gilmer, Jr., who purchased it in December, 1768. Dr. Gilmer was a person of note and the son of a distinguished father of the same name. Dr. George Gilmer, Sr. was an apothecary as well as physician who ran a drug store on lot #163 near the junction of Nicholson Street and Palace Green and advertised his medicaments as for sale at his "Old Shop near the Governor's" (Virginia Gazette, 1737). The elder Gilmer must have belonged to the upper stratum of Williamsburg society for in addition to being at different times alderman and mayor he was a friend of George Wythe and a sufficiently consequential person to permit him to entertain Governor Dinwiddie at a dinner in his home "... neigh the Court-House, corner Palace Street, Williamsburg" [*] on November 27, 1751, less than a week after that dignitary's arrival in the colony.

DR. GILMER, JR., FRIEND & NEIGHBOR OF JEFFERSON

Though the second Dr. Gilmer was owner of his great grandfather, Archibald Blair's property so far as we know, he never 8 lived there. He studied at the College of William and Mary and later at the Medical College at Edinburgh. He practised his profession for some time in Charlottesville and after-wards at Penpark, his country residence. He was a neighbor and intimate friend of Thomas Jefferson and served in the state constitutional convention of May 6, 1776 as alternate to Jefferson, when the latter was elected to Congress.

WILLIAM WIRT'S ESTIMATE OF DR. GEO. GLIMER, JR.

"Dr. George Gilmer, Jr. occupied an even more eminent position in the colony than his father. William Wirt declared that besides `his eminence as a physician' he was a very good linguist — a master of botany and chemistry of his day — had a store of very correct general science — was a man of superior taste in the fine arts — and to crown the whole had an elevated and noble spirit, and was in his manners and conversation a most accomplished gentlemen. " [*]

JOHN BLAIR, SR., AND DR. JAMES BLAIR, ONE-TIME OWNERS OF HOUSE

John Blair, Sr., who had twice served as acting governor of the colony, was the next owner of the property, purchasing it from Dr. Gilmer, the younger, on October 29, 1771. His ownership of it was cut short by his death less than three months later. In his will he bequeathed to his son, Dr. James Blair, "... the houses and lots I purchased of Doctor George Gilmer where Mrs. Hay [**] now lives ...." Dr. Blair, like so many 8a

RR156005 The PHYSICIAN
ENGRAVING FROM POPULAR TECHNOLOGY; OR, PROFESSIONS AND TRADES BY EDWARD HAZEN, NEW YORK, 1841. THE AUTHOR SAYS THAT "IT IS IMPLIED, THOUGH NOT EXPRESSLY DECLARED, IN THE SCRIPTURES, THAT THE DISEASES AND OTHER CALAMITIES PERTAINING TO OUR EARTHLY CONDITION, ORIGINATED IN THE FALL OF MAN FROM HIS PRISTINE INNOCENCE ...." HE THEN TRACES THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO HIS OWN DAY AND CONCLUDES BY STATING THAT "... THE HIGH SATISFACTION WHICH A BENEVOLENT PHYSICIAN FEELS, IN RELIEVING THE SUFFERINGS OF HIS FELLOW-CREATURES, MAY SERVE AS A RECOMPENSE FOR THE MANY ADVERSE CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH ATTEND THE PROFESSION."
other Virginia physicians, obtained his medical education at Edinburgh. He survived his father by little more than a year and he apparently never lived in the house. The Virginia Gazette of December 31, 1772 records his death as follows: "Doctor James Blair of this City; at Doctor Gilmour's in Albemarle, where he lately went on a Visit."

DR. JOHN BAKER, DENTAL SURGEON, MOVES TO BLAIR HOUSE

A few weeks after the death of Dr. James Blair the following "ad" appeared in the Virginia Gazette: 9

January 14, 1773. The Subscriber begs Leave to inform the Publick, and his Friends in particular, that he is quite recovered from his late Illness, and removed to the House wherein the late Doctor Blair lived, where he performs all Operations upon the Teeth, Gums, and Sockets; eradicates the Scurvy, be it ever so bad; transplants natural Teeth from one Person to another, which will be as firm in the Jaw as if they originally grew there, without any Ligament; and makes and fixes artificial Teeth, from a single Tooth to a complete Set. JOHN BAKER

A notice had appeared in the same paper on July 2 of the previous year to the effect that Dr. Baker, then in Philadelphia, would be in Williamsburg in July prepared to do dental work. It also informed the public that Dr. Baker would have available "a Quantity of his ANTI-SCORBUTICK DENTI-FRICE, for preserving the Teeth, and Gums."

DR. BAKER PURCHASES NORTON-COLE HOUSE

Dr. Baker, apparently, maintained a practice in Williamsburg for several years, making the town his base for rather far-flung operations. We first find him in the capital in 1771 where "he resided at Mr. Maupin" (Virginia Gazette).

In January of 1773, as we have seen, he moved to the Archibald Blair House. [*] It seems that he remained there only about six months, for, according to an item in the York County records, he purchased from William Hornsby the house now known as the Norton-Cole House on the west side of the Market Square on July 3, 1773. He occupied this dwelling until some time in 1778; in August of that year he offered his house for sale and announced his intention to leave the state (Virginia Gazette, August 21). This is the last reference which we have which places him in Williamsburg.

10 BAKER AMONG FIRST TO SPECIALIZE IN DENTISTRY
EARLY DENTISTS IN VIRGINIA WERE ITINERANTS

Dr. John Baker was a person of considerable importance. He was one of the first men in America to specialize in dentistry and dental surgery. Until the 1860's and `70'-00s such dentistry as there was (chiefly the extracting of teeth and the treatment of toothache) had been practised by doctors, surgeons and apothecaries but at this time new methods of treatment discovered by French and English dental surgeons began to be understood and practised in this country by a few individuals who made of the care and treatment of the teeth an independent branch of medicine. Baker, like most of the dental surgeons, had started his American practise [*] in the North (Boston) and we hear of him in this connection as early as 1767. He was one of the first dentists to come to Virginia. Most of the early practitioners in the colony were itinerants who traveled from place to place, remaining only a short time in each. In this category is the only other dentist who visited Williamsburg as early as the 1770's, a Mr. Hornby who professed to be a surgeon dentist from London and who, in 1772, advertised his presence in Williamsburg after a successful visit to Norfolk. [#]

BAKER'S CELEBRATED DENTIFRICE
DR. BAKER WAS DENTIST TO WASHINGTON

Dr. Baker, too, as we have said, though making his home in Williamsburg, travelled around the country a good deal like the others. On September 1, 1774 we find him in Baltimore stopping at Mrs. Howard's coffee house and prepared to minister to 11 "disorders of the teeth, gums, sockets." He also has with him his "infallible Specifick, called DENTIFRICE," which may be procured from him at the coffee house or at his home in Williamsburg, "... where all merchants, shop-keepers, masters of vessels, may be supplied with any quantity to send to foreign parts, with proper directions in any language. Each pot is sealed up with his coat of arms, as in the margin of the directions to prevent fraud. — -- Vincet Veritas." (Maryland Gazette, September 1, 1774). He visited Mount Vernon often, as is evident from the record left by Washington in his Ledger B of payments made to him for dental work between 1772 and 1774. Washington also mentions him in his diary, as, for example, in an entry of 1785 in which Dr. Baker is included on one occasion among the dinner guests at Mount Vernon.

DR. BAKER A PIONEER AMERICAN DENTIST

Dr. John Baker, one-time resident of the Archibald Blair House, was one of the pioneer dentists of America. He is generally regarded by dental historians as the preceptor of Isaac Greenwood, whose son, John Greenwood, was to make the only preserved dentures of Washington; Paul Revere, the renowned midnight courier, silversmith and jack-of-all-trades, who, among other dental work, made a porcelain tooth for General Joseph Warren, [*] and Josiah Flagg of Boston, pioneer American dentist.

12
restricted image The DENTIST
THE AUTHOR, EDWARD HAZEN, OF THE BOOK, POPULAR TECHNOLOGY; OR, PROFESSIONS AND TRADES, NEW YORK, 1841, IN WHICH THE ABOVE ENGRAVING APPEARS, SAYS OF THE LATTER: "IN THE CUT...IS REPRESENTED A DENTIST, ABOUT TO EXTRACT A TOOTH FOR A LADY, WHO MAY BE SUPPOSED TO BE IN A STATE OF ALARM AT THE SIGHT OF THE INSTRUMENTS; BUT HE, HAVING THROWN HIS RIGHT HAND, WHICH HOLDS THEM, BEHIND HIM, SHOWS THE OTHER CONTAINING NOTHING, WITH THE VIEW OF ALLAYING HER FEARS."
DR. VAN GARRETT, LAST PRIVATE OWNER OF HOUSE

Over a century and a half elapsed after the departure from Williamsburg of Dr. John Baker before another medical man, Dr. Van Franklin Garrett, son of Dr. Robert Garrett, came into possession of the house. The property was conveyed to him on April 14, 1914 by his sister, Lottie C. Garrett, then owner of the Coke-Garrett House, and two other relatives.

HIGHLIGHTS OF DR. GARRETT'S LIFE

Dr. Van Garrett was a Civil War veteran, having fought in the battle of Newmarket with the V.M.I. cadets. He was a graduate of the University of Virginia medical school and 13 completed his internship at Bellevue Hospital in New York in 1868. Instead of engaging in the practice of medicine, however, he became a teacher and remained one throughout his life. After filling a teaching position in Pulaski, Tennessee he returned to Williamsburg as professor of natural science at the College of William and Mary, where he later held the chair of chemistry. He died at the Archibald Blair House on November 19, 1932. He is survived by his widow, the former Harriet Guion Nicholls, daughter of Francis T. Nicholls, onetime governor of Louisiana. Mrs. Garrett still occupies the house.

JAMES MADISON, PRESIDENT OF COLLEGE. A DISTINGUISHED RESIDENT OF HOUSE

It has seemed feasible to group together all of the doctor owners and residents of the Archibald Blair House since it is rather singular that so many members of the medical profession should have been connected with one house. It is also surprising that a number of these men were, at the same time, persons of note and accomplishment. These physicians, on the other hand, were not the only individuals of importance who were associated with the house in the course of its history. The most distinguished of these other-than-medical residents was the Reverend James Madison, eighth president of the College of William and Mary and second cousin of James Madison, fourth president of the United States.

COLLEGE RENTED HOUSE FOR MADISON WHEN FIRE DESTROYED INTERIOR OF PRESIDENT'S HOUSE

James Madison followed Dr. John Baker as resident of the house, which the College in 1782 rented for him from John Blair, Jr. From 1777, when he was made head of the College, until June, 1781 he had lived in the President's House on the 14 campus. He had been forced to vacate this when General Cornwallis arrived with his army and commandeered it for his own use. Later the building was converted into a hospital for wounded officers of Count Rochambeau's army. It was during this time, in October, 1781, that a fire occurred which severely damaged the interior of the President's House. It was evident that extensive repairs would be necessary before President Madison could again use the house so the faculty on June 3, 1782 issued an order "That a House be rented in Town for the use of the President, and the rent be paid out of the interest of the money due for the above Bills (Bills of exchange received from the French army to pay for the damage done the building by the fire). The house which the College rented for President Madison was the Archibald Blair House.

restricted image (From C. L. Goodwin, "The Colonial Church in Virginia"
Courtesy Morehouse Publishing Company)
James Madison, D.D.
President of the College of William and Mary, 1777 to 1812; First Bishop of Virginia
MADISON OCCUPIED HOUSE FOR FOUR YEARS AND MADE REPAIRS TO IT

Madison occupied this for over four years, entering it, according to a notation in the College ledger, on or before July 6, 1782 and continuing this at least until July 6, 1786 and probably some months longer, since the 15 restoration of the President's House was not completed until the fall of that year. Although the Archibald Blair House was owned by John Blair, Jr., Madison, during his occupancy of it, apparently had a number of repairs made to it, for Humphrey Harwood, Williamsburg mason and builder, lists in his account book work done for "The Reverend James Madison." The Archibald Blair House is not mentioned in connection with these repairs, but since Madison owned no property in town, and since the work was not sufficiently extensive to cover the renovation of the President's House, it seems likely that the repairs were made to Madison's temporary residence.

MADISON A GREAT TEACHER OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES

The Reverend James Madison was an educator of no little importance. He had come to the College in 1773 as professor of natural philosophy (the physical sciences) and had quickly earned a reputation among the students as a teacher who made his lectures vitally interesting. One of them wrote of him in 1804:

As a tutor, he certainly stands in the first rank. He strives with indefatigable zeal to open and expand the mind of the student, and his manner of illustrating is plain, intelligible and convincing. In his opinions of every kind he is liberal and indulgent. The priest is buried in the philosopher, for he embraces no opinion that philosophy will not justify.

MADISON SUSTAINED COLLEGE THROUGH REVOLUTION AND AIDED IN INTRODUCTION OF MODERN CURRICULUM

It is greatly to the credit of the visitors of the College that, in 1778, they made this man president and fortunate for the College itself. For the Revolutionary War was ruinous to the old institution and it was only through the zeal and ability of President Madison that it was brought 16 back to normal following it. Furthermore, had the head of the College not been an individual of the liberality of mind of James Madison, it probably would have been impossible for Thomas Jefferson, in 1779, to carry through his reorganization of the College curriculum. Madison cooperated with Jefferson closely and together, by eliminating certain courses and introducing others, they made the College curriculum one of the most advanced in the country.

MADISON FIRST EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF VIRGINIA, REMAINED HEAD OF COLLEGE UNTIL DEATH IN 1812

The Revolution disestablished religion in the Commonwealth and the College never again had an official connection with it. Despite this, its president, James Madison, was made the first episcopal bishop of Virginia in 1790. He retained the presidency of the College until his death in 1812. His remains are interred in the College chapel.

JAMES MADISON A STAUNCH REPUBLICAN

James Madison was a warm republican and it is said that in his sermons he would never speak of heaven as a kingdom, but as that "great republic where there is no distinction of rank, and where all men [are]free and equal."

JOHN WICKHAM

JOHN WICKHAM, FAMOUS LAWYER, ONE-TIME RESIDENT OF HOUSE

The individual who occupied the Archibald Blair House after the return of President Madison to the President's House was John Wickham, who attained eminence in the law. That he was living there in 1789 is apparent from a statement made by John Coalter, a tutor of the Tucker children, in a letter of that year to a friend: "... As Mr. Tucker's house is small and his family large, I sleep in the house of a Mr. Wickham 17 next door, who is a practitioner of the law and keeps Bachelor's Hall." Wickham like James Madison also made minor repairs to the house for he is charged with these by Humphrey Harwood in a ledger entry of June 3, 1790.

restricted image PORTRAIT OF JOHN WICKHAM BY ST. MEMIN
WICKHAM STUDIED LAW WITH JUDGE HENRY TAZEWELL IN WILLIAMSBURG

John Wickham was born June 6, 1763, at Southold, Long Island. Intending to take up an army career, he studied for a time after the Revolution at the famous military school at Arras, France. Preferring the law, however, he returned and in 1785 came to Williamsburg to study law with Judge Henry Tazewell. It was, apparently, after his admission to the bar that he took up his residence in the Archibald Blair House. After practicing a short time in Williamsburg he moved to Richmond (1790) and established himself in practice there.

Wickham was married twice, the second time to Elizabeth, the daughter of Dr. James McClurg, who was the first professor of anatomy and medicine at the College of William and Mary.

WICKHAM BUILDER OF FAMOUS HOUSE IN RICHMOND

In 1812 he built himself the famous and beautiful home on 18 East Clay Street which bears his name and which now houses the Valentine Museum. Wickham was socially prominent and many important persons, among them, John Marshall, were his friends.

The Richmond bar at the time was unsurpassed in America and John Wickham was its leader. He appeared in many notable cases, but the most spectacular of all of them was the trial of Aaron Burr for treason which was held in Richmond between May and September of 1807. In this trial he assisted Edmund Randolph with defense of Burr and the two of them won Burr's acquittal.

WILLIAM WIRT'S CHARACTERIZATION OF JOHN WICKHAM

William Wirt, the celebrated Attorney-General of the United States, said this of John Wickham:

"This gentleman ... unites in himself a greater diversity of talents and acquirements than any other at the Bar of Virginia. He has the reputation ... of possessing much legal science. He has an exquisite and highly polished taste for polite literature; a genius quick and fertile; a style pure and classic; a stream of perspicuous and beautiful elocution; an ingenuity which no difficulties can entangle or embarrass; and a wit, whose vivid and brilliant conversation can gild and decorate the darkest subject ... Praise is too faint for the man who possessed more jury power than any man of his day in Richmond. With all the adroitness and ingenuity granted him, there was besides a degree of native pith and power unequaled either in extent or cultivation by any man at the Bar."

FACTS ABOUT JAMES HENDERSON OWNER OF HOUSE AROUND 1800

A few words only will be said about certain other owners of the house. The Reverend James Henderson who took possession of the house and lots between 1801 and 1806 was rector of York-Hampton Parish, professor of humanity at the College and a Mayor of Williamsburg. He married Jane Blair, the daughter of John Blair, Jr. and their daughter, Elizabeth Jane, married John Parke Custis Peter, a great grandson of Martha Washington.

19 JACOB SHELDON, PROSPEROUS MERCHANT, OWNER AT MID-CENTURY

Jacob C. Sheldon, who owned the property at the mid-century, acquired it from a Walter W. Webb concerning whom nothing remarkable has been recorded. Sheldon was a prosperous dry goods merchant who went on frequent business trips to Boston and Philadelphia and who vacationed at the Virginia springs.

LOTTIE AND MARY GARRETT AND THE VISIT OF THE PRESIDENT

We have already mentioned Lottie Garrett (p. 12) but a further word or two should be said about her and her sister Mary, who lived in the house from 1893 to around 1914. They acquired the house from one Montague Thompson, reputedly an eccentric and probably worthy of an investigation of some sort. Lottie and Mary, we know from the story told about them in the 1951 edition of the Williamsburg Scrap-Book were personalities of considerable interest. The tragic tale of the visit of President Woodrow Wilson to the house - but, no, we shall refrain from spoiling the story by telling the ending. We recommend that the reader consult the Scrap-Book and discover this for himself.

Footnotes

^ * See Goodwin, Rutherfoord, A Brief and True Report Concerning Williamsburg in Virginia, Richmond, 1940, pp. 346-349 for a faithful transcrip of this act.

^ * Dr. Blair's place of business, referred to in a property transfer of 1719 as the "Storehouse of Dr. Archibald Blair," was the still-existing brick structure at the corner of Duke of Gloucester and Colonial Streets. This building which is at present fitted-up as a printer's shop, was known until recently as "Dr. Blair's Apothecary Shop." Although Blair was an apothecary there is no evidence that he conducted that particular business there. The business which Blair and his associates carried on there was of the type which we would associate with a general store of a generation ago. They imported a variety of merchandise from England and elsewhere and sold it to the colonists. (See Architectural Report on Archibald Blair's Storehouse for further details.)

^ *Dr. George Gilmer, Sr., lived in a house near his shop and was never owner or occupant of the Archibald Blair House.

^ * Quoted from Trent's English Culture in Virginia, p. 28, in Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century by Wyndham B. Blanton, p. 316.

^ **The previously-mentioned Grizzel Hay, widow of Dr. Peter Hay. She died in 1778 and it is probable that she occupied the house until her death. It is possible, since she kept roomers, that Mrs. Hay put up Dr. Blair after he became owner of the property, but nothing is known of this.

^ * He was probably one of Grizzel Hay's roomers.

^ * Baker claimed to have treated the principal nobility and gentry of Great Britain, France, Ireland and Holland as well as over 2000 persons in New York and Boston.

^ # For further information on the early dentists of Virginia, see Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century by Dr. Wyndham B. Blanton, Richmond, 1931.

^ * General Joseph Warren was killed on June 17, 1775 at Breed's Hill while fighting under General Putnam in the battle of Bunker Hill. His body was buried with others in unmarked graves and when, later, a search was made for it, Paul Revere's porcelain tooth proved to be the sole means of identifying it.

ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE
ARCHITECTURAL REPORT

by
Thomas Tileston Waterman
The material of this report has been revised and rearranged by the editor..

21

ARCHITECTURAL REPORT

EXTERIOR

RR156009 THE RESTORED ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE AS SEEN FROM THE SOUTH
GENERAL NOTES

The exterior retained little Georgian trim beyond the lower members of the main cornice. The weatherboards were to a large extent old, as were the corner boards and barge boards. The window panes and sash were of the Gothic Revival period, and the porch, which was retained, is of the Greek Revival. Under the porch were discovered foundations that fitted the stone steps that were found scattered around the yard. These were of an unusual type known only here and at Ampthill. The nosing was a half-round (about 2") that entered at the corner and carried down the corner of the riser and finished against the tread below. Thus a series of panels was shown on each of the three faces of a pyramidal flight.

22

SOUTH ELEVATION

SHINGLES Mohawk Asbestos-Cement CORNICE Original cornice, crown mold new WALL SURFACE Old weather-boards PORCH Greek Revival porch FRONT DOOR repaired New door, like old door of Blair House, with short panel at top. WINDOWS New sash, trim and panes.
RR156010 STONE STEPS, FOUND ABOUT YARD OF HOUSE, SHOWN IN PLACE OVER OLD FOUNDATIONS OF SOUTH PORCH.
SHUTTERS New. BASEMENT WALL Original CHIMNEYS New on old foundations. CORNER BOARDS Original, repaired.

WEST ELEVATION

SHINGLES Mohawk Asbestos-Cement. DORMER WINDOWS None on main building. Those of wing are new and follow the design of the dormer windows of Casey's Gift. CORNICE None on main building. That of wing is new and follows the design of the old cornice of the Moody House. WALL SURFACE Original weatherboarding. WINDOWS All sash frames and trim are new. BASEMENT WALL Original CHIMNEYS New, on old foundations. BARGE-AND CORNER BOARDS Original, repaired. 23

NORTH ELEVATION

SHINGLES Mohawk Asbestos-Cement. CORNICE New cornice following design of old. WALL SURFACE New weatherboarding, patched and repaired. DOOR New door and trim. WINDOWS New sash, trim and panes. SHUTTERS New. BASEMENT WALL Original, repaired.
RR156011 ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE AS SEEN FROM THE SOUTHWEST, AS THE BUILDING WAS BEING STRIPPED FOR RESTORATION.
24 CHIMNEYS New chimney on wing, not on old foundation. BARGE-AND CORNER BOARDS New barge- and corner boards on wing. Original corner board on main house.

EAST ELEVATION

SHINGLES Mohawk Asbestos-Cement. DORMER WINDOWS None on main building. New on wing, designed in manner of those of Casey's Gift. CORNICE None on main building. New cornice on wing, modelled after an old one of the Moody House. WALL SURFACE New weatherboarding. WINDOWSAll sash, frames and trim new. SHUTTERSNew. BASEMENT WALLOriginal, repaired. CHIMNEYS New, on old foundation. BARGE-AND CORNER BOARDS Original barge-and corner boards on main building, new ones on wing. 25

INTERIOR

GENERAL NOTES

The interior of this house was devoid of any Georgian trim when taken over by the Restoration. The plan, however, as originally designed, remained reasonably intact. The chimneys had been taken down and rebuilt paralleling the end walls instead of diagonal to them. The stairs had been built anew in the northeast corner of the building instead of on the west side of the hall, where the evidence indicated that the stair was originally located.

On the second floor the only plan changes were those affecting the diagonal fireplaces and the stair location. A bathroom existed in the north end of the hall. Examination of the attic revealed that the roof pitch had probably never been changed, as what was presumed to be the original framing still exists.

FIRST FLOOR

SOUTHEAST ROOM
FLOOR Original. FLOOR NAILS Original. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on original studs. CEILING New plaster ceiling. BASEBOARD New baseboard like that of Moody House. CHAIR RAILS New chair rail like that of Moody House. CORNICE New cornice, precedent, cornice of Brush-Everard House. MANTEL New, inspired by one at Menokin. FIREPLACE AND HEARTH New, following design of a fireplace of Moody House. 26
RR156012 FIRST FLOOR PLAN
27 WINDOWS Sash, trim and frame new. Muntins like those of Bland-Wetherburn Tavern. Frame and trim like those of Moody House. DOOR AND TRIM New door and trim. Precedent for door: a door at Brush-Everard House. Precedent for trim: trim at Moody House. METAL WORK Latch and hinges new. COLOR OF WOODWORK Green. EQUIPMENT Four base plugs, two brackets.
SOUTHWEST ROOM
FLOOR Original floor. FLOOR NAILS Original. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New, after one in Moody House. CHAIR RAIL New, after one in Moody House. CORNICE New, after one in Brush-Everard House. MANTEL New, inspired by one at Menokin. FIREPLACE AND HEARTH New, after fireplace of Moody House. WINDOWS See notes on southeast room. DOOR AND TRIM See notes on southeast room. METAL WORK New latch and hinges. COLOR OF WOODWORK Ivory. EQUIPMENT One base plug, two brackets.
NORTHWEST ROOM
FLOOR Original.

28 FLOOR NAILS Original. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New, like one in Moody House. CHAIR RAIL New, like one in Moody House. CORNICE New, like one in Brush-Everard House. MANTEL New, after one in Moody House. FIREPLACE AND HEARTH New, after fireplace in Moody House. WINDOWS See notes on southeast room. DOOR AND TRIM See notes on southeast room. METAL WORK New latch and hinges. COLOR OF WOODWORK Ivory. EQUIPMENT Two base plugs, two brackets.

SECOND FLOOR

SOUTHEAST ROOM
FLOOR Original. FLOOR NAILS Old. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New base, like that of Moody House. CHAIR RAIL New chair rail like that of Moody House. CORNICE New cornice like one in Brush-Everard House. MANTEL New, after mantel from Nansemond County, Virginia. 29
RR156013 SECOND FLOOR PLAN
30 FIREPLACE AND HEARTH New, like one in Moody House. WINDOWS See notes on southeast room, first floor. Trim like that in Moody House, second floor. DOOR AND TRIM New, door like that in Brush-Everard House. Trim like that in second floor of Moody House. COLOR OF WOODWORK Gray green. EQUIPMENT Three base plugs, two brackets.
SOUTHWEST ROOM
FLOOR Original. FLOOR NAILS Old. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New, like one in Moody House. MANTEL Mantel new, after one in Ayscough House. FIREPLACE AND HEARTH New, after fireplace in Moody House. WINDOWS See southeast room, second floor. DOOR AND TRIM See southeast room, second floor. COLOR OF WOODWORK Gray green. EQUIPMENT One bracket, two base plugs.
NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST ROOMS

All notes on southwest room apply here also. Northeast room gray-green; northwest room, pink.

31

WING - ALL ROOMS

FLOOR New pine. FLOOR NAILS Cut nails. BEAMS New. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New, beaded base, like that of Moody House. WINDOWS New sash, muntins like those in Bland-Wetherburn Tavern. Panes like those in Moody House. No interior trim. CLOSETS One under stair; one in northeast corner of bedroom. DOOR AND TRIM Stock. METAL WORK Stock. COLOR OF WOODWORK White. EQUIPMENT Kitchen: three base plugs, two brackets. Hall: two ceiling lights. Bedroom: one bracket and bath, one bracket.

MAIN STAIRHALL
FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS

FLOOR Antique pine, largely original. FLOOR NAILS Cut nails. BEAMS Original. WALLS AND WALL COVERING New plaster on old studs. CEILING New plaster. BASEBOARD New, like one in Moody House. CHAIR RAIL New, like one in Moody House. CORNICE New, like one in Brush-Everard House. 32 PANELLING OR WAINSCOT Antique paneled dado up stair from house between Princess Anne and Great Bridge, Virginia. WINDOWS Like those of southeast room, second floor, except for trim which is like that of Moody House. DOOR AND TRIM See southwest room. METAL WORK New locks, latches and hinges. COLOR OF WOODWORK Blue green. EQUIPMENT One ceiling light, two brackets. STAIRS All detail on this stair came from old house (actual antique material) between Princess Anne and Great Bridge. RISERS AND TREAD Original. NEWEL POST AND HANDRAIL Original. BALUSTERS Original. STRINGER Original, closed string. LANDING Original, with rest of stair.

ARCHIBALD BLAIR OUTBUILDINGS
ARCHITECTURAL REPORT

The original version of the material which follows was written by Washington Reed, Jr., except for the treatment of the Dairy, which was the work of Milton L. Grigg. This material has been revised by the editors of this report.

RR156014 ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS
The Archibald Blair House and its dependencies are shown in pink on this portion of a map of Williamsburg drawn by James M. Knight. The house, or a predecessor of it, was probably built between 1716 and 1718. Some of the outbuildings stem from the eighteenth century and others are later. The area shown in yellow is the only part of the plot in which archaeological excavations have been conducted.

Notes to help revise the Architectural Report on the Archibald Blair Smoke House, Block 29, Building 11-A.

The framing is rough hewn of variable dimensions and appears to be original except for minor repairs.

A pre-restoration photograph shows a 3-boarded batten door which has been replaced by one of 5 boards. The door sill, frame, and trim are all new. Corner boards have been patched where necessary. The finial is new but its source and precedent should be determined. Further study should be made on the hinges, hasp and chain to determine whether they are old or recent. The new crown moulding is copied from the deteriorated one existing on the building before 1930.

The diagonal edge flush boarding is old on the east and south elevations and new on the remaining elevations. Possibly all retainable boards of the north and west elevations where used to replace deteriorated ones on the east and south elevations.

Of recent date the asbestos cement shingles of the 1930-1931 restoration have been replaced with wood round but shingles with fan tails at the hips.

The Architectural Report refers to an original floor; however, the present pavement is dirt.

The sill and foundation bricks are possibly new; however, further investigation is necessary.

For details see measured drawing #101 dated April 10, 1956.

A photograph of the privy and smoke house in the Architectural Report was printed in reverse and should be replaced.

illegibleing the Arch Report

The smoke house is probably a mid-eighteenth century building. It is not on its original site so far as can be determined. The roof is new, 2 of asbestos-cement shingles. The finial is new, of colonial character. The weatherboarding, floor, door and framing are original with only minor repairs. The cornice is new, copied after the original which existed but was in very bad condition.

R. Wiggins
4- 22-56

OUTBUILDINGS OF ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE

SMOKEHOUSE

RR156015 SMOKE HOUSE (LEFT) AND PRIVY OF ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE BEFORE THEIR RESTORATION. (THIS PHOTOGRAPH WAS PRINTED BY ERROR IN REVERSE; THE SMOKE HOUSE ACTUALLY STANDS AT THE RIGHT OF THE PRIVY.)

The smoke house is probably a mid-eighteenth century building. It is not on its original site so far as can be determined. The roof is new, of asbestos-cement shingles. The finial is new, of colonial character. The weatherboarding, floor, and framing are original with only minor repairs. The cornice is new, copied after the original which existed but was in very bad condition.

36

DAIRY

The dairy is original in its original location. A new fireproof roof was erected over new roof timbers. Repairs to the grilles (replacing missing slats and damaged frames); a new whitewash job on the interior and exterior, and a new plaster cove soffit replacing the original which was damaged, constitute the work which was necessary for the restoration of the building. The finial was missing but a photograph was found showing the original and this was copied in the restoration.

RR156016 PHOTOGRAPH OF DAIRY TAKEN BEFORE ITS RESTORATION
37

PRIVY

This is not a colonial building but was repaired and reconditioned for use as a wood house. General repair work of colonial design was used in the restoration.

RR156017 THE PRIVY (LEFT), SMOKE HOUSE (CENTER) AND DAIRY AFTER THEIR RESTORATION

GARAGE

This was formerly an old corn crib and storage house combined, and has been changed into a garage, keeping the original dimensions but closing in the slatted portion. It has asbestos-cement shingles on the roof and new windows and hardware of colonial design.

WELL HEAD

The well head is new above grade. Certain colonial materials such as cornice, 38 framing, etc., were used in its restoration. An example of a colonial well head similar to this is one found at Seven Pines.

BARN

The barn was probably built about 1830-1840, or thereabouts. It has only had slight repair work done to it and has not been completely restored. The fence along the side has been repaired and a chicken house which was in very bad shape was torn down. This was not a colonial building.

restricted image APOTHECARY
AT LEAST TWO OF THE DOCTORS WHO LIVED IN THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE (DR. JAMES CARTER AND DR. PETER HAY) AND THE FATHER (DR. GEORGE GILMER, SR.) OF A THIRD WERE APOTHECARIES AS WELL AS PHYSICIANS. DRS. CARTER AND HAY HAD THEIR SHOPS NOT ON THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR PLOT BUT ELSEWHERE IN TOWN. DR. GILMER'S PLACE OF BUSINESS WAS LOCATED AT THE CORNER OF PALACE GREEN AND NICHOLSON STREET, VERY CLOSE TO THE ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE. THESE DRUG SHOPS PROBABLY LOOKED MUCH LIKE THE ONE PICTURED ABOVE. THIS IS ANOTHER ENGRAVING FROM EDWARD HAZEN'S HOUSEHOLD MANUAL, POPULAR TECHNOLOGY, NEW YORK, 1841.

ARCHITECTURAL REPORT
ARCHIBALD BLAIR HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS
INDEX

(Note: The word, "house," unqualified, refers in this index to the Archibald Blair House. The abbreviation, "ill.," after an item signifies that an illustration of the subject mentioned appears on the page indicated.)

ACT of 1805
Certain requirements of
1 2
Ampthill
Stone steps of, like those of house
21
Apothecary Shop
Engraving of, from Popular Technology by Edward Hazen, ill.
38
Apothecary Shops in Williamsburg
38
Architectural Report
20-38
Written by Thomas T. Waterman, 1932
Title page
Attic
25
BAKER, Dr. John, dental surgeon
A pioneer dentist of America
11
"Ads" of, in Virginia Gazette, 1773
9
Announced intention to leave state in 1773
9
"Anti-Scorbutick Dentifrice" of
9 11
Brief biography of
9-12
Dentist to George Washington
11
First lived with Mr. Maupin
9
Maintained practice in
Williamsburg
9
Moved into house in 1773
5 9
One of the first dentists in
Virginia
10
Practised in Baltimore
10 11
Preceptor of noted dentists
11
Purchased Norton-Cole House
9
Travelled about the country
10
Balusters of stairs
32
Barge boards
21 24
Barn
38
Barrows, John A.
Assisted in making of working drawings
Title page
Baseboard
25 28 30 31
Basement wall, see "Wall, basement"
Bathroom
Existing
25
Beams
25 27 28 31
Bellvue Hospital
Dr. Garrett an intern at
13
Blair, Dr. Archibald
Acquired lots in 1716
1
Acquired lots 163, 164 and 169 from William Levingston
4
Attended prisoners in Public Gaol
4
Attended University of Edinburgh
3
Brief biography of
3 4
Member of House of Burgesses
4
Partner in trading store
4
Purchased lot 174 from
John Randolph
2
Storehouse of
4
Blair, Archibald, House
Architectural report on
33-38
Dates of restoration of
Title page
Location of
Title page
Floor plans of, ills.
26 29
Home of seven doctors
5
Interiors of
25-32
Location of
Title page
Restored house, seen from south, ill.
21
Shown on Frenchman's Map, 1782
3
Site plan showing house and outbuildings, ill.
34
South elevation of
22
View from southwest, ill. Frontispiece
View of, from southwest, during restoration, ill.
23
West elevation of
22
Blair, Archibald, Outbuildings
Architectural report on
33-38
Dates of restoration of
Title page
Location of
Title page
Blair, Dr. James, Jr.
Attended University of Edinburgh
8 8a
Died in Albemarle in 1772
8a
Inherited house from father in 1771
5
Never lived in house
8a
Son of John Blair, Sr.
5
Blair, Dr. James, Sr.
Brother of Archibald Blair
3
Partner with brother in trading store
4
Blair, Jane
Married Rev. James Henderson
18
Blair, John, House
22
Blair, John, Jr.
Jane, daughter of, married
Rev. James Henderson
18
Rented house to College
15
Blair, John, Sr.
Bequeathed house to Dr. James
Blair, Jr.
5 8
Father of Dr. James Blair, Jr.
5
Bland-Wetherburn Tavern
31
Blanton, Dr. Wyndham B.
Author of Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century
8
Brush-Everard House
30 31
Bunker Hill, battle of
11
Burr, Aaron
Trial of, at Richmond
18
CARTER, Dr. James
Doctor at College
6
Facts concerning his life
6
Occupant of house
5 38
Operated drug shop
6
Took brother, Dr. William Carter, into partnership
6
Carter, John, Merchant
Operated General store
6
With Dr. James Carter, built brick building west of Raleigh Tavern
6
Carter, Dr. William
Doctor at College
6
Entered partnership with brother, Dr. James Carter
6
Casey's Gift
24
Ceiling
27 28 31
Chair rail
25 28 31
Chimneys
22 24 25
Closets
31
Coalter, John
Letter of, mentioning
John Wickham
16
Color
Of interior woodwork
27 28 30 31 32
Corn crib
37
Corner boards
21 22 24
Cornice, exterior
22 23 24
Of Smoke house
35
Of Well head
37 38
Cornice, interior
25 27 28 31
Cove, plaster
Of Dairy
36
DADO, see Wainscot
Dairy
36
Grilles of
36
Photograph of, after restoration, ill.
37
Photograph of, before restoration, ill.
36
Roof of
36
Date of building of house, estimated
1
Dentifrice
Advertised for sale by
Dr. John Baker
9 11
Dentist, The
Illustration from book by
Edward Hazen
12
Dentistry in America
Brief discussion of its early days
10
Dinwiddie, Lieut. Governor Robert
Dined at house of Dr. George
Gilmer, Sr.
7
Door
Front (south) entrance
22
Rear (north) entrance
23
Doors and door trim, interior
27 30 31 32
Dormer windows, see "Windows, dormer"
EDINBURGH, University of
Attended by Dr. Archibald Blair
3
Attended by Dr. George Gilmer, Jr.
8
Attended by Dr. James Blair, Jr.
8 8a
Attended by many Virginians
3
Electrical equipment, see "Equipment, electrical"
Elevation
East
24
North
23 24
South
22
West
22
English Culture in Virginia by Trent
Quotation from
8
Equipment, electrical
27 28 30 31 32
Exterior of house
21-25
FENCE near barn
38
Finial
Of Dairy
36
Of Smoke house
35
Fireplaces
25 28 30
First floor
25-28
Flagg, Josiah, dentist
Influenced by Dr. John Baker
11
Floor
25 27 30 31
Floor nails
25 27 28 30 31
Foundations
Discovered under south porch
21
Framing
25
Frenchman's Map, see "Map, Frenchman's"
GARAGE
37
Garrett, Lottie
Acquired house from
Montague Thompson
19
Sister of Dr. Van F. Garrett
12
Visit of President Wilson to
19
With Mary Garrett, conveyed house to Dr. Garrett in 1914
12
Garrett, Mary
Acquired house from
Montague Thompson
19
Sister of Dr. Van F. Garrett
12
Visit of President Wilson to
19
With Lottie Garrett, conveyed house to Dr. Garrett in 1914
12
Garrett, Dr. Van Franklin
Became owner of property in 1914
5 12
Brief biographical sketch of
12 13
Civil War veteran
12
Died in 1932
13
Graduate of University of Virginia and Bellevue Hospital
12 13
Held chair of chemistry at
William and Mary
13
Last private owner of house
12
Georgian trim
21 25
Gilmer, Dr. George, Jr.
Alternate to Jefferson in Constitutional Convention
8
An apothecary
38
Bought house in 1768
5
Brief biography of
7
Friend of Thomas Jefferson
8
Great grandson of
Dr. Archibald Blair
5
Never lived in house
7 8
Gilmer, Dr. George, Jr.
Studied at College and at
Edinburgh
8
William Wirt's eulogy of
8
Gilmer, Dr. George, Sr.
Apothecary as well as physician
7
Entertained Governor Dinwiddie
7
Friend of George Wythe
7
Operated drug shop at corner of
Palace Green and Nicholson Street
7
Goodwin, Rutherfoord
Author of A Brief and True Report Concerning Williamsburg in Virginia
1
Gothic Revival
21
Great Bridge
House between this and Princess
Anne
32
Greek Revival porch
21 22
Greenwood, Isaac, dentist
Father of John Greenwood
11
Learned from Dr. John Baker
11
Greenwood, John, dentist
Made only preserved dentures of
Washington
11
Grigg, Milton
Architectural report on Dairy
36
Assisted in making of working drawings
Title page
Wrote architectural report on
Dairy
Title page
Grilles of Dairy
36
HANDRAIL of stairs
32
Harwood, Humphrey, mason and builder
Made repairs to house
15
Worked on house for John Wickham
17
Hay, Grizzel
Took in roomers
7
Wife of Dr. Hay, occupied house
7 8
Hay, Dr. Peter
Apothecary shop of, destroyed by fire
6
Bought house from John Randolph, 1763
5-7
Left property to widow, Grissel Hay
7
Lived in house until death, 1766
7 38
Operated apothecary shop
6
"Practicer of Physick in Williamsburg"
6
Rented Lightfoot House
6
Hazen, Edward
Author of Popular Technology; or Professions and Trades
8a 12
Hearths 25, 28, 30
Henderson, Elizabeth Jane
Daughter of Rev. Henderson and Jane Blair
18
Married John Parke Custis Peter
18
Henderson, Rev. James
Acquired house between 1801 and 1806
18
Married Jane Blair
18
Professor of humanity at College
18
Rector of Yorktown Parish
18
Hornby, Mr., surgeon dentist
Visited Williamsburg in 1772
10
Howard, Mrs., Coffee house of
Entertained Dr. John Baker in 1774
10
INTERIOR of house
25-32
General notes on
25
JEFFERSON, Thomas
Reorganized curriculum of College
16
KENDREW, A. Edwin
Checked working drawings
Title page
Chief draftsman on Archibald Blair House restoration
Title page
Knight, James M.
Part of map by, showing house and outbuildings, ill.
34
LANDING of stair
32
Levingston, William
Deeded lots 163, 164 and 169 to Dr. Blair
4
Lots 170-173
Location of
1
Site of original house
1
Ludwell, Colonel Philip
Partner with Dr. Blair in trading store
4
MACOMBER, Walter
Checked working drawings
Title page
Madison, Rev. James
A warm republican
16
Brief biographical sketch of
13-16
Eighth president of College
13
First Episcopal bishop of Virginia
16
Madison, Rev. James
Helped Jefferson to reorganize curriculum
16
Lived in house from 1782-1786
13,14
Made repairs to house
15
Portrait drawing of, ill.
14
Preserved College during Revolution
15 16
Professor of natural philosophy at College, 1773
15
Second cousin of James Madison, President of the United States
13
Student's estimate of
15
Main stairhall, see "Stairhall"
Mantels
25 28 30
Map
Frenchman's, portion of, showing
Archibald Blair property
3
Marshall, John
Friend of John Wickham
18
Maryland Gazette
Carried "ad" of Dr. John Baker
11
Carried story of burning of Dr. Hay's shop
6
McClurg, Elizabeth
Married John Wickham
17
McClurg, Dr. James
Daughter of, married John Wickham
17
First professor of medicine at College
17
Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century by Wyndham B. Blanton
Quotation from
8
Reference to material in, about Virginia dentists
10
Menokin
25
Metal work
27 28 31 32
Mohawk Asbestos-Cement
22 23 24
Moody House
24 25 30 31
Moorehead, Singleton P.
Directed making of working drawings
Title page
NAILS, floor, see "Floor nails"
Newel post of stair
32
Nicholls, Francis T.
Father of Harriet Guion Nicholls
13
One-time governor of Louisiana
13
Nicholls, Harriet Guion
Present occupant of house
Wife of Dr. Van F. Garrett
13
OUTBUILDINGS of Archibald Blair House
Architectural report on
33-38
PANES of windows
21
Personalities Associated with Archibald Blair House
1-19
Reasons for discussing them in report
Page after Title page
Personnel who worked on buildings
Title page
Peter, John Parke Custis
Great grandson of Martha Washington
18
Married Elizabeth Jane Henderson
18
Physician, The
Engraving from book by Edward Hazen
8a
Plan
Of ownership of lots 163-174 in 1716-1717
2
Plan of house
Changes in
25
First floor, ill.
26
On site, with outbuildings
34
Second floor, ill.
29
Plaster
25, 27, 28, 31
Plaster cove of Dairy
36
Popular Technology; or Professions and Trades by Edward Hazen
38
Engravings from
8a, 12
Quotations from
8a, 12
Porch
21, 22
President's House of College
Commandeered by General Cornwallis
14
Damaged by fire, 1781
14
Occupied by Rev. James Madison, 1777-1781
13
Restoration completed, 1786
15
Served as hospital for Rochambeau's officers
14
Princess Anne
House between this and Great Bridge
32
Privy
Architectural report on
37
Photograph of, after restoration, ill.
37
Photograph of, before restoration, ill.
35
RANDOLPH, Edmund
With John Wickham, defended Aaron Burr
18
Randolph, John
Left for England
5
Owner of house
5
Sold house to Dr. Hay
5
Reed, Washington, Jr.
Report on outbuildings
35, 37, 38
Wrote architectural report on outbuildings, except Dairy
Title page
Revere, Paul
Learned dentistry from Dr. John Baker
11
Made porcelain tooth for General Joseph Warren
11
Revolutionary War
Ruinous to College
15, 16
Risers of stair
32
Roof
Of Dairy
36
Of Smoke house
35
Pitch of
25
Rooms
First floor
Southeast
25-27
Southwest
27
Northwest
27
Second floor
Southeast
28, 30
Southwest
30
Northeast
30
Northwest
30
Wing, all rooms
31
SASH of windows
21
Second floor
28-31
Sheldon, Jacob C.
Owned house about 1850
19
Acquired house from Walter W. Webb
19
Dry goods merchant
19
Shingles
22, 23
of Smoke house roof
35
of Garage roof
37
Shutters
22, 23, 24
Smoke house
35
Photograph of, before restoration, ill.
35
Photograph of, after restoration, ill.
36
Spotswood, Lieut. Governor Alexander
Described trading store of Dr. Blair
4
Once owner of lot 174
Stairhall, main
31 32
Stairs
25 32
Steps of stone
Photograph of, ill.
22
Scattered about yard of house
21
Storehouse of Dr. Archibald Blair
Mentioned in property transfer
4
Now fitted-up as printing shop
4
Stone steps, see "Steps of stone"
Stringer of stair
32
TAZEWELL, Judge Henry
Taught law to John Wickham
17
Thompson, Montague
Sold house to Lottie and Mary Garrett
19
Trudell, Clyde
Assisted in making of working drawings
Title page
Trustees of Williamsburg
Conveyed lots to Dr. Blair, 1716
1
UNIVERSITY of Edinburgh, see "Edinburgh, University of
University of Virginia
Dr. Garrett, a graduate of
12
VALENTINE Museum
Occupies John Wickham House
18
Van Garrett House, see "Blair, Archibald House"
Virginia Gazette
Announcements in, about Dr. John Baker
9
WAINSCOT
32
Wall, basement
22 23 24
Wall surface, exterior
22 23
Wall surface, interior
25 27 31
Warren, General Joseph
Killed at Breed's Hill in 1775
11
Porcelain tooth of, made by Paul Revere
11
Washington, Martha
Great grandson of, married
Elizabeth Jane Henderson
18
Waterman, Thomas T.
Architectural report by
21-38
Assisted in making of working drawings
Title page
Wrote original version of architectural report
Title page
Weatherboarding
21 22 23 24
Of Smoke house
35
Well head
37 38
Whitewashing
Of Dairy
36
Wickham, John
Attended military school at Arras, Born at Southold,
France 17
Long Island, 1763
17
Brief biographical sketch of
16-18
Built famous house in Richmond
17 18
Eulogy of, by William Wirt
18
Leader of Richmond bar
18
Made minor repairs to house
17
Married daughter of Dr. McClurg
17
Moved to Richmond, 1790
17
Studied law in Williamsburg
17
Socially prominent
18
With Edmund Randolph, defended Aaron Burr
18
Wilson, President Woodrow
Visited Archibald Blair House
19
Williamsburg Holding Corporation
Restored Archibald Blair House
Title page
Williamsburg Scrap-Book, 1951 edition
Story in, about Lottie and Mary Garrett
19
Windows
Panes of
21-23 27 31
Sash of
21-23 27 31
Trim of
21-23 27 30 31 32
Windows, dormer
22 24
Wing
24
Wirt, William
Eulogy of Dr. George Gilmer, Jr.
8
Eulogy of John Wickham
18
Woodwork, interior
Color of
27 28 30 31 32

Van Garrett Kitchen Restoration. Block 29, Building 3.

Weekly work records taken from Todd& Brown reports.
February 14, 1931. Job started.
February 21, 1931. Masonry- 20% complete.
Carpentry- 30% complete.
February 28, 1931. Masonry- 85% complete.
Carpentry- 70% complete.
March 7, 1931. Masonry- completed.
Carpentry- 80% completed.
Electric Work- Completed.
March 14, 1931. Activities postponed March 12, by Perry, Shaw and Hepburn.
March 21, 1931. No progress.
March 28, 1931. No progress.
April 4, 1931. No progress.
April 11, 1931. No progress.
April 18, 1931. No progress.
April 25, 1931. No progress.
May 2, 1931. No progress.
May 9, 1931. No progress.
May 23, 1931. May 22, Activities resumed.
May 30, 1931. Plastering 50% complete.
Carpentry 90% complete.
Sheet metal & roofing- completed.
Painting- Whitewashing exterior brick work completed.
June 13, 1931. Painting: Walls sized, first coat of paint applied to exterior woodwork.
June 20, 1931. Painting 70% complete.
July 11, 1931. Job completed except installation of screens.
July 17, 1931. Job completed. Started February 14, 1931.
75 working days.

    OWNERS OF KITCHEN

  • Reverend James Henderson- builder
  • Walter W. Webb
  • Jacob C. Sheldon
  • Charles C. Curtis
  • Montague Thompson
  • Miss Lottie Garrett
  • Van F. Garrett - 1914. Lived there previous to ownership. Brother to Miss Lottie G: Colonial Williamsburg

November 5, 1931.
Re: Authorization # 15
February 4, 1931.
"B" orders 1-4
Perry, Shaw & Hepburn
Williamsburg, Virginia.

Dear Sirs:

The Van Garrett Kitchen has been completed by us with a final cost of $3211.05.

We trust you may approve this work and send us your formal acceptance.

Yours truly,

J.I. Traphagen

(Todd & Brown, Inc.)

July 31, 1931.
Mrs. Van Garrett
Williamsburg
Virginia.

Dear Mrs. Garrett:

Re: Block 29 No. 1- Van Garrett Kitchen.

We are handing you herewith the key to the Van Garrett Kitchen. This building has just been turned over to us by the architects as restored.

Yours very truly,

Williamsburg Holding Corporation
By V.M. Geddy