Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 240
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library
|Key to Site Plan and Code Used to Designate Buildings in Text of Report|
|Chapter I. Establishing the Public Hospital, 1766-1770||1|
|Chapter II. Erecting the Building, 1771-1773||15|
|Chapter III. Early Operations, 1773-1779||28|
|Chapter IV. The Hospital (Revolutionary War period), 1775-1786||46|
|Chapter V. The Hospital, 1786-1800||72|
|Chapter VI. The Hospital, 1801-1829||110|
|Chapter VII. The Hospital, 1830-1861||204|
|Chapter VIII. The Hospital (Civil War period), 1861-1865||269|
|Chapter IX. The Hospital, 1865-1885||276|
|I. Manuscript and Printed Materials:|
|Account, 1770-1775, from the Treasurer's Office Records||337|
|Notes on Robert Smith||338|
|List of Patients, 1773-1778||343|
|Accounts from Humphrey Harwood's Ledgers B, C, and D 1778-1794||345|
|Accounts with the Public Store, 1778-1780||351|
|List of Patients, 1786-1790||355|
|References to the Asylum from the Williamsburg Land Tax Records, 1841-1850||356|
|II. Lists of Directors, Officers, Appropriations, and Land Acquired by the Hospital:|
|List of Directors, 1769-1904||358|
|List of officers, 1773-1885||362|
|List of Appropriations, 1802-1853||365|
|Land Acquired by the Hospital, 1770-1885||369|
|III. Maps and Pictures:|
|Plat showing approximate locations of Public Hospital, Galt Cottage, and Galt Graveyard||371|
|Conjectural North Elevation of the Public Hospital||372|
|Conjectural Floor Plan of the Public Hospital||373|
|Walnut Street Jail, Philadelphia, built 1773-1776||374|
|Desandrouins Map, 1782||375|
|Frenchman's Map, 1781 ;||376|
|Bucktrout Plat, 1800||377|
|Floor and Elevation Plans for Public Hospital [1825?]||378|
|Millington, North View of Asylum, 1845||379|
|Wood, North View of Asylum, 1846||380|
|L. A. Ramm, East and West Views of Asylum, 1855||381|
|L. A. Ramm, North View of Asylum, 1855||382|
|Graham, Pencil Drawing of Williamsburg, ca. 1859-1862||383|
|Cranstone, Watercolor of Gothic Building, ca. 1860||384|
|Civil War Photograph of Asylum||385|
|Photograph of South Facade of Asylum, pre-1885||386|
|Photograph Showing New Infirmary, Gothic Building, and Thurman Building, ca. 1895-1902||387|
|Conjectural Drawing of Public Hospital||388|
|IV. Mutual Assurance Society Policies:|
|#1640, May 25, 1821||389|
|#6023, January 5, 1830||390|
|#8320, August 12, 1835||391|
|#11,008, April 24, 1839||392|
|#11,264, January 25, 1843||393|
|#14,389, October 27, 1846||394|
|#[?], August 19, 1850||395|
|#17,638, September 24, 1853||396|
|#17,639, September 24, 1853||397|
|#21,328, December 31, 1860||398|
|#21,329, December 31, 1860||399|
|A Original Building||Completed 1773|
|Enlarged 1840 (third story added)|
|B Convalescent House||Completed 1805|
|Torn down c. 1854|
|C East Building||Completed 1821|
|Enlarged 1835 (Ca)|
|D West Building||Completed 1825|
|Enlarged 1835 (Da)|
|E West Wing and Veranda (G)||Completed 1840|
|F East Wing and Veranda (G)||Completed 1844|
|H Doric (White) Building||Completed 1850|
|I Gothic (Tower) Building||Completed 1849|
|Enlarged 1885 (Ia)|
|J Jacobean Building||Completed 1854|
|K Laundry (later used for patients)||Completed 1848|
|Enlarged 1872 (Ka)|
|L1 Kitchen-Chapel Building||Completed 1872|
|L2 New Male Wards||Completed c. 1881 (built on site of L1)|
|M Female Building||Completed c. 1883|
|N Amusement Hall||Completed c. 1885|
Though Gov. Fauquier proposed the erection of a hospital for the care of lunatics to the General Assembly in 1766, the Public Hospital was not established until 1770. It was the first hospital in this country established solely for the care of lunatics.* The original building, begun in 1771 and completed in 1773, survived until destroyed by fire in 1885. The building which faced on France Street was situated on eight lots in the part of Williamsburg located in James City County.
Through the years the hospital was known by different names. It was established as the Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds but referred to locally during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as the asylum, bedlam house, hospital, lunatic hospital, and madhouse. In 1841 it became the Eastern Asylum; in 1861 it was renamed the Eastern Lunatic Asylum; and in 1894 it received its present name, Eastern State Hospital. For the convenience of the reader the terms that appear most commonly in source material are used to refer to the institution: until 1840 hospital is used and after 1840 asylum is used.ii
This report covers the period 1766-1885 but the treatment of the subject is purposely uneven. Considerations of eventual reconstruction and interpretation of the original building, limitations of surviving documentation, and questions raised by the archaeological excavations determined the scope and type of information included in the report. As is generally true in house histories prepared by the Research Department, the period covered begins with the earliest written references to the building or lot. In this case the absence of eighteenth and early nineteenth century James City County court records limits references to the early history of Lots 80-87 until the surviving reference to the purchase of the lots for a hospital in 1770. Surviving records of the hospital, at the Virginia State Library and at Eastern State Hospital, provided important details of the building and operation of the institution. However, a gap in the minutes of the court of directors between 1801 and 1822 created a void which is only partially filled by other source material. Because of this gap in the records and the fact that annual reports of the operations of the hospital were not required until 1823, we have written the report to cover in as much detail as the sources permit the establishment, erection, early operations, and expansion of the hospital 17661829. The second part of the report 1830-1885 though less detailed iii continues to describe the expansion of the institution. Though our primary interest was to determine the use and changes made to the original building through the years, it was necessary to keep track of overall changes at the hospital to discern how this affected the original building. In order to follow the additions of new buildings and the destruction of others through the years we assigned arbitrary code letters to designate buildings referred to in the text. A site plan and key to the code is located inside the front cover of the report.
Little attempt was made to cover treatment of patients in the report except as the treatment related to the buildings. For this aspect of the institution's history see Norman Dain, Disordered Minds: The First Century of Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1766-1866 (The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1971).
This report is not indexed, however an index accompanies the six volumes of notes about the hospital. These volumes contain extracts from the minutes of the directors which relate to the buildings and grounds of the hospital, copies of all known annual reports 1823-1900, and copies of all additional sources of information used to write the report. In addition to the notes, photostatic copies of all surviving minutes of the directors' meetings are available at the Research Department.
Governor Fauquier proposed the erection of a mental hospital for the colony of Virginia in his speech opening the General Assembly on November 6, 1766:
It is expedient I should also recommend to your Consideration and Humanity a poor unhappy set of People who are deprived of their Senses and wander about the Country, terrifying the Rest of their Fellow Creatures. A legal Confinement, and proper Provision, ought to be appointed for these miserable objects, who cannot help themselves. Every civilized Country has an Hospital for these People, where they are confined, maintained and attended by able Physicians, to endeavour to restore to them their lost Reason.1
After considering the Governor's speech, the House of Burgesses on November 20, 1766,
Resolved, That an Hospital be erected for the Reception of Persons who are so unhappy as to be deprived of their reason.2
On April 11, 1767, at the end of the session of the General Assembly Governor Fauquier again spoke to the burgesses concerning a hospital for the insane:
There is a subject which gives me concern, on which I shall particularly address myself to you, as it is your peculiar province to provide means for the subsistence of the poor of any kind. The subject I mean is the case of the poor lunaticks. I find on your journals that it was2
Resolved, That an hospital be erected for the reception of persons who are so unhappy as to be deprived of their reason:
And that it was
Ordered, That the Committee of Propositions and Grievances do prepare and bring in a bill pursuant to the above resolution.
But I do not find that any thing more was done in it. It was a measure which I think could offend no party, and which I was in hopes humanity would have dictated to every man, as soon as he was made acquainted with the call for it, It also concerns me much on another account; for as the case now stands, I am as it were compelled to the daily commission of an illegal act, by confining, without any authority, a poor lunatick who, if set at liberty, would be mischievous to society; and I would choose to be bound by, and observant of, the laws of the country. As I think this a point of some importance to the ease and comfort of the whole community, as well as a point of charity to the unhappy objects, I shall again recommend it to you at your next meeting;when I hope, after mature reflection, it will be found to be more worthy your attention than it has been in this.3
Fauquier died March 3, 1768.4 No action was taken toward establishing a mental hospital during the 1768 session of the General Assembly. Lord Botetourt, who succeeded Fauquier as Governor, arrived in Williamsburg October 26, 1768.5 During the fall of 1768--either before Botetourt arrived or immediately after his coming--permission was sought to send four persons of unsound mind from the Public Gaol to the Pennsylvania Hospital at Philadelphia. This may have prodded the burgesses to take action postponed for three years. On November 15, 1769, the House
Ordered, That it be an Instruction to the Committee of Propositions and Grievances, that they prepare and 3 bring in a Bill to make Provision for the Support and Maintenance of Ideots, Lunatics, and other Persons of unsound Minds.6Journals of the House of Burgesses record that on November 29, 1769,
The following day, November 30, 1769, the burgesses
Mr. Treasurer presented to the House, by Direction of the Governor, a Letter from Mr. Thomas Willing, of Philadelphia, to the Honourable William Byrd, Esquire, relative to the Reception of the Persons of unsound Mind, now in the Public Gaol of this Colony, into the Hospital of Philadelphia; and he delivered the Letter in at the Clerk's Table.
And the said Letter was read.
Ordered, that the said Letter do lie upon the Table, to be perused by the Members of the House.7
Resolved, That an humble Address be presented to his Excellency the Governor, returning him the Thanks of this House, for his kind and humane Attention to the Piteous Situation of the four unhappy People, who are disordered in their Senses, and now confined in the Public Gaol of this Colony; desiring that his Lordship will be pleased, as he has proposed, to send them to the Hospital in Philadelphia, till a proper Provision can be made here, for Persons under the like unhappy Circumstances; and assuring his Lordship, that this House will chearfully pay the Expences that may attend their Support and maintenance.
Ordered, That the said Address be presented to his Excellency by Mr. Treasurer.
On December 1, 1769,
Mr. Treasurer reported to the House, that their Address of Yesterday, that his Excellency would be pleased, as he had proposed, to send the four Persons, who are disordered in their Senses, and now confined in the Public Gaol of this Colony, to the Hospital in Philadelphia, had been presented to his Excellency; and that his Excellency had directed him to acquaint the House, that he would, with Pleasure, give Directions accordingly.94
On March 20, 1770, Lord Botetourt wrote to Mr. Willing of Philadelphia:
I have engaged Lieutenant Inglis to deliver to your direction the four unhappy People You have obligingly promised to provide for in the Hospital at Philadelphia.. I have likewise the honour to assure You that your Draughts for their Support will be duly answered by Mr. Treasurer Nicholas in consequence of my Warrant which he shall receive the first instant You shall enable me to grant it.10
Botetourt died October 15, 1770. On October 25th Richard Starke of Williamsburg wrote to Botetourt's nephew, His Grace the Duke of Beaufort, at Badminton in Gloucestershire:
With the utmost diffidence and submission I must acquaint your Grace, that amongst the many instances of his distinguished Charities, he had often declared his intentions to contribute One hundred Pounds towards defraying the expences of a Hospital now erecting in Williamsburg under the Sanction of an Act of the General Assembly but this most humble intimation may it please your Grace, proceeds solely from that heart-felt, however speculative species of piety and regard, a desire to fulfill the intentions of a just Man, in confidence that he will be pleased to another World, with what he cannot thank your Grace for, in this.11There is no record that the hospital received a contribution from the Duke of Beaufort.
The act establishing a Public Hospital for the insane in Williamsburg passed in June 1770:
An Act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunatics, and other persons of unsound minds.
1. WHEREAS several persons of insane and disordered minds have been frequently found wandering in5
different parts of this colony, and no certain provision having been yet made either towards effecting a cure of those whose cases are not become quite desperate, nor for restraining others who may be dangerous to society: Be it therefore enacted, by the Governor, Council, and Burgesses, of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the authority of the same, That the honourable John Blair, William Nelson, Thomas Nelson, Robert Carter, and Peyton Randolph, esquires, and Robert Carter Nicholas, John Randolph, Benjamin Waller, John Blair, jun. George Wythe, Dudley Digges, jun. Lewis Burwell, Thomas Nelson, jun. Thomas Everard, and John Tazewell, esquires, be, and they are hereby constituted trustees for founding and establishing a public hospital, for the reception of such persons as shall, from time to time, according to the rules and orders established by this act, be sent thereto. And the said trustees shall be called and known by the name and style of the court of directors of the public hospital, for persons of insane and disordered minds.
II. And for the better and more regular ordering the business of the said hospital, the said directors shall, at their first meeting, proceed to the choice of a president, who, with any six of the other directors, shall hold a court for the dispatch of business, and in case of the absence, sickness, or death of the said president, the other members of the said court may choose another. president, either perpetual or temporary, as the exigency of affairs may require; and in case of the death, resignation, or absence out of the colony for the space of two years of one or more of the said directors, the president, for the time being, and the rest of the directors, continuing in office, shall and may proceed to the choice of other fit and able persons, to supply all such vacancies.
II. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the said court of directors be, and they are hereby impowered to purchase a piece or parcel of land, not exceeding four acres, the most healthy in situation that can be procured, and as convenient as may be to the city of Williamsburg, and to contract for the building thereon a commodious house or houses, fit for the reception and accommodation of such disordered persons as are described by this act, and to provide 6 a proper keeper and matron of the said hospital, with necessary nurses and guards, and, as occasion may require, to call in any physicians or surgeons for the assistance and relief of such poor patients, and to provide all necessaries for their comfortable support and maintenance, and in general, from time to time, to make and ordain all such rules, orders, and regulations, for the better establishing and governing such hospital, as to them shall seem fit and necessary. And for the better and more regular determining who are the proper objects of this act.
III. Be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That any magistrate of the quorum, in any county within this colony, or any chief magistrate of any city or borough, either upon his own knowledge, or on proper information, that any such disordered person is going at large in his county, city, or borough, shall, and he is hereby required to issue his warrant to the sheriff, or any one of the constables of the said county, city or borough, commanding him to bring such person before himself, or any other justice of the quorum, and any other two magistrates, which three magistrates, being assembled, may examine the said person supposed to be disordered in his or her senses, and take such evidence in writing, touching his or her insanity, and the causes of it, as they can procure; and if it shall appear expedient and necessary to such magistrates, or a majority of them, they shall forthwith, by warrant under their hands and seals, transmit such disordered person, together with the depositions taken before them, either with or without a guard, as may seem necessary, to the public hospital, to be delivered to the keeper of the said hospital, who shall give a receipt for such person, and immediately give notice to the president of the directors, who shall in convenient time summon his court to consider what is farther necessary to be done; and if it shall appear to such court, that such person is a proper object of this act, they shall enter his name in a book to be kept for this purpose, and pursue such measures as his or her case may require.
IV. Provided always, If any friend of such person will appear before such magistrates, or such court of directors, and give sufficient security that proper care shall be taken of such person, and that he or she shall 7 be restrained, or secured from going at large till he or she is restored to his or her senses, it shall and may be lawful for such justices, or such court, to deliver such insane person to his or her friend.
V. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the sheriff or other officer conveying such disordered person to the public hospital, shall receive such compensation for his trouble and expences as to the court of directors shall seem reasonable, having regard to the quality of such person.
VI. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the treasurer of this colony for the time being is hereby impowered and required to pay, upon the governor's warrant, to the court of directors, for purchasing the land, building the hospital, and other incidental charges, any sum or sums of money, not exceeding the sum of twelve hundred pounds, and for each person removed, to be maintained and supported in the said hospital, any sum not exceeding twenty-five pounds per annum.
VII. And whereas it may happen, that some persons may fall into the unhappy circumstances described by this act, whose estates may be sufficient to defray the expence of their support and maintenance in the said hospital, where they may be more securely kept and managed, and with much less anxiety to their friends: Be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful for the court of any county, city or borough, within this colony, upon application to them made by the friend or guardian of any such insane or disordered person, to appoint three or more of their members to enquire, upon oath to be taken before such court, into the state and condition of such person, and also into the circumstances of his or her estate; and if, upon the report of the persons so appointed, it shall appear to such court necessary or expedient, that such person should be placed in the said hospital, the said court is hereby impowered and required to order and direct such person to be forthwith removed thereto, and at the same time to settle the allowance to be made to the said hospital for such person's support and maintenance out of his or her estate having regard to the neat profits thereof.
VIII. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the said court of directors are hereby 8 impowered and required to receive such person into the said hospital, and, from time to time, to make and ordain such rules and orders for the better government of such person, according to his or her quality, and the allowance made out of his or her estate, as to them shall seem necessary or expedient. And the said court of directors are hereby directed and required to keep distinct and proper accounts of the expenditure of all such monies which shall be paid into their hands, to be laid before the general assembly, when the same shall be called for.
IX. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That if any person who shall be taken into the said hospital, shall recover his or her perfect senses, so that he or she, in the opinion of the said court of directors, may be safely released, it shall and may be lawful for the said court to discharge such person, giving him or her a proper certificate thereof.
X. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That this act shall continue and be in force for and during the term of five years, and from thence to the end of the next session of assembly.12
Meetings of the directors preceded the passage of the law. A notice in Rind's Virginia Gazette for August 2, 1770, mentioned a meeting held at the Capitol on July 10, 1770:
At a Court of Directors, appointed by the Act of Assembly, for establishing an HOSPITAL for the Reception of Ideots, Lunatics, and Persons of insane Mind, held at the Capitol the 10th Day of July, 1770.
ORDERED, that PEYTON RANDOLPH, JOHN RANDOLPH, ROBERT CARTER NICHOLAS, JOHN BLAIR, jun. and THOMAS EVERARD, Esquires, be appointed a Committee to agree on a Plan for the HOSPITAL, and to advertise the building thereof; as also to receive Proposals for that Purpose of the several Undertakers, and to make report of their Proceedings to the next Court.
JACOB BRUCE, C.C.D.
THE Committee appointed have, in Pursuance of the above Order, agreed on a Plan for the HOSPITAL, and are ready to treat with all Undertakers, who may incline to 9 engage in the Work. It is to be a large, commodious Brick Building, and to be erected in or as near the City of Williamsburg as conveniently may be.13
The directors selected a plan for the Hospital drawn by Robert Smith, a Philadelphia architect and dated April 9, 1770:*
A Description of the Plan and Elevation of A Hospital for Virginia
The Plan consists of a Hall for a Staircase, behind There is the Keepers apartment, and 12 other Rooms chiefly for the Reception of mad People. The Stairs begin near the front Door and lands on [blank] passage in the second Story. The second Story has 12 Rooms the same Dimensions as those in the first Story, and a Room over the Keepers Apartment which may serve the Managers of the Hospital to meet or may be divided which will make two other Rooms for Patients. The Hall is designd to be open as far as the landing of the Stairs the whole hight of both Storys. The Cellers shoud be about eight feet high between the under side of the Joices and the Surface of the Celler floor. And the foundation must go 12 Inches lower which will make the whole hight of the Celler Wall on which you lay the first floor 9 feet. This Wall shou'd be 19 Inches thick either of Stone or very hard Brick and the Partition Walls shoud be 14 Inches thick. The first floor is designed 3 feet above the Surface of the Ground which will require the Wall about 2 feet or a little more raised above the said Surface. This part from the ground up to the top of the first floor shou'd be cased with hard Brick if the Celler Wall be of Stone, unless you go to the Expence of hewn Stone for this part which will be better. After the Wall is worked up as high as the first floor to the full Demensions of the plan set off about 4 Inches for the finishing of the plinth or Water table which may be of Moulding Bricks.10
The first Story is ten feet high from floor to Cieling. The outside Walls all round 14 Inches thick and the partitions nine Inches thick of Bricks. The second Story is designed the same thickness and to be Nine feet six Inches high. The Windows are 6 hights of Glass 10 by 8 Inches for the hight and 3 for the Width. There must be a grate of Iron to the inside of each Window which may be fixed in the following Manner. Suppose this to be the Jamms of a Window and Irons fixed ready to receive the grates when the Building-is finished.11
I woud have 2 eyes of Iron made like the rough Scratch above, which shou'd be made of Common flat bar Iron with a hole of an Inch diameter to receive a hook which will be fixed to the Grate, the other End split and turned up or down one Inch and built in the Brick work. These two eyes shou'd be fixed about eight Inches above the bottom of the Window and two more fixed about the same distance from the top of the window, the Grate having four hooks to fit into those eyes May be set in and a hasp fixed to the Grate at top that will fall on a Staple drove into the lintel over the Window head fix on a padlock the whole will be safe.
See this rough Scratch.
Dimensions of the Plan
feet The Keepers Apartment 22 feet In: 6 Rooms on one side 11. 9 70.6 2 End Walls 14 2.4 6 Ditto 9 4.6 2 Water Tables 4 .8 Whole length of Building 100. feet In: 2 Rooms 10. 9 each 21.6 1 Passage 6. 2 6.2 2 Walls 14 thick 2.4 2 Ditto 9 do. 1.6 2 Water Tables 4 do. .8 Whole Width of Building 32.2 N. B. The middle part projects 3 feet 6 38.2
If there shoud be occasion for Fire to warm the common Rooms, there may be Stoves fixed in the Partition between two Rooms with the Mouth open to the Passage, by which means they make fires and the mad People cannot come at them. They shou'd be fixed about two foot above the floor for fear of the Patients falling against the Stoves. See to the left hand on the Plan the place of two Stoves.*
This Building will require about Two hundred thousand Bricks each Brick about 8 3/4 Long 2 3/8 Thick and 4 ¼ Broad about 13 of such Bricks with Mortar will make one foot Superficial of a Nine Inch Wall or 19 ½ of such to a fourteen Inch Wall. The Bricklayers must order it so that the Chimneys come out in the Roof at Equal distance from the middle otherwise they will have a very ill Effect. This may be easily done.
About 40 Thousand feet of Scantling will be wanted Superficial, which we reckon at one Inch thick 12 such feet makes one foot Cubical Measure.
16 Thousand feet of plank for Doors and floors about 1 ½ Inch thick 2 Thousand feet of plank very good for Sashes &c.
5 Thousand of Inch Boards for Cornice to the Eves and other finishing besides Boarding the Roof.
The above hints and a carefull inspection of the plan may be sufficient to perform any part of the Building.
Philadelphia April 9th, 1770
The September 13, 1770, issue of Rind's Virginia Gazette carried an announcement from a Committee made up of directors Peyton Randolph, John Randolph, Robert Carter Nicholas, John Blair, Jr., and Thomas Everard: 13
THE Committee appointed give Notice that they will meet at Mr. Anthony Hay's, in Williamsburg, on Monday the 15th of October, and that they will be then ready to agree for the Building the HOSPITAL. The Plan and Terms will be left with Mr. Jacob Bruce for the Inspection of Workmen, and they are desired to be prepared with their Proposals, that this Work may be entered upon as soon as possible.15
The act of 1770 establishing the Public Hospital impowered the Directors "to purchase a piece or parcel of land, not exceeding four acres, the most healthy in situation that can be procured, and as convenient as may be to the city of Williamsburg:16 Records* of the Treasurer's Office of the colony show "December 1, 1770 To Cash pd. for 8 Lotts £112."17
The eight lots purchased from Thomas Walker were located on the block bounded by France Street on the north, Henry Street on the west, Ireland Street on the south, and Nassau Street on the east. This Thomas Walker cannot be clearly identified. He may have been Dr. Thomas Walker of Albemarle County whose daughter married Joseph Hornsby of Williamsburg in January 1769.18 Only the last portion of the deed recorded in the James City County Court on December 10, 1770, between Thomas Walker and the Court of Directors is extant: 14
same with the Appurtenances To have and to hold all and singular the Premises with the Appurtenances unto the said Court of Directors of the public Hospital for Persons of insane and disordered Minds and their Successors to the only proper Use & Behoof of the said Court of Directors of the Public Hospital for Persons of insane and disordered Minds and their Successors forever And the said Thomas Walker for himself his heirs Executors and Administrators doth covenant promise and agree to and with the said Court of Directors of the Public Hospital for persons of insane and disordered Minds and their Successors that they the said Court of Directors of the public Hospital for Persons of insane and disordered Minds and their Successors may forever hereafter peaceably and quietly have hold use occupy possess and enjoy all & singular the premisses with the Appurtenances without the lawful Lett Suit Trouble Molestation or Hindrance of any person or persons whatsoever And that the said Thomas Walker and his hiers the above granted Premises with the Appurtenances unto the said Court of Directors of the public Hospital for Persons of insane and disordered Minds and their Successors against the lawful Title claim & Demand of all and every Person and persons whatsoever shall and warrant and forever defend by these Presents In Witness whereof the Parties to these Presents have hereunto interchangeably set their Hands and affixed their Seals the Day and year first above written.
Sealed & delivered
In the Presence of
Thomas Walker [seal]
At a Court held for James City County December the 10th, 1770 This Indenture was proved by the Oaths of Henry Tazewell John Jameson and John Brown Witnesses thereto and ordered to be recorded.
On January 18, 1771, Articles of Agreement were signed between Benjamin Powell, carpenter, and the Court of Directors to erect a large brick building for a hospital within two years for payment of £1,070:
Articles of Agreement indented made and concluded this the eighteenth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy one Between Benjamin Powell of the City of Williamsburg carpenter of the one part and the Court of Directors of the Hospital for the Reception of Ideots Lunatics and persons of insane and disordered Minds of the other part Witnesseth that the said Benjamin Powell for and in consideration of the sum of Money herein after mentioned doth covenant and agree with the said Court of Directors that he will erect a large brick Building for an Hospital for the Reception of Ideots Lunatics and persons of insane and disordered Minds on the Lots lately purchased by the said Court of Directors of Thomas Walker agreable to the plan and explanation thereof hereto annexed The whole Wall[s to be] of hard well burnt Bricks and laid with good Mortar the North front of the middle Building to have a neat Pediment the South East and West ends to be hipped to have a neat Mundelian Cornice round the whole the Roof to be covered with plank and good Cypress Shingles the Frame and Scantling to be of good Oak or poplar and of proper Sizes for such a Building the Floors to be laid with good pine Plank well seasoned one and a half Inch thick and free from Sap the outward Doors and those to the Middle Rooms to be pannelled and the others strong batten Doors and the said Benjamin Powell doth agree to furnish all the materials for the said Building except the Grates and such other things as are usually imported from England and that he will finish and compleat the whole in a neat strong and workman like manner agreable to the plan and 16 explanation thereof aforesaid within two years from the date hereof In Consideration whereof the said Court of Directors do agree to pay the said Benjamin Powell one thousand and seventy pounds in the following manner that is to say two hundred and fifty pounds part thereof in hand and the Residue at such Times and in such proportions as the said Court of Directors shall think fit to direct having regard to the progress of the Work.
In Witness whereof the parties to these presents have hereunto set their Hands and affixed their Seals the day and Year before written.
Signed Sealed and Delivered
In the presence of Ben. Powell [seal]
Will Russell to B. P.
Signed and seald. by W. Nelson [seal]
Wm. Nelson in presence of20
Powell agreed "to furnish all the materials for the said Building except the Grates and such other things as are usually imported from England." Surviving records show that directors William Nelson, Robert Carter, and Robert Carter Nicholas ordered materials for the hospital.
William Nelson wrote Robert Cary, Esq., a merchant in London, for materials for the hospital on January 21, 1771:
The Legislature of this Colony having voted Money to erect an Hospital for the Reception & Maintanance of Ideots & Lunaticks, I have promised the Gentlemen, who are to direct the Building to procure such Materials, as will be wanted from England; I therefore desire that you will send the several Articles mention'd in the inclosed Invoice, by the first ship, observing to insure them, & to place them to the Account of17 Details of the order are missing as Nelson did not copy the invoice into his letterbook. On September 5, 1771, Nelson wrote to Robert Cary concerning some goods he had ordered. Since his letterbook contains no other orders for that season we assume that letters to Cary dated September 5, 1771, November 21, 1771, and February 21, 1772, which refer to "the Cross, Vane &ca." concern items ordered for the Public Hospital:
Your most hble Servt.
[Sept. 5, 1771]
the Invoice of the Cross, Vane & ca amounting to £27.14.- which is received & I credit you for it in Account; but the Builder says, that it is most extravagantly dear, & that he hath had one made here nearly as Good for £12 our Currency, tho' the spindle is not turned, as this is; and therefore, if no Abatement is made, I shall think they take a very unfair Advantage of Charging what they please for their goods.
[Nov. 21, 1771]
I hope you will try to get some Allowance for the Excessive Charge of the Weather Cock, which I complain'd of before or I shall think I am hardly dealt by.23
These references to a "vane" and "Weather Cock" imply that the original building had a cupola. Information on public buildings designed and built in the Philadelphia area by Robert Smith show that cupolas were common features.* 18
[Feby. 21, 1772]
I observe the Reasons, which Mr. Millington gives for the high Price of the Vane & ca. which I suppose I must be satisfied with tho not convinced that it was not too Dear.24
A sketch of the hospital showing a cupola appears on the plan of Williamsburg drawn by Benjamin Bucktrout in August 1800.* The first actual mention of a cupola (steeple) is in an account for repairs made at the hospital in 1803 by John Bowden. Among repairs dated September 26 is "To repair to the Vally & Steeple of the house 8/."24A
At its meeting on December 16, 1771, the directors
Ordered that his Excellency the Governor be desired to issue his Warrant directing the Treasurer to pay the President [William Nelson was president of the Court of Directors.] the sum of One hundred and eighty eight Pounds thirteen shillings and nine pence for Materials imported by him for the Hospital...25An account of the hospital in Cash Books of the Treasurer's office shows "December 30, 1771 to Cash pd. Mr. Presidt. Nelson £188.13..9."26
On April 22, 1771, Robert Carter ordered forty-eight grates** and hooks for the hospital from Mr. Clement Brooke of the Baltimore Iron Works:
...I send 2 patterns of wood to shew the sizes of grates wanted for an hospital now building here for the reception of Lunaticks 24 of the larger size are wanted 24 of the other size are wanted, both sizes to be made of wroght iron and 48 hoocks- the directors who superintend the building expect that you signify to me the price you ask for the same, also the time you require to finish the said work
Clement Brooke replied on June 3, 1771:
… We can make the Grates agreeable to the paterns and will Acquaint you by the next Trip when they can be done as likewise of the price.Brooke referred to the grates in a letter to Robert Carter on October 2, 1771:
… I have sent down all the Iron Grates & Hooks by the Bearer Capt. Sanders they weigh 2664 lb. @ 8d. is £88..16..which I have charg'd to your Private Accot.27Robert Carter's account book, 1759-1775, has this entry for May 25, 1772:
Dr. Mr. Jacob Bruce of Wmsburg.28
To Cash received of Robt. Carter Nicholas Treasurer, for Sundry Iron Grates for the use of the Colony £90..5..6.
The directors ordered the Treasurer of the Colony, Robert Carter Nicholas, "to import from England Stone Steps for the use of the Hospital."29 These were ordered on August 4, 1772, by Robert Carter Nicholas from Messrs. John Norton & Son, merchants in London:
I trouble you with a Letter for Mr. Saml. Martin of Whitehaven, it is to desire the favour of him to send over some Stone Steps for an Hospital the Country is building for the Reception of Lunaticks & other unhappy objects of insane Minds, which it is to be fear'd will multiply too fast in this Country; we have been obliged to send four to the Hospital at Philadelphia for want of a proper place to accommodate them here; having but little Acquaintance with Mr. Martin I have desired the favour of him to draw on you for the Amount of the Steps & desire you will give due Honor to his Draught, & charge the Money to the Treasury . . .3020 An entry in the cash book of the Treasurer's Office records for December 14, 1773, indicates the amount of payment: "To Norton & son for the Hospital Steps £15..9..8."31
Though Benjamin Powell undertook to build the Hospital, he sublet the brickwork. Samuel Spurr advertised for bricklayers in the October 3, 1771, issue of Purdie & Dixon's Virginia Gazette:
At a meeting on December 16, 1771, the directors agreed to increase the walls of the hospital by half a brick in thickness:
WILLIAMSBURG, October 2, 1771. THE Subscriber will give good Wages, and Accommodations, to two or three Journeymen BRICKLAYERS, for the remaining Part of the Season, to work upon the Hospital building in this City. Plenty of Bricks and Lime is ready, so that they were will be no Delay.
A Majority of the Members of the Court having formerly directed the addition of half a brick in thickness to the Walls of the Hospital at a time when a Meeting of the Court of Directors could not conveniently be had the same is now approved and confirmed by the Court.33
The act passed by the General Assembly in June 1770 authorized twelve hundred pounds for building the hospital.34 A memorial from the directors put before the Houses of Burgesses on February 24, 1772, reported that the lots had been purchased, plans completed,and the building started, but that the funds allotted were insufficient:
On February 27th the burgesses acted on the memorial by authorizing that eight hundred pounds be paid to the Court of Directors:
A Memorial of the Court of Directors of the Public 21 Hospital for Persons of insane and disordered Minds was presented to the House, and read; representing that the Memorialists, in Compliance with an Act of the late General Assembly, took the earliest Opportunity of executing the Trust reposed in them; that they purchased eight Lots of Land in a retired Part of the City of Williamsburg, for one hundred and twelve Pounds, and agreed with an Undertaker to build such an House as they judged would best answer the purpose; a Plan of which, with the Articles, is ready to be laid before this Honourable House; that it is hoped the Work, wherein a considerable Progress is already made, will be finished by the Time limited; and further representing, that the Memorialists, finding that what they supposed to be the Design of the Assembly could not be effected without exceeding the Sum allowed by the Act, at first inclined to make up the difference by Subscriptions, but conceiving that might be deemed improper, engaged at all Events that the whole Money requisite should be paid, intending to lay their Proceedings before this Honourable House; and further representing, that besides the Cost of the Ground, and of the Building, when finished, amounting in the whole to about sixteen hundred Pounds, it will be necessary to inclose a Garden and Yards for Patients to walk and take the Air in; and that a Keeper and Matron must be employed, and other incidental Charges will accrue, which are not provided for by Law; and therefore humbly submitting it to the Consideration of the House to make further Provision and Establishments as they may think proper and necessary to enable the Court to carry the laudable Intention of the Assembly into complete Execution.
Ordered, That the said Memorial be referred to the Consideration of a Committee of the whole House.
Resolved, That this House will, upon Wednesday next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House to consider the said Memorial.35
In April 1772 the General Assembly passed an act appropriating an additional eight hundred pounds for completing the building:
The House, according to order, resolved itself into a Committee of the whole House, to consider of the Memorial of the Court of Directors, for the Public Hospital, 22 for Persons of insane and disordered Minds.
Mr. Speaker left the Chair.
Mr. Bland took the Chair of the Committee.
Mr. Speaker resumed the Chair.
Mr. Bland reported from the Committee, that they had come to a Resolution, which they had directed him to report to the House; and he read the Report in his Place, and afterwards delivered it in at the Clerk's Table; where the Resolution of the Committee was read, and is as followeth, viz.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this Committee, that a Sum of Money, not exceeding eight hundred Pounds, be paid by the Treasurer, upon the Governor's Warrant, to the Court of Directors of the Hospital for Ideots, Lunatics, and Persons of insane and disoredered Minds, to be by them laid out in finishing the said Hospital, and making proper Inclosures for the Patients to walk, and take the Air in.
The said Resolution, being read a second Time, was, upon the Question put thereupon, agreed to by the House.
Ordered, That a Bill be brought in pursuant to the said Resolution; and that the Committee of Propositions and Grievances do prepare, and bring in the same.36
An act for making further provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunatics, and other persons of unsound minds.
WHEREAS by an act of the general assembly, passed in the tenth year of his present majesty's reign, the treasurer of this colony was impowered, on the governor's warrant, to pay a sum of money not exceeding twelve hundred pounds, to be applied by the court of directors, in the said act appointed, towards building a hospital for the reception of ideots, and lunatics, and defraying the incidental charges thereof, which sum hath been found insufficient for those purposes: Be it therefore enacted, the Governor, Council, and Burgesses, of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the authority of the same, That the treasurer of this colony for the time being shall and may, and he is hereby impowered 23 and required, upon the governor's warrant, to pay to the said court of directors a farther sum, not exceeding eight hundred pounds, to be by them applied towards finishing the said hospital, making inclosures for the patients to walk and take the air in, after their reception, and defraying the other incidental charges.38
Since several applications for admission to the hospital were received by the summer of 1772, the directors placed this notice in Purdie & Dixon's Virginia Gazette:
WILLIAMSBURG, June 23, 1772.
As several Applications have been already made to the Directors appointed to conduct and superintend the Building and Management of the publick Hospital to receive different Patients, they think it advisable to inform the publick, that, very soon after the Act of Assembly passed appointing them to this Trust, they, by publick Advertisement, invited the different Undertakers who might incline to engage in the Work to give in their Proposals; that several Months elapsed before they could engage with a proper Person agreeable to their Wishes, but at last contracted for the Building to be completely finished on or before the 18th of January 1773, the shortest Period that could be agreed on. To prevent fruitless Applications, and future Dissappointments, they take this Method of assuring all whom it may concern that so soon as the Hospital is completed, and fit for the Reception of Patients, they will not fail to give publick Notice of it.39
The directors received a bequest of £100 current money from the will (dated October 6, 1772; recorded December 21, 1772) of William Nelson, Esq., of Yorktown, an original trustee:
I give and bequeath to the Court of directors appointed by Act of Assembly to erect and superintend the Public Hospital for the Reception of Lunaticks &c. the sum of one hundred pounds Current Money to be by them applyed towards the farther Relief of such poor Patients as may be 24 sent to the said Hospital, as they in their Discretion may think fit, but not to the enlargment of the Building or to any other purpose.40
The directors' minutes for June 9, 1774, state that
Thomas Nelson junr. Esquire brought into Court the Will of his father the late Honble William Nelson Esquire by which a Legacy of one hundred Pounds was bequeathed to this Court and their Successors for the more Comfortable support and Maintenance of the Patients confined in the Hospital and paid the same whereupon the Treasurer was desired to put the said Money out at Interest for the purposes mentioned in the said Will and that for the Better Government of this Court respecting the same the Clerk apply for an Attested Copy of the said Will so far as it relates to the Legacy aforesaid and insert the same among the Records of this Court.41
Two surviving accounts concern charges against the colony of Virginia for keeping patients in the Pennsylvania Hospital at Philadelphia. Four lunatics confined to the Public Gaol in Williamsburg were sent to Philadelphia in 1770. One account lists expenses from March 25, 1773, through March 1, 1774, for James Taylor, Mathew Grier, and Margaret Thomson and indicates that one patient had died:
Philadelphia March 1st 1774
The Colony of Virginia 1773 To Willing & Morris Dr. March 25th To Jasper Carpenter for a Coffin & Grave for one of the Lunaticks £150 May 15th To Cash pd. for the Board of Lunaticks vizt. James Taylor & Mathew Grier to the 30th March £19.10.0 6 Weeks Board of Margaret Thomson 4.10.0 24.0.0 25 July 31st To Cash pd. for Cloaths for the Lunaticks 6.12.0 Octor. 31st To Cash pd. for the Board of two Lunaticks in the Hospital to 30th September 39.0.0 -@ 7/6 £70.17 0
Philadelphia March 1st 1774
Willing & Morris
Please to pay the amount of the above Account seventy pounds seventeen shillings this Curry. to Messrs. Inglis & Long or order on our acct.
Willing & Morris Phila. March 1st 1774 To The Treasurer of the Collony of Virginia
[Note: bottom of sheet converts £70.17.0 Pa. curr. to £54.14.1 Va. currency]
Rec. [fif]ty four [pou]nds forteen shillings & 1 d. in full of the within order Wmsburg. 19th March 1774 Inglis & Long42
An account for 1774 records expenses for only two lunatics from Virginia--James Taylor and Mathew Grier:
1774 Messrs. Willing & Morris To Penns. Hospital Dr.
To 6 Mos. Board & Accomod. of Jas. Taylor &
Mathew Grier two Lunatics from Virginia at
15/ pr Week each Due Mar. 30th £39..0..0
April 17th 1774 Receivd. The Above £39..0..0 pr. Jno. Haxton Philada. May 16th 1774
Please to pay Messrs Inglis & Long or Order the above Sum of Thirty nine pounds this Curry. on Acct. of 26 the Collony of Virginia & oblige
Your Obedt. hble servants
Willing & Morris Co.
The Treasurer of the Collony of Virginia43
In their memorial to the House of Burgesses on February 24, 1772, the directors stated that "it will be necessary to inclose a Garden and Yards for Patients to walk and take the Air in."44 At a meeting on July 4, 1772, they ordered that agreements be made with "some Person to enclose the Lots belonging to the Hospital."45 On December 17, 1773, the directors "Ordered that the Sum of £143.17..3-½ be paid to Benjamin Powell in Part of his Account for paling in the Lots belonging to the Hospital."46 The Treasurer's Office records show that Benjamin Powell was paid that amount on December 22, 1773.47
References to the usual outbuildings are lacking for the beginning operations of the hospital. Perhaps such outbuildings as a kitchen, smokehouse, and necessary houses existed on the property. Another possibility is that food was brought to the hospital from a house nearby. Since the Galt Cottage, home of the keeper and matron, was only about 150* feet away such an arrangement 27 may have operated for the early years of the hospital while there were few patients.
At a meeting on October 19, 1773, the directors
Ordered that some Person be employed to sink a Well for the use of the Hospital; and that necessary Ladders be provided to secure the same against Accidents of Fire.48The following year on October 13, 1774, James Galt was paid £7.18..6 for digging a well.49 A smokehouse was ordered to be built for the hospital on January 24, 1774, and a house for straw was ordered to be built on October 14, 1774. Since at this date there was no stable at the hospital, straw was probably placed in the cells. Straw was commonly used in English prisons in place of beds.50
Also lacking are specific references to furnishings for the hospital. On May 7, 1773, the directors
Ordered that the Committee formerly appointed to Supervise the building of the Hospital do provide necessaries for the better Accommodation of such unhappy Persons as may be confined therein.51The hospital was probably sparsely furnished from its beginning if this citation from the annual report for 1840-41 is accurate:
Now, in this hospital, there has never been furniture of any character than that used in poor houses, and other asylums for paupers. There is not, for example, a feather bed or a matrass in the institution. The board, therefore, respectfully suggest, that the sum remaining in their treasury be permitted to be applied to this object.52
The directors' minutes for September 14, 1773, record that the hospital building* was complete:
The President acquainted the Court he had called this Meeting in Consequence of his having received Information that the Hospital was now compleated: Whereupon the Court proceeded to examine the said Hospital and finding it finished according to Agreement, the same was received of Benjamin Powell the Undertaker.
Ordered that James Galt be appointed Keeper of the Hospital, who being called in and informed thereof, agreed to accept the said Office and to be referred to the General Assembly for such Salary as his Services should be thought to merit. The Court then delivered the Charge of the said Hospital to the said James Galt.
Benjamin Powell laid before the Court his Account for building the Hospital, which being examined and approved, the President is desired to apply to the Governor for his Warrant to the Treasurer to pay the Sum of £592.12.11-3/4 the Balance thereof to the said Benjamin Powell.
Ordered that it be advertized in the publick Papers, that the Hospital will be ready by the 12th of the next Month for the Reception of such Ideots, Lunatics, and Persons of unsound Minds as may be sent thereto agreeable to the Act of General Assembly, and that this Court will sit on Tuesday in each Week to examine and receive such Objects.53
Notice of the opening of the hospital appeared in the Virginia Gazette on September 16, 1773:
WILLIAMSBURG, September 14, 1773.
THE publick Hospital established by an Act of the General Assembly for the Reception of Ideots, Lunaticks, 29 and other Persons of unsound Minds, being now completed, Notice is hereby given that the Court of Directors will meet at the said Hospital, on Tuesday the 12th of October next, to receive all such Persons as may be sent thereto according to the Directions of the said Act, and that the Court, for the same Purpose, and the better ordering the general Business of the Hospital, will meet on the same Day in every succeeding Week, till farther Notice.
It is hoped that the Magistrates in the several Counties will in every Instance distinguish between such Persons as have no Estates and those who are able to defray the Whole or Part of the Expence of their Support and Maintenance as the Law requires, and that none but such as are proper Objects of the Act of Assembly will be sent to the said Hospital.
by Order of the Court of54
Directors. JACOB BRUCE, Clerk.
At the October 12, 1773, meeting the directors admitted to the hospital Zachariah Mallory of Hanover County and Catherine Harvey of New Kent County. Mallory had been confined in the Public Goal since February 16th. The directors
Ordered, that the Keeper of the Hospital call on Doctor John De Siqueyra to visit such Persons as shall be brought to the Hospital on their first Reception, and at such other Times as may be necessary.55
Law permitted the directors to spend £25 a year for each patient.56 County magistrates were requested to determine which prospective patients could pay all or part of their expences. On October 26, 1773, the directors
Ordered that Twenty Shillings be the Allowance to the Sherifs for summoning the Justices and Witnesses for the Examination on any insane and disordered Person, and for attending such Examination: and that the Allowance for bringing such Persons to the Hospital be five pounds 30 of Tobacco p Mile, and three pounds of Tobacco for each Guard that may be necessarily employed for that Purpose.57
Charity, a free mulatto woman from Richmond County, was admitted to the hospital on April 19, 1774.58 Slaves, however, were not admitted until special legislation was passed in 1846.
The hospital did not reach capacity for some years after it opened. Records* of James Galt, Keeper, show that
at the end of 1773 there were 6 patients
at the end of 1774 there were 8 patients
at the end of 1775 there were 7 patients
at the end of 1776 there were 10 patients
at the end of 1777 there were 11 patients
at the end of 1778 there were 15 patients59
Surviving accounts with Williamsburg residents give some idea of conditions at and operations of the hospital during its early years of operation. An account with John Prentis & Company, dated October 11, 1773-December 20, 1774, records purchases of fabric (bays, dowlas, freize, linen, oznabrugs, plains, shaloon, stuff); thread, buttons, pairs of hose, buckles, and shoes; and yards of sheeting and blankets. Most items were purchased for individual patients but entries for an ax, rope, a garden line, a garden rake, hoes, spades, salt, salt petre, panes of glass, nails, 31 hinges, and chamber pots were for general use at the hospital:
to John Prentis & Co. Dr. 1773 Oct. 11 To 1 lb. thrd. 4/ 13th 7 Blankets 63/ £3 7 - 23 2-¼ yds. bays 8/5-¼ 1 pr hose 3/ 1 pr. shoes 5/6 Harvey 16.11-¼ 5 yds. stuff 11/3 1 hk. thrd. 6.11 9 1-¾ yd. Linnen 1/9 1 hk. thrd. 7-½d 2.4-½ 6 Ells do. 13/6 1 pr. shoes 13.6 1 pr. shoes 6/6 1 pr. hose 2/6 (Mallory) 9.- 26 4 yds. frize 15/ thrd. 1/3 buttons 1/3 (do.) 17 6 Nov. 5 6 yds plains 14/ 1 hk. thrd. 7-½d 14 7-½ 1 pr. shoes 5/6 1 pr. hose 2/6 Rozaro 8 - 11 2 Spades 13/ 1 axe 4/ 1 hoe 4/6 9 blankets 81/ 5.2.6 15 1 pr. shoes & 1 pr. hose (Rice) 8.6 18 7-½ yds. Shaln. 15/ 1-½ yd linn. 1/6 (Rice) 16.6 thrd. 7-½d. 1 pr.shoses 5/6 1 pr. hose 3/ (Dawson) 9 1-½ Decr. 17 6-½ Ells dowlas 15/2 thrd. 7-½d. Rice 15 9-½ 24 6 Ells do. 12/ 1-½ yd. linn. 4/ 16.6 thrd 1/3 7 yds sheeting 14/ McKenny 15.3 29 2 pr hose (Rozaro & Mallory) 4.6 1774 Jan. 19 8-½ lb. Rope 6/4-½ 1 Line [Garden Line-according to partial account of same date] 8.10-½ 21 1 bag salt 2 lb. S. petre 15.6 25 3-½ yds. linn. 7/ 1 hk. thrd. 7-½d. Rogers 7 7-½ 1 pr. shoes 5/6 2 pr. hose 3/9 9 3 Mar. 3 1 Rake [Garden rake-according to partial account of same date] 2/9 8th 12 panes glass 9/ 11 9 32 [Mar.]10 9 panes glass 7/ 7..- Ap. 19 2 blankets 18/ May 17 1 hoe 3/9 1.1 9 July 4 6 panes glass 4/6 5th 3 do. 2/3 6.9 Sep. 6 10 lb. Rope 100 Nails 9/4 9.4 14 12 yds. gray plains 36 4 hk. thrd. 2/6 Scott & Dawson 7.18 6 4 dn. buttons 3/ 3 - 15 1 pr. shoes 5/6 1 pr. hose 3/6 1-½ yd. linn. 3/6 (Harvey) 12 6 20 1 pr. shoes 5/6 1 pr. buckles 1/3 6 9 Paid for 2 pr. shoes 13/ 4 pr. hose 9/6 1.2.6 28 500 Nails 4/3 4.3 29 1 bolt 2/3 1 pr. hinges 2/3 1 pr. do. 2/6 6.9 50 Nails 4d. 250 do. 1/ 1.4 Oct. 8 30 panes Glass 1 2 6 10 1 Hoe 4/6 1 lb. thread 4 / 8 6 Card. over £28.13 9-¼ Brot. over £28.13 9-¼ Octr. 22 To 1 Spade 8.6 Novr. 2 6 Ells Dowlas 15/ 1 hk. thrd. 7-½ (McKenny) 15.7-½ 6 Ells Do. 15/ 1 hk. thrd. 7-½(Rice) 15. .7-½ 1 pr. hose 2/6 5 Chr. Pots 6/3 8.9 12 1 bag salt 12/6 Decr. 12 38 Yds. Plains 95/ 8 hks. thrd. 4/ 5 pr. hose 13/9 6.5.3 4 doz. buttons 3/9 1 lb. thrd. 6/ 9 9 37 Ells ozrs. 2.15 6 £40.12 9-¼ Decr. 20 3 lb. S. Petre 7/6 Jany. 6th 15 Ells ozr. 22/6 1.10 - 6 Blankets 54/ 8 Yds. Plains 20/ 3.14 - £45.16..9-¼
James Taylor made shoes for the hospital in November 1774: 33
The Country To James Taylor Dr. 1774 Novr. To 6 pr of shoes for the Madhouse @6/6 1.19.- To a pr. for Molley McKennie 7.6 £2.6.6
The above six pr. five for Negroes & one for Dawson
Slaves were hired from John Tazewell, a director, as this account for October 22, 1774-January 19, 1775, shows:
The Hospital to John Tazewell Dr. Oct. 22 To 1 Day's hire of Jack & Sam 0.2.6 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 5 Days 12.6 29 To 1 Day's hire of Sam 1.3 31 To Do. of Jack 1.3 Nov. 1, 2, 3, 4, 4 Days @ 2/6 10.- 5 To 1 Day's hire of Lancaster, Jack & Sam 3.9 8, 9 To 2 Day's hire of Jack & Sam 5.- 10, 11 To 2 day's hire of Sam 2.6 12, 14, 15, 16 (only half), 17, 18 5-½ Days @ 2/6 13.9 21 half of Day of Jack & Sam 1.3 22 & 23 2 Days @ 2/6 5.0 24th To hire of Sam. 1.3 25th 26th 2 days @ 2/6 5.- Decr. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 6 days @ 2/6 15.- £40.-.-
The above is a True account
January 19th 1775
One Williamsburg resident who provided wood for the Hospital was James Shield. An account dated May 23, 1774, shows "To 66 load of Wood @ 6/ £19.16..0."63
William Norvell furnished meal, peas, and flour December 11, 1773 - May 21, 1774: 34
1773 Dr. The Country in Acct. with Wm. Norvell for Necessary's furnish't the Hospital Decr. 11 To 3 bushels of Meel C 2/9 8/3 the 18th to 3 bushels do. 8/3 16.6 24 To 3 bushs. do. 8/3 the 31st to 3 bushels do. 8/3 16.6 1774 Jan. 8 To 3 bushels do. @ 2/6 7/6 the 15th 3 bushs. do. 7/6 15.- 22 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 the 29th 3-½ do. 8/9 Feby. the 5th 3-½ do. 8/9 £1.6.3 Feb. 12 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 the 19th 3-½ do. 8/9 the 26th 3-½ do. 8/9 1.6.3 Mar. 7 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 the 12th 3-½ do 8/9 the 21st 3-½ do. 8/9 1.6.3 25 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 do. 8 bushs. pease 12/ do. 2 bushs. flowr 11/ 1.11 9 Apr. 4 To 3-½ bushs. meel 8/9 the 9th 3-½ do. 8/9 the 16th 3-½ ditto 8/9 1.6.3 23 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 the 30th 3-½ do. 8/7 May 7th 3-½ do. 8/9 1.6.3 May 14 To 3-½ bushs. do. 8/9 do. 2 bushs. flour 10/ the 21st 3-½ bushs. meel 8/9 1.7.6 £11.18.6
May the 21st 1774 Errors Excepted by
James Galt's account, dated May 1775 which probably includes expenses from the opening of the hospital, totals £155.19.11-¼. The account includes general merchandise but charges for food form the largest part of the account. Items mentioned give some idea of the variety of food served to patients. Types of meat include bacon, beef, lamb, mutton, pork, shoot [shoat], and veal. Poultry includes chicken, ducks, fowl, geese, 35 and turkey. Fish and oysters are listed as are heads and plucks (probably served to the servants). Other food items are butter, eggs, chocolate, coffee, tea, vinegar, pepper, molasses, brown and white sugar, meal, flour, bread, corn, greens, potatoes, turnips, and rice. Soap, candles, tallow, wood, straw, corn shucks, and fodder are also listed. Several items refer to furnishings: tin cans, tin pans, earthen pans, wooden trays, chamberpots, close stool pans, mops, brooms, clamps for brushes, iron scrapers, seeds for the garden, a spade, a bucket for the well, rum hogsheads for salting tubs, freight on bathing tubs, making clothes (breeches, jackets, gowns), and payments for burial of patients:
The Country to James Galt Dr. To Mutton 3/9 Ditto 3/9 Beef 18/4 Brown sugar 11/3 Rice 3/9 Meal 15/ 2.15.10 To wood 15/ Veal 5/ Corn 7/6 Wht. sugar 15/ potatoes 1/3 oysters 1/3 hd. & pluck1/ 2.6.- To chickens 6/ wood 7/6 sope 3/4-½ molasses 5/ potatoes 7-½ Mutton 3/9 Meal 7/6 1.13.6 To bacon 25/ Chickens 2/3 hd. & pluck 1/ turnips 7-½ Oysters 7-½ Beef 13/6-½ 2.3 ½ To hds. & plucks 2/ eggs 1/3 Oysters 7-½ wood 6/ hd. & pluck 1/ Beef 3/ Wood 12/ 1.5.10-½ To bread 1/3 Corn 6/ potatoes 13/6 Rice 1/10-½ hd. & pluck 1/ Beef 3/4 Rice 3/9 1.10.6 To Beef 6/3 B. sugar 1/3 Meal 6/ Bn. sugar 12/6 Candles 16/ 2.2.- To Mutton 3/9 shoot 1/10-2/2 hd. & pluck 1/ Beef 13/4 Molasses 5/ sope 7-½ shoot 5/ 1.10.7 To turkey 1/10-½ Rice 1/10-½ Meal 7/ pork 37/6 hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Fish 1/10-½ 2.12.0 To turkey 4/6 turnips 7/ wht. sugar 15/7-½ oysters 1/3 Meal 7/6 Mutton 2/6 1.12.- 19.11.4 36 To Rice 1/10-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Molasses 5/ Meal 2/6 fish 1/3 Meal 9/ hd. & pluck 7-½ 1.2.1-½ To sope 1/10-½ oysters 1/3 Rice 3/9 hds. & plucks 1/3 Flower 10/ sope 1/10-½ geese 3/9 1.3.9 To oysters 1/3 Bread at sundries 25/9 Molasses 4/ Beef 5/ Butter 43/2-½ hd. & pluck 7-½ 4.-.10 To hds. & plucks 2/6 geese 3/9 molasses 5/ Candles 1/3 Bn. sugar 12/6 ducks 3/1-½ 1.8.1-½ To sope 2/3 Beef 10/2 molasses 5/ Beef 28/6-½ turkey 3/1-½ Candles 45/10-½ 4.14.11-½ To turnips 7-½ molasses 5/ shoot 2/6 greens corn 7/6 tea 10/ Molasses 5/ 1.11.3 To Rice 5/ turkey 2/ Corn 6/3 Molasses 5/ bread 7-½ Beef 9/10 fish 1-½ 1.9.8 To wht. sugar 14/1 pork 17/6 Bn. sugar 18/6 sope 1/6 fish 7-½ vinegar 5/ 2.17 2-½ To Molasses 5/ tea 5/ eggs 3/5 turkey 2/ Molasses 2/6 oysters 7-½ turkey 4/ 1.2.6-½ To Molasses 5/ potatoes 2/6 Beef 7/1-½ Meal 4/ Rice 7/9 Eggs 7/6 Beef 14/3-½ 2.8.2 21.18.8 To Molasses 5/ fish 2/6 Molasses 5/ fish 7-½ Greens 1/3 fish 2/6 Beef 4/6 1.1.4-½ To Beef 18/3 Molasses 5/ Brown sugar 21/9 wht. Ditto 12/ Molasses 5/ Butter 49/3 5.11.3 To hds. & plucks 1/10-½ veal 4/ Molasses 5/ fish 1/6 veal 3/9 Beef 18/10 ditto 23/6-½ 2.18.6 To Rice 1/10-½ pepper 1/3 oysters 1/10-½ Butter 4/4-½ Molasses 5/ Oysters 1/3 15.7-½ To hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Molasses 5/ tea 5/ Veal 6/ hds. & plucks 1/3 Veal 4/ 1.3.1-½ To Butter 2/ Rice 5/5 Molasses 5/ butter 5/ oysters 1/3 hds. & plucks 1/3 lamb 2/6 1.2.5 To hd. & pluck 7-½ Veal 6/ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ wht. sugar 11/11-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ 1.1.4 To Lamb 2/6 sope 5/7-½ hds. & plucks 1/3 Molasses 5/ Veal 2/3 oysters 1/3 Veal 3/ 1.-.10-½ To Rice 6/5-½ sope 1/ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Veal 3/ Molasses 2/6 Brown sugar 20/ 1.14.10 To Veal 5/ Beef 8/ Veal 5/ hd. & pluck 7-½ Veal 5/6 hd. & plucks 1/6 1.5.7-½ 17.14.11-½ 37 To 14-½ Gallns. of Rice 22/11 Veal 3/9 hds. & plucks 1/3 Veal 3/6 Molasses 5/ 1.16.5 To Veal 4/ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ lamb 1/10-½ Molasses 5/ Veal 5/ -.17.9 To hds. & plucks 1/3 Ditto 1/10-½ Ditto 7-½ Veal 1/10-½ Bn. sugar 21/3 1.6.10-½ To Molasses 5/ Veal 5/ hds. & plucks 7-½ lamb 2/6 fish 7-½ sope 1/3 Beef 3/4 0.18.4 To hds. & plucks 1/10-½ do. 1/10-½ Veal 5/ Butter 3/ sope 5/ shoot 5/ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Veal 2/6 1.6.1-½ To shoot 3/6 Chickens 4/7 fish 7-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Mutton 3/ Molasses 5/ -.18.7 To salt fish 17/6 Molasses 5/ bread 1/3 Veal 3/ hds. & plucks 2/6 1.9.3 To hds. & plucks 3/9 chickens 4/ pepper 1/3 lamb 2/6 shoot 2/ -.13.6 To hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Chocolate 2/6 Molasses 5/ Veal 5/ hds. & plucks 2/6 -.16.10-½ To shoot 2/6 chickens 2/1 Mutton 2/6 hds. &plucks 1/10-½ fish ? Eggs 1/3 -.11.5-½ To Beef 6/6 wht. sugar 12/ Molasses 5/ Mutton 2/6 1.6.- 12.1.2 71 6 1-½ To the amount of the Account brought over £71..6..1-½ To Veal 3/ hd. & pluck 1/10-½ Beef 4/4-½ Butter 4/ hd. & pluck 1/10-½ fish 7-½ Beef 4/1-½ -.19.10-½ To lamb 2/3 Beef 3/6 Eggs 1/3 hds. & plucks 1/1(,y Coffee 3/9 Beef 2/6 Molasses 3/ 1.-.1-½ To Beef 5/3 ditto 3/4 Chickens 9/2 Beef 5/1-½ ditto 6/8 Molasses 5/ Bn. sugar 18/ 2.12.6-½ To fish 1/10-½ Beef 23/9 hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Beef 8/ Mutton 3/9 Molasses 5/ 2.4.3 To Beef 12/8 Mutton 3/5 Molasses 5/ Beef 4/3-½ Beef 6/ shoot 1/10-½ 1.13.3 To Butter 6/8 Mutton 1/6 Beef 1? Rice 2/9 Coffee 7/6 oysters 1/10-½ 1.11.11-½ To Beef 8/1-½ 1 shoot 12/ Oysters 1/3 Butter 11¼ Molasses 5/ Beef 5/2-½ 7.2.11 To hd. & pluck 7-½ Oysters 1/3 hds. & plucks 1/3 shoot 1/10-½ Molasses 5/ hd. & pluck 7-½ -.10.7-½ To oysters 1/3 Beef 13/4 hd. & pluck 7-½ shoot 2/6 molasses 5/ Mutton 3/ 1.5.8-½ 90.7.4-½ 38 To Beef 6/ Meal 2/6 Beef 11/5 hds. & plucks 1/3 Oysters 1/10-½ Beef 16/5-½ 1.19.6 To hds. & plucks 3/10-½ Molasses 5/ 11 lb. Tallow 5/6 Sope 1/3 Porke 53/9 3.9.4-½ To Beef 6/6 Molasses 5/ Bn. sugar 3/3 hd. & pluck 7-½ Beef 1? Molasses 5/ 1.12.0-½ To fish 1/10-½ Chickens 4/ Beef 7/3 Bn. sugar 2/6 fish 1/3 Molasses 5/ 1.1.10-½ To Mutton 2/6 hds. & plucks 2/6 Ditto 1/3 Goose 1/10-½ Molasses 5/ 13.1-½ To bn. sugar 1/10-½ Eggs 2/6 Beef 19/0-½ sope 1/3 wht. sugar 16/2-½ goose 1/10-½ 2.2.9 To Beef 7/6 Ditto 29/2 turkey 3/6 mutton 2/3 molasses 5/ bn. sugar 2/6 2.9.11 To oysters 1/3 molasses 5/ Veal 1/6 turkey 2/6 Beef 16/8 Molasses 5/ 1.11.11 To oysters 1/3 bn. sugar 1/10-½ shoot 5/ Beef 17/8-½ fish 5/10 Eggs 3/9 1.15.5 To Beef 10/8 Geese 3/9 Molasses 5/ bn. sugar 2/6 oysters 1/3 pepper 2/6 1.5.8 To Candles 52/3 Vinegar 6/ Coffee 5/ 42 Gallns. Rice at ? p Galln. 70/ 6.13.3 24.18.10 To 5 close stool pans 50/ 10 tin pans 15/ 11 ditto Cans 5/9 3.10.9 To 5 Earthen pans 3/1-½ wooding trays 3/1-½ mops & Brooms 10/6 16.9 To meng. close stools pans 7/ seed for garden 23/9-½ load straw 20/ 2.10.9-½ To 2 Close stool pans 18/ 1 spade 6/ tin cans 1/3 load straw 20/ 2.5.3 To Cash pd. for Burial of Mary Roxis 2/6 Carting porke from Landing 6.3 To Cash pd. for making 2 Gowns for Harvey & Rice 8.- To Ditto for makeing Jacket & Breeches for Malory 7.6 To 2 Iron scrapers 12/6 Pd. for Burial of Malory 2/6 15.- To 7 tin Cans 4/4-½ Chamberpots 5/ seeds 3/1-½ load straw 20/ 1.12.6 To Cash Pd. for makeing Jacket & Breeches for Dawson & Scott 15.- To Bucket for well 3/9 load straw 20/ seeds 4/ load straw 20/ 2.7.9 39 To Cash Pd. for Burial of John Ealey 2/6 Rum hhds. for salting tubs 7/6 10.- To sope 6/3 bn. sugar 3/9 Coffee 7/6 Beef 5/10 1.1.4 17.6.19-½ To 100 lb. brown sugar 42/6 oysters 1/3 beff 10/ Tin pans 10/ Molasses 2/6 3.6.3 To Eggs 2/3 oysters 1/10-½ 4 Qrs. Mutton 7/3 Molasses 2/6 oysters l/3 0.15.1-½ To shoot 2/6 fowls 4/ oysters 1/3 Eggs 1/3 Beef 12/6 oysters 11-¼d. 1.2.5-¼ To molasses 2/6 Beef 9/1-½ Molasses 2/6 fish 7-½ Beef 10/10 Molasses 2/6 1.8.1 To oysters 7-½ Ditto 11-3/4d. Ditto 1/3 Beef 9/10-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Beef 4/6 0.19.0-¾ To oysters 11-¼d. fish 7-½ Beef 11/6 shoot 2/6 Molasses 2/6 Oysters 1/3 0.19.3-¾ To shoot 1/10-½ Beef 13/1-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Veal 5/ Molasses 2/6 fish 1/3 1.5.7-½ 9.15.10-¾ 142..4.11-¾ To the amount brought forward £142.4.11-¾ To shoot 3/6 Eggs 2/6 butter 59/4-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ Molasses 2/6 Veal 4/ 3.13.9. To fish 1/10-½ hds. & plucks 1/10-½ fish 1/6 oysters 1/3 sope 3/9 oysters 1/3 0.11.6 To oysters 7-½ Beef 7/7-½ molasses 2/6 sope 1/3 Coffee 7/6 oysters 1/3 1.0.9 To veal 4/ Beef 13/2-½ sope 1/3 shoot 2/6 Molasses 2/6 Wht. sugar 15/ 1.18.5-½ To shoot 2/6 oysters 7-½ veal 4/6 chickens 3/ oysters 1/3 ditto 1/3 veal 5/ 0.18.1-½ To hd. & pluck 1/10-½ molasses 5/ veal 6/ chickens 2/6 veal 5/ 1.-.4-½ To fish 3/ 4 Clamps for Brushes 5/ 2 loads of straw 40/ fodder 11/6 2.19.6 To Cash Pd. fraight for batheing tubs from Richmond 5/ 0.5.- To Corn 20/-Corn shucks 7/6 1.7.6 £155.19.11-¼ By Cash at sundrys 150.0.0
James Galt accot.
agt. Public Hospital
Though the directors appointed Dr. John de Sequeyra, the physician, an account of John Minson Galt dated October 20, 1773-January 10, 1775, shows that Galt also treated patients at the hospital:
The Country Dr. For the Lunatic Hospital
1773 To John Minson Galt Octo. 20th. To 10 Doses Pills Mallory 2/6. 12 Doseses Do. Harvey 3/ 5.6 29 To 2 Camphor Boluses Harvey 1/. 31st. 2 Do. Do. 1/. Nov. 1st. Do. 1/. 3.- Nov. 6 To Purge Rosario 1/6. 7th-2 Boluses Harvey 1/. 2.6 8 To 4 Boluses Harvey 2/. Decoction Rosario 2/6. 10th. 4 Boluses Harv. 2/. 6.6 11 To Purge Harvey 1/6. 12th. Purge & Decoction Rosario 4/. 4 Boluses Harv. 2/. 7.6 17 To Purge & Decoction Rice 4/. Do. Harvey 4/. Decoction & 2 Boluss. Rosar. 3/6 11.6 Decoction Mallory 2/6. Purge 1/6. 2 Boluses 1/ Dawson 5.- 18 To 2 Boluses Rosario 1/. 19th. Do. 3/. 23d. Decoction Mallory & Rosar. 7/6 11.6 25 To Purge Mallory 1/6. Do. Dawson 1/6. 27th. Decoction Rice 2/6 5.6 27 To Decoction Harvey 2/6. Do. Rosario 2/6. Purge Do. 1/6 6.6 Decr. 1 To 3 Purges 3/. 2d Decoction Rice 2/6. Do. Mallory 2/6 8.- 2 To 6 Boluses 3/. Dawson. Do. Mallory 3/. Do. Rosario 3/ 9.- 41 [Decr.] 6 To Decoction Rosario 2/6. 9th. Purge Dawson 1/6. Do. Mallory 1/6. Do. Harvey 1/6 7.- To Do. Rice 1/6. Do. Rosario 1/6 3.- 10 To Decoction & Boluses Mallory 6/6. Do. Dawson 6/6. Tincture Ros: 1/6 14.6 17 To Purge Mallory 1/6. Do. Dawson 1/6. Do. Rosario 1/6 4.6 22 To Do. MacKenny 1/6. Do.Rosario 1/6. Do. Dawson 1/6 4.6 23 To Decoction Dawson 2/6. Do. Rice 2/6. Bol Mallory 4/0 9.- 31 To Purge Mallory 1/6. Do. Rice 1/6. Do. McKenny 1/6 4.6 1774 Jany. 12 To Purge Harvey 1/6. Do. Dawson 1/6. 15th. Decoctn. Rice 2/6. Do. Dawn. 2/6. Tinctr. 1/ 9.- 18 To Purge Rice 1/6. Do. Dawn. 1/6. 26th. Purge Rogers 1/6. Do. McKenny 1/6. Do. Har. 1/6 7.6 28 To Decoction repeated Mallory 2/6. Do. Rice 2/6. Do. McKenny 2/6 7.6 Feb. 8 To Do. Rogers 2/6. 9th. Do. Maly. 2/6. 21st. Do. Rice, Rogers, Rosario, McKeny. Maly. 12/6 17.6 21 To 8 Boluses Rosario 4/. Do. Rogers 4/. 8.- Mar. 10 To Decoction repeated Rice Rogers Mackenny Rosario. 10/ 10.- 31 To Purge Dawsn. 1/6. Do. Mallory 1/6. Do. Rice 1/6. Do. McKy. 1/6. Do. Rosario 1/6 7.6 April 6 To 12 Doses Powders Dawson 3/. Do. McKenny 3/. 13th. Do. Daws. 3/. Do. McKy. 3/. Purges Do. 3/. 15._ 16 To Decoction Mallory 2/6. Do. Rice 2/6 5.- 19 To Blister Rosario 2/6. Purge Do. 1/6. Purge Rice 1/6 Do. Dawson 1/6 7.- To Purge McKenny 1/6. Do. Charity 1/6 3.- 21 To Decoction Charity 2/6. Do. Rosario 2/6. 16 Doses Powder Dawson 2/8 7.8 27 To 12 Doses Pills Rice 3/. Do. Mackenny 3/. Do. Charity 3/. Purge Harvey 1/6 10.6 42 [April 27] To 12 Doses Do. Mallory 3/. Do. & Purge Dawson 4/6 7.6 May 3d To Purge Armstrong 1/6. 4th. 12 Doses Anodyne Pills Mallory 3/. 4.6 To Purge Rice 1/6. Do. Harvey 1/6. Do, Armstrong 1/6 4.6 13.0.8 1774 Bro. Over 13.0.8 May 5 To Decoction Harvey 2/6. 12th. Purge Charity 1/6. Laudanum McKy. 1/ 5.- 18 To 10 Doses Pills Rice 2/6. Do. Charity 2/6. Do. McKenny 2/6. 7.6 To Do. Armstrong 2/6. Do. Philips 2/6. Do. Dawson 2/6. 7.6 19 To mixture Mallory 3/6. Purge Harvey 1/6-21st Lead water Mallory 2/6 7.6 22 To Fetid drops Charity 1/6. 25th Five Purges 7/6. 9.- June 11 To Purges & Decoction. 9/6. 23d Tincture Melampodie &c 7/ 16.6 30 To Purges McKy 1/6 July 6th. To Purge Scott 1/6. 8th. Ten Doses Pills each15/ 18. July 22 To Do. &c Philips. 3/. 25th. Lead Water & Do. 3/6 6.6 27 To Lead Water Philips 2/6. Augst. 18th. Balsam Capivi &c 3/9 6.3 Sept. 2 To a Purge & Eight Doses Pills Rice, McKy. Charity Armstg Philips Dawn. & Scot. 1.4.6 3 To two Vomits 3/. 16th. Pills & Purge Bond 4/. 2 Purges Philips 3/. Do. McKy. 3/ 13.- Octo. 19 To 7 Purges 10/6. 27th. Pills Mrs Bond 3/. 7 Purges 10/6 1.4. Nov. 27 To 7 Vomits 10/6. Decr. 17th. Lead Water & Spt. Turpentine Ely 3/. 13.6 1775 Jany 10 To 8 Purges 12/. 21st. 8 Vomits 12/ Mar. 7th 8 Purges 12/. 20th 8 Vomits 12/. 2.8.- £23.7.5
The £25 worth of whiskey purchased from Nathaniel Burwell of Carter's Grove on August 30, 1777, was probably used for medicinal purposes.67
Several accounts refer to repairs at the hospital during its first years of operation. In 1775 and 1776 Benjamin Powell made coffins and repaired windows and paling:
1775 Dr. The Commonwealth of Virginia To Benjamin Powell (for the Hospital) Febry. 2d To 1 Coffin 15/ July 5th To a Do. 15/ £1.10 1776 Apl. 15 To Putting up Paling at the Hospital 15.- To 210 20d. Nails for Do. @ 2/6 10.4-½ To Planking up a Window 3.9 To Putting 69 Dead [lights] in Windows at 6d. 1.14.6 Novr. 7 To 3 Coffins for Lunaticks @ 15/ 2.5.- To Planking up Window in Madhouse 3.9 £7 2 4-½
July 11(77) The above is Just J. Galt68
An account for repairs by Humphrey Harwood is dated June 24-October 16, 1776:
This account has the first mention of a kitchen. The floor, hearth, back [of fireplace], and chimney in the kitchen were repaired. The location of this kitchen is unknown. The plat of the first insurance policy (1821) on the hospital locates the kitchen southwest of the hospital building.
The Commonwealth of Virginia for the publick Hospital
To Humphy. Harwood Dr. 1776 June 24 To 1100 brick 30/3 3 bushs. of lime 2/3 & 3 days labr. @ 2/ £1.18 6 To laying part to kitching floor & layg. harth & mendg. back 27/6 1.7.6 To Mending plastering 2/6 & whitewash 4 Rooms & 2 passages @ 3/9 1.5.- October 16 To 400 bricks 11/ 8 bushels of lime 6/ & 1-½ days labr. C 2/ 1.-.- 44 [Oct. 16] To Mending Kitching Chimney 5/ 5.- £5.16.-
Accounts in Humphrey Harwood's Ledger B* show repairs (brick work, mending chimneys, whitewashing and building an oven) made at the hospital in 1778 and 1779:
The oven Harwood built in July 1779 was probably the one ordered by the directors at their meeting on August 3, 1778: "Ordered that the keeper of the hospital employ a person to build an oven."71
The Commonwealth of Virginia Dr. … 1778 July 7 To 170 bricks 9/6, & 4 Bushs. of lime 6/ 15.6 To Altering A Chimney 12/ & 1 Days labour 6/ 18.- To Whitewashing 3 Rooms & 2 passages a 9/ (for Mad House) 2.5.- 1779 March 31 To 400 bricks a 16/6 6 Bushs. of lime a 4/6 & mendg. Kitchg. Chimy 30/ & 1 dy. labr. 12/ (Mad House) 6.15. July 16 To 1950 bricks a £11.0.0, & 33 bushs. of lime at 6/, & 4 Days labour a 18/ 34.19. To Building an oven £9.0.0 at the Madd House 9.-.- 45 The Commonwealth of Virginia Dr. … 1779 Decemr. 13 To Whitewashing 2 Rooms in MadHouse 120/ £6.-.-
On June 20, 1775, the petition of James Galt for salaries for himself as keeper and his wife Mary as matron of the hospital was agreed to by the House of Burgesses and amended - the keeper to receive £100 and the matron £25:
Resolved, that the sum of one hundred Pounds, per Annum, be paid to James Galt, for his Salary, as Keeper, and that the further sum of twenty five Pounds, per Annum, be paid to him, for the services of his Wife, as Matron, of the public Hospital.72The next day the Council agreed "to the Resolve, for paying the Salaries to the Keeper and Matron of the public Hospital."73
In October 1776 the act providing for the support and maintenance of lunatics was continued:
An act for farther continuing the act intituled An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of Ideots, Lunaticks, and other persons of unsound minds.
I. WHEREAS the act of assembly made in the year 1769, intituled An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and other persons of unsound minds, will expire at the end of the present session of assembly, and it is necessary that the same should be farther continued:
II. Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly of the commonwealth of Virginia, and it is hereby enacted the authority of the same, That the said act shall cantinue and be in force from and after the end of this present session of assembly for and during the term of one year, and from thence to the end of the next session of assembly.74
On May 31, 1777, the New York bookseller Ebenezer Hazard visited Williamsburg and described the principal buildings:
...The Principal Buildings are the College, the MadHouse, the Palace & the Capitol, all of Brick....
The Mad-House is a three Story Building, but as I did not choose to have my Humanity shocked by a sight of its wretched Inhabitants, I did not go into it.75
To meet the need of clothing for the patients the directors on August 3, 1778,
Ordered that the keeper of the hospital apply to the Governor and Council for an order to furnish the patients confined in the hospital with necessary cloathing, out of the public store.76The Governor complied and September 3, 1778-March 22, 1780, the hospital obtained supplies from the Public Store* in Williamsburg:
Williamsburg Sepbr. 3d 1778
p. order Governour
To 211 Yards Linnen @ 3/
1 Bundle Thread 10/
67-½ Yards Brown Linen @ 3/9
2 lb. Brown Thread 7/6
for Shirts Shifts Beads &c for the Lunatics
Recd. by James Galt
the above at the Soldiers prices
[p. 79] Williamsburg, November 24th 1778
Mad House pr. Ord. Governor Dr To Blankets for 2 @ 73/ 7.6.0
Pr. James Galt
Williamsburg, January 4th 1779
Mad House pr. ord. Governor Dr.
To 74 Yds. plains C 10/6 16 pr hose C15/ 50.17.- " 20 Yds. Oznabrigs @ 4/ 21 pr. of hose @ 2 5/ 30.5.- " 1 lb. thread 15/ 6 dble. doz. buttons C 6/ 2.11.- " 14 Yds. Shalloon C 10/9 7.10.6 91.3.6
Williamsburg, February 22nd 1779
Mad House, pr. ord. Govr. Dr. To 10 Gallons Molasses @ 3/ 1.10.-
Williamsburg, November 5th 1779
Mad House pr. Ord. Executive Dr.
To Sundries deld. Mr. James Galt for Clothing the Lunaticks
vizt. 16 pair Shoes @ £8 128 - - 100 Yds. planes C 20/ 100 - - 19 pair hose @ 15/ 14 5 - 1 lb. Thread 18 - 15 doz. Vest buttons @ 2/ 1.10 - 7 doz. Coat do, C 4/ 1 8 - 6 pr. Shoes of M. A. @ £6 36 -. - £238.1.-
Williamsburg, 22nd March 1780
Mad House form. Ord. Executive Dr. For 55 Yds Coarse Cloth @ 20/ 55.-.- 1 lb. Thread 12.6 £55.12.6
p. Jas. Galt77
The act of assembly vesting authority for operating the hospital to the directors expired in May 1778. The journals of the House of Delegates for October 30, 1778, state that
A memorial of the late members of the court of directors of the hospital for the reception of idiots, lunatics, and persons of insane and disordered minds, was presented to the House, and read; setting forth, that the last act of Assembly which continued their powers, expired with the May session in this present year; that the necessity of the case induced them to act, notwithstanding; that they propose to lay their proceedings before the Assembly for their approbation, and that the provision made for the support of the patients is very inadequate thereto.78
In December 1778 the General Assembly passed an act which increased the annual allowance for each patient to £50:
An act to revive and amend an act intituled an act to make provision for the support and maintenance of Ideots, Lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds.
I. WHEREAS the act of assembly intituled "An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and other persons of unsound minds," hath lately expired, and itisnecessary that the same should be revived and amended, Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That the said recited act shall be, and the same is hereby revived, and shall continue and be in force, from and after the passing of this act, for and during the term of one year, and from 50 thence to the end of the next session of assembly.
II. Provided always, and it is hereby enacted, That a farther sum of twenty five pounds shall be allowed and paid for the maintenance and support of each person in the publick hospital.
III. And whereas the court of directors (notwithstanding the expiration of the said act) judged it expedient and proper to proceed on the business of the hospital, trusting that the same would be approved and confirmed by the general assembly, Be it therefore enacted, That all orders and rules by them made, since the expiration of the said act are hereby confirmed, and shall be as valid and effectual, to all intents and purposes, as if the said act had not expired.79
On November 21, 1778, the House of Delegates received a memorial from Doctor John de Sequeyra requesting compensation as physician to the hospital:
On December 15 the Committee of Public Claims reported to the House of Delegates:
To the honble. the Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Delegates.
The Memorial of Doctor John De Sequara humbly represents, that your Memorialist has, from the first Establishment of the Hospital for the Care of Lunatics, Idiots, & Persons of insane Mind, acted as Physician to the said Hospital, in which Office he has faithfully discharged his duty, and for which he has never received any Compensation: he therefore submits his Case to the Consideration of your honble House, & trusts you will make him such an Allowance, as you may think his Services may have deserved.80
The committee have, also had under their consideration the petition of Doctor John de Sequara, to them referred; and it appears to your committee, from the testimony of James Galt, keeper of the public hospital, that the said Doctor John de Sequara, hath attended the said hospital as physician once a week, and sometimes oftener, 51 for the first two years after the hospital was established, and since that time he has not made more than five visits, except at the meeting of the Court of Directors, but was always ready to give his advice when called on by the deponent, for that purpose.
Whereupon your committee came to the following resolution:
4. Resolved, that it is the opinion to this committee, That the petition of the said Doctor de Sequare, is reasonable; and that he ought to be allowed for his services the sum of 150£.81
James Galt,* petitioned the House of Delegates for an increase in salary on October 27, 1778:
The Committee of Public Claims reported to the House of Delegates on November 20 that the petition of James Galt for an increase in salary was reasonable. They resolved to increase his salary by £100 per annum and to give the matron an additional £25 per annum. This resolution was ultimately rejected by the Senate.83 After the session of the General Assembly closed, James Galt submitted his resignation as keeper but the directors persuaded him to continue 52 by agreeing to present another memorial. Their memorial was presented to the House of Delegates on June 5, 1779:
To the honble the Speaker and Gents. of the house of Delegates
The petition of James Galt humbly sheweth
That your petitioner was appointed keeper of the hospital in the year 1773 that since that time there have been thirteen of the patients discharged who by his great care have recovered their senses. That the salary which was sufficient at the time it was settled is now from the great price to which every necessary of life has risen quite inadequate to the purpose it was designed.
He therefore prays that your honble house would make him such further allowance as shall seem reasonable and he as in duty bound shall ever pray.82
On June 16, 1779, the Senate reported that they agreed to the resolution augmenting the salaries.of the keeper and matron of the hospital.85
To the Honourable, The Speaker And Gentlemen of the House of Delegates:
The Memorial of the Court of Directors of the Hospital for Lunatics, Idiots, & other Persons of unsound Mind, Humbly sheweth that soon after the last Session of the late General Assembly Mr. James Galt proposed to your Memorialists a Resignation of his Office of Keeper of the said Hospital, which they were of opinion might impede in some Degree the charitable Purpose of that Institution, not only from the Loss of an officer who has ever given them Reason to be Satisfied with his Conduct, but from the Difficulty, as your Memorialists apprehended, of procuring a Successor on Account of the Lowness of the Salary. This being Mr. Galt's Motive for resigning, your Memorialists prevailed with him to continue his Services, by engaging to represent his Case to the General Assembly; and to this they beg Leave to subjoin, that the Salary given to the Matron of the Hospital is so inconsiderable as to occasion a Vacancy in that Office, which they fear is not likely to be supplied, without some better Provision for a Successor.
Your Memorialists conceived it to be their Duty to make this Representation, & humbly submit the same to the Consideration of the General Assembly
hospital Memorial refd. to Trade84
June 5th: 79
adm alld £200 to Mr. G
adm alld £100 to Matron
At its 1779 session the General Assembly passed an act providing support and maintenace of lunatics until the next session. This act allowed for an additional fifty pounds (making one hundred 53 pounds total) for the annual support of each patient at the hospital:
An act for continuing an act entitled An act to revive and amend an act entitled An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds.
I. WHEREAS the act of assembly, passed in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy eight, entitled "An act to revive and amend an act entitled An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds," will expire at the end of this present session of assembly, and it is necessary the same should be continued, Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That the act entitled "An act to revive and amend an act entitled An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds," shall continue and be in force, from and after the expiration thereof, for and during the term of one year, and from thence to the end of the next session of assembly,
II. And be it farther enacted, That the farther sum of fifty pounds shall be allowed and paid for the maintenance and support of each person in the publick hospital.86
Another act passed by the General Assembly in December 1778 affected the hospital. According to "An act for establishing a board of Auditors for publick accounts," the board of auditors were
to call for annually, and to examine the accounts of expenditures for the publick trade, the publick hospital, and for all works undertaken and carried on the publick expense by authority from the legislature, and to enter the same in separate accounts; …
III. And it is further enacted, That it shall not be lawful for the treasurer to pay or receive any money on account of the publick but on warrant or certificate from the board of auditors, . . .87
Accounts of the auditors 1779-1780 record warrants paid out for the hospital: 54
[p. 41] August 25, 1779 … Hospital for Lunatics to G.W.T. Dr. Warrant to Humpy. Harwood for work done for the Mad House p. Cert. £ 54.12 6 [p. 150] October 30, 1779 … Hospital for Lunaticks Dr. to James Galt To Amount of his acct. 600.6.6 … [p. 151] James Galt Dr. to G.W.T. Warrant for Bal. of his Acct. 400.6.6 … [p. 177] November 15, 1779 James Galt Dr. Warrt. on Acct. to purchase necessaries for the Use of the Hospital p. Cert. from the Directors 600.-.- … [p. 182] November 18, 1779 Hospital for Lunaticks Dr. Warrt. to Jno. Nivison for his pay as Clk p. Cert. from the Court of Directors 22.10. Do. Wart. to Rachl. Bruce Admr. Jacob Bruce for do. p. do. 65.-.- … [p. 221] 14 December 1779 Hospital for Lunaticks Wart. to Doctr. John Sequeyra for visits & attendance for 1 Year ending the 17 Dec. 1779 by Resolution of Assembly passed 2nd November, 1779 250.-.- … [p. 282] 29 January 1780 Hospital for Idiots &c Dr. to Jas. Galt For Amt. of his Accot. as Settled by the Directors to the 24th Inst. 1272.5.- James Galt Dr. to G.B.T. Wart. for Bal. of his Accot. 672.5.- James Galt Dr. to G.B.T. Wart. on Accot. 4327.15.-
A state of disbursements drawn up by a committee of the directors lists expenses of the hospital through November 15, 1779. 55 The committee submitted this report at a meeting of the directors on January 27, 1780:
This report showing the high rates of inflation in 1779 explains why petitions continued to be sent.
The Committee appointed at a late Meeting, to draw up a State of the Disbursements of the Hospital made their Report which was ordered to be recorded and is as follows.
Dr. The Public Hospital in Williamsburg
£ 8 lotts of Land 112.-.- To Cash pd. for imported Materials 188.13 3 To Cash pd. for Jacob Bruce Clk. 105.-.- To Cash pd. for John Nivison D. Clk. 22.10 To Cash pd. for Benja. Powell Acct. 953.6.1-¼ 1381.9.4-¼
1778 May 27 To amount of Disbursements from Sepr. 1773 to this date including Keepers Salary as p. Acct. settled 1642.5.6 Augt. 3 To Ditto Ditto 107.-.4 1779 April 15 To Do. Do. 1047.14.3 July 1 To Ditto Ditto 222.11.- Octr. 30 To Ditto Ditto 600.6.6 Novr. 15 To Do. Do. 467.4 - To Cash pd. at different Times for bringing Patients to the Hospital 447.19.10-½ To Balance in the Keepers Hands to purchase necessary provisions &c. 132.16..0 £6049..6..9-¾ Cr. 1779. Novr. 15 By Cash recd. from the Treasury at different periods £6049.6.9-¾
On October 6, 1779, Dr. John de Sequeyra petitioned the House of Delegates: 56
The Senate agreed to the resolution to pay Sequera £250 on November 3, 1779.91
To the honble the Speaker & Gentn of the House of Delegates
The Petition of Doctor John de Sequary humbly sheweth, that your Petitioner hath for one Year attended as a Physician the Hospital for the Maintainence of Lunatics, Idiots & Persons of insane Mind, for which he hath had no Compensation made him He therefore prays that you will take his Case into Consideration, & grant him such Allowance for his Services as you shall think proper, & he as in duty bound will ever pray.90
The directors' request for further financial support of the hospital was presented in the House of Delegates on November 16, 1779:
To the Hon: the Speaker & Gentlemen of the General assembly. The memorial of the Court of Directors of the Hospital for the reception of Ideots Lunatics, and Persons of insane and disordered Minds Showeth that during the time they have acted as Members of this Court they have in frequent instances seen the good effects of this laudable Institution, in the enlargement of many objects who have recovered from their Insanity, and been restored to the Society of their Friends
Your Memorialists, aware of the present depreciated State of the Currency can only hope for an augmentation to the Sum hitherto voted by the assembly, from the happy consequences, of this useful Establishment.
It is with much Concern however, that your Memorialists are impelled from the present State of the Hospital, to inform the General assembly, that the prices of every necessary of Life are so considerably enhanced, that the Provision hitherto made for the unhappy objects confined in the Hospital is now totally inadequate, the further interposition of the Legislature therefore, has become absolutely necessary for its future Support.57
Directors of Lunatick Hospital,92
their Memorial Novr: 16th: 1779.
Refd: to propositions
By the following year when the directors sent a memorial to the House of Delegates, the capitol had moved to Richmond. The wording of their memorial dated June 28, 1780, is desperate-threatening the closing of the hospital as inflation had caused prices to rise "forty, fifty & sixty" times. They also requested the right to draw clothing and other necessaries from the Public Store:
To the Honble The Speaker, & Gentlemen of the House of Delegates.
The Memorial of the Court of Directors of the Hospital for the Reception of Ideots, Lunatics, & Persons of insane & disordered Minds, Humbly sheweth, That the Allowance made at the last Session of Assembly for the Support of those unhappy People is far inadequate to the Occasion. It gives your Memorialists real Concern, at a Time when the Expenses of Government thro all the Departments, have risen to so alarming a Height, to make any Application of this Nature, but seeing only a Choice of Difficulties--either for the General Assembly to suspend the charitable Institution, or allow what may be sufficient for its 'Continuance, they hold themselves indispensibly bound to lay the Matter before the Assembly, for such Resolution thereupon as they may judge proper. Your Memorialists farther beg Leave to observe, that the Allowance last made not only is insufficient at present but was greatly so even at the Time it was made, being only four Times as much as was judged proper before the great Rise in the Price of Commodities commenced, which were got up at that Time to forty, fifty, & sixty for one--those imported much higher. Yet however inadequate-the making an Addition to the former Allowance evinced, 58 as your Memorialists conceived, an Intention in the Legislature to continue the Hospital at all Events; and in that View, they have ventured greatly to exceed the Limits prescribed them; which was unavoidable unless they had taken upon them to discontinue an Institution established by the General Assembly. Enormous as the Price of Things is, it is impossible to foresee how much higher still may be future Advances which has always been too capricious to be subject to Calculation; so that with Regard to what may be sufficient to defray the future Expenses, your Memorialists can offer Nothing tending to elucidate that Matter, and can only bespeak the Consideration of the Honble. Houses of Assembly, how very disagreeable must be their Situation--to lie under a constant Necessity of expending considerable Sums of the Public Money without any Authority, & even contrary to the declared Sense of the Legislature. They hope, therefore, they may be excused for saying, that unless they can be put on a different Footing, they would wish to disburthen themselves of an Office, which throws upon them the Care of miserable Objects, without the Means of their Relief. Indeed, when they consider the very great Inconvenience which will unavoidably attend the Hospital in Williamsburg now that the Public Treasury and the Board of Auditors are removed to Richmond, they cannot but be of Opinion, that if the General Assembly should determine to keep up the Design, there will be found a Necessity of providing a Hospital at the Seat of Government; as it could have only been upon that Principle, that the Hospital was erected at Williamsburg, so remote from the Centre of the Country. All which is most respectfully submitted to the Consideration of the General Assembly.
Thos. Nelson President of
the Court of Directors
That the Directors of the Hospital for the reception of Lunatics have power to draw from the public Stores such clothing and other necessaries as may be wanted for the use of the disordered people in the Hospital and to draw upon the Auditors from time to time for so much money as may be necessary for defraying the expences of the said Hospital rendering half yearly accounts to the Auditors of their expenditures therein.
Directors of Lunatic hospital,93
their Memorial June 28th: 1780
referred to propositions
Dr. Sequera again petitioned the General Assembly on November 10, 1780:
To the Honble the Speaker and Gentlemen of the General Assembly for Virginia The Petition of John De Sequera Humbly sheweth that your Petitioner hath attended the Hospital for Idiots Lunaticks and persons of unsound Minds for one Year ending the 17th of December 1780. That he was at the October Session of Assembly 1779 allowed by the Assembly for his Salary £250 and as the Year is now about to expire he prays that your Honble Body will take his case into consideration and make him such an Allowance for the present Year as may be reasonable & just. & he shall every pray &c.
Dr: Sequeyra's petn. Novr: 10th: 1780.94
refd: to Trade
Novr. 14th 1780 Reasonable
Allowed £600 for prest. Year
In June 1781 the General Assembly continued the act providing for the support and maintenance of lunatics:
An act for farther continuing an act entitled an act to revive and amend an act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds.
I. WHEREAS the act of assembly passed in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy eight, entitled, "An act to revive and amend an act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds," will expire at the end of this present session of assembly, and it is necessary that the same should be farther continued: Be it therefore enacted the General Assembly, That the act entitled "An act to revive and amend an act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunaticks, and persons of unsound minds," shall continue and be inforce from and after the expiration thereof, for and during the term of one year, and from thence to the end of the next session of assembly, and no longer.95
In July 1781 John Blair, Nathaniel Burwell, John de Sequeyra, James Madison, and Joseph Prentis (members of the 60 Court of Directors) wrote to Gov. Nelson concerning conditions at the hospital which grew worse following the arrival of British troops in Williamsburg:
Two months later, on September 6, 1781, Gov. Thomas Nelson, Jr., signed a warrant drawn on the Treasurer for ten thousand pounds for the Court of Directors but the high rate of inflation considerably lessened the buying power of this sum.97
We think it a Duty incumbent upon us, to lay before you the present state of the Hospital for Lunatics--It is destitute of every necessary for its support--The unhappy objects which are now here, have been without cloathes for some time past--they are now also without Provisions--The Keeper, previous to the Arrival of the British Army at this Place, obtained Provisions from the Commissaries by means of an order from Gov'r Jefferson for that Purpose--But at present .there is no such officer here, & therefore that Resource is at an end--We submit this state to your Excellency, because we doubt not, if it be possible, that you will make such Provision for the unhappy sufferers as is absolutely requisite, by supplying them with proper cloathing & by enabling the Keeper to draw Provisions from such Commissaries as may be appointed at this Place, or at any Place convenient to it.
We have enclosed a List [missing] of the Persons now in the Hospital & have added the Counties from whence they were sent, in Hopes that your Excellency will order the means of returning them to their respective Counties provided no method can be adopted for their support.
We are Sir,96
Your most obet Servants.
A letter from John Blair of the Court of Directors to Governor Benjamin Harrison dated January 4, 1782, indicates that patients were still at the hospital but that circumstances were critical: 61
Williamsburg, Jany. 4th 1782.
The Situation of the unhappy People at present in the Hospital for Lunatics occasioned Yesterday an Attempt to hold a Court, for the Purpose of consulting their Relief; but from the Absence of some of the Directors, only five were convened, which by the Constitution of the Court is an insufficient Number for doing Business. But from the Urgency of the Occasion, it was the Sense of the Members, who attended, that I should represent to your Excellency, that those distressed objects are unprovided with any Necessary; no Cloathing, no Food, nor any Credit for obtaining these. By Direction of the Executive the Commissary (then here) was formerly ordered to supply them with Rations; but there being now no Officer of that Kind at this Place, the Order has become ineffectual. Mr. Galt, the Keeper, complains of his being greatly in Advance, & has taken away the Negroes he used to hire for the Purpose of attending the Hospital, & had determined to give up his personal Charge, but was Yesterday prevailed upon to continue it for a few Days, in Hopes some Thing may be done for putting Things into a better Way. If the Assembly be yet sitting, your Excellency is requested to communicate this Business to them. But if no speedy Relief can be had either from the Legislative or Executive, the Gentlemen think it would be highly proper to take some Measures for returning the poor Wretches to their respective Parishes; in order to which, I am directed to send you the enclosed List [missing] for your Determinations there upon. I am, with great Deference & Respect, Your Excellency's most obedient Servant,
In response to John Blair's letter the Council of the State on January 8, 1782, made this provision for the hospital:
On the representation of the Honble John Blair respecting the situation of the unhappy people in the Lunatic Hospital for want of Cloaths & provisions--The Commissary of Stores is directed to forward to Mr. James Galt for the use of the said unhappy Patients such necessary Cloathing as the State can furnish; And the Commissary of provisions is directed to send them an immediate supply of provisions.9962
No contemporary evidence has been found to substantiate mid-nineteenth century references to the hospital building being used as a barracks for troops during the Revolutionary War.100 This information was probably handed down through the Galt family for sometime after 1862 Sally M. Galt, sister of Dr. John Minson Galt, II, and grandniece of James Galt, the first keeper, wrote to Mr. Sweeney all she knew of the connection of her family with the hospital. The letter stated that
during the Revolution, the Institution was used as Barracks by the Soldiers, & on some of the floors, may be seen where they cut wood. The Patients were turned out into the town & some never returned to the Asylum.101
In his letter to the General Assembly dated October 21, 1782, Governor Harrison referred to a letter from Mr. William Holt, mayor of Williamsburg, concerning the patients at the hospital:
The Letter from Mr. William Holt will I doubt not turn the attention of the Assembly to the unhappy objects that are the subjects of it; my own feelings by the recital of their situation are such that if I thought it in the least necessary, I should be a willing and strenuous advocate in their behalf, but the perfect knowledge I have of the Humanity of my Countrymen forbids my saying any Thing on the subject lest it should imply a doubt of the present Assembly's wanting those noble Sentiments that actuated their predecessors when [they] founded the Hospital for the relief of such poor & much to be pitied objects.102
No contemporary accounts state that the hospital closed down in the fall of 1782 but evidence from several sources mentioned 63 below supports this conclusion. The hospital reopened in October 1786.
On October 25, 1782, William McKee, sheriff of Rockbridge County, brought lunatic, Benjamin Smith, to the hospital. Since the directors refused to receive Smith as a patient McKee had to return with him to Rockbridge County. On November 29th McKee petitioned the House of Delegates for relief for his care and maintenance of the lunatic.103
On December 11, 1782, the Methodist minister Rev. Francis Asbury visited Williamsburg:
Wednesday, 11. I rode to Williamsburg--- formerly the seat of government, but now removed to Richmond; thus the worldly glory is departed from it; as to Divine glory, it never had any. I preached in James City court house. The place has suffered and is suffering: the palace, the barracks, and some good dwelling-houses burnt. The capitol is no great building, and is going to ruin; the exterior of the college not splendid, and but few students; the Bedlamhouse is desolate, but whether because none are insane, or all are equally mad, it might, perhaps, be difficult to tell.104
After considerable deliberation the General Assembly on December 28, 1782, passed an act providing support for the hospital which appropriated £25 per patient per year:
An act for further continuing and amending the act to make provision for the support and maintenance of idiots, lunatics, and persons of unsound minds.
I. WHEREAS the act of general assembly passed in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventynine, intituled, "An act to make provision for the support and maintenance of ideots, lunatics, and persons of unsound minds," which hath been continued and 64 amended by several subsequent acts, will expire at the end of the present session of assembly, and it is expedient and necessary to continue and amend the same: Be it therefore enacted, That the said act shall continue and be in force from and after the present session of assembly, for and during the term of ten years, and from thence to the end of the next session of assembly.
II. And whereas great inconveniencies have arisen from the want of proper funds to support the hospital established for the purpose of providing for such unfortunate persons; Be it enacted, That the treasurer for the time being, upon the governor's warrant to the court of directors, is hereby empowered and required to pay annually, out of the treasury, such sum or sums of money as shall be by law appropriated for the repairing the said hospital, the payment of salaries to the keeper and matrons, and also to the nurses, guards, physicians, or surgeons, that may be employed by the said court of directors, and any additional sum not exceeding twenty-five pounds per annum, for the support and maintenance of each person that shall be confined in the said hospital. And the sheriff, or other officer, conveying such unfortunate persons to the said hospital, agreeable to the directions of the said recited act, shall receive from the treasurer such compensation for his trouble and expences, as to the court of directors shall seem reasonable, to be certified by them to the auditors of public accounts, whereupon a warrant shall issue to the treasurer for the payment of the same, who is hereby authorized to pay the amount of such warrant to such sheriff, or other officer, out of such money as shall be by law appropriated for that purpose. All and every act or acts, coming within the purview and meaning of this act, shall be, and the same are hereby repealed.105
In 1783 the House of Delegates, recognizing that the act passed in the last session failed to appropriate "the necessary supplies of money to refit the said hospital," resolved to amend the act. On December 20, 1783, the following resolution was agreed to by the house: 65
Several days later the Senate agreed to the sum of money for the hospital.107
Whereas, by an act of Assembly, entitled "an act, for further continuing and amending the act, 'to make provision for the support and maintenance of idiots, lunatics and persons of unsound minds," the treasurer is empowered and required to pay annually (for the support of the hospital, which was erected for the reception of the aforesaid description of persons,) out of the treasury such sums of money as should be by law appropriated for the uses described in the said recited act; but the want of appropriating any sum or fund to the said purposes hath prevented the good effects of the said act.
Resolved, That a sum not exceeding five hundred pounds, out of the civil list fund, be appropriated to the purposes of the said act, under the order of the Executive, upon the auditor's warrants for the same.106
No minutes were entered in the minute book of the Court of Directors between January 27, 1780, and January 26, 1784. A possible explanation for the lack of minutes is that the directors could not enact business without a quorum as John Blair's letter to Gov. Harrison on January 4, 1782, indicated. At their meeting on January 26, 1784, the directors
Resolved That the President be desired to write to the Governor requesting an Order from the Executive on the Auditor of public accounts in favour of James Galt the late Keeper for the sum of three Hundred Pounds.
Resolved That the President be requested to draw for the further sum of Fifty Pounds for the immediate relief of such Lunatics as are now in Town.108
Dudley Diggs, President of the Court of Directors, wrote Gov. Harrison on February 3, 1784, enclosing the proceedings of the recent meeting of the directors which authorized him 66
to call upon the Executive for an order on the Auditor of Public Accounts, for Three hundred pounds, in favor of James Galt, the late keeper: and for the "further sum of fifty pounds for the immediate relief of such lunatics as are now in town." These amounts to be credited to the late appropriations made by the General Assembly.109
On January 15, 1784, Dr. Sequeyra wrote Gov. Harrison:
My age & infirmites prevent me from waiting on your Excellency & your Lady, which would afford me the greatest Satisfaction. I must acquaint you, that from the October Session of Assembly in 1769 to nov: 1781, the Hospital for Lunaticks being then broke up, I have not received my salary of fifty pounds a Year as Physician to the said Hospital, & a hundred pounds is due to me as it will appear by the Auditor's Books. As the Assembly passed an Act & resolution that the Arrears of the Said Hospital should be paid out of the money appropriated for the Civil List, your Excellency will be so good to give a warrant to the Treasurer for the payment of the Sd: Sum,...110The House of Delegates considered the petition of Sequeyra and on June 28, 1784,
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That the petition of Dr. John de Sequeyra, praying that his accounts as physician general to the hospital, established for lunatics in the city of Williamsburg, may be liquidated by the auditors and warrants granted him for the same, is reasonable.111The Senate agreed to liquidate the accounts of Dr. Sequeyra on June 30th. On July 29th Sequeyra thanked the Governor
for his advice to apply to the assembly for the hundred pounds due him "for prescribing the Lunatics" and informed him the the request was granted.112
On September 29, 1784, Dudley Digges wrote the Governor
Requesting, under "Order of the Court of Directors 67 of the Hospital for Lunatics," &c. that the Auditors of Public Accounts be directed to issue a Warrant on the Treasury for One hundred and Fifty Pounds, in favor of Mr. James Galt, on account of the said Hospital.113
The hospital was incorporated by an act of the General Assembly passed in January 1786:
An act for the restraint, maintenance, and care of persons not sound in mind.
I. BE it enacted bas the General Assembly, That the present directors of the hospital for the reception of persons of unsound minds, and their successors, to be chosen when vacancies happen, by joint ballot of both houses of general assembly, are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, to have perpetual continuance, by the name of the directors of the hospital for the maintenance and cure of persons of unsound minds, and by that name may sue and be sued, and may, and shall have and use a common seal; and are enabled to take and hold any estate real and personal, given, or to be given, to the said hospital, or to themselves, for the use thereof, so as the annual revenue or income of such donations exceed not one thousand pounds, any law or statute to the contrary, notwithstanding; and shall and may, so often as it shall be necessary, choose a president, to continue in office until his death, resignation, or removal. And the said directors, or any seven of them, the president being one, shall, from time to time, ordain regulations for the government of the said hospital, and appoint a keeper or matron thereof, with nurses and guards, when they shall be necessary, and provide for the accommodation, maintenance, and cure of the patients remaining and to be received therein. By warrant, to be directed to the sheriff, a justice of peace may order to be brought before him any person whose mind, from his own observation, or the information of others, he shall suspect to be unsound, and with two other justices, who, at his request, shall associate with him, shall enquire into the state of such person's mind; and the said justices shall write as well what shall appear to themselves as what shall be testified by witnesses, touching the supposed insanity; and if two of them adjudge the party to be such a one as 68 ought to be confined in the hospital, and some friend will not become bound, with surety, to restrain and take proper care of him or her, until the cause for confinement shall cease, the said justices, or two of them, shall order the insane to be removed to the said hospital, and there received, and for that end direct a warrant to the sheriff, and a mittimus to the said keeper, transmitting therewith, to the latter, the examinations of the witnesses, and a relation of such facts as the said justices shall think pertinent to the subject, to be laid before the directors.- The said keeper, immediately after the person removed shall be delivered to him, the receipt of whom he shall acknowledge in a writing signed by him, and given to the sheriff, shall inform the president thereof, who shall require his colleagues to meet so soon as may be: and at such meeting, which shall not be unnecessarily delayed, the directors, if having considered the case, they concur in opinion with the justices, shall register the insane as a patient; but they may at any time afterwards deliver him or her to a friend, becoming bound to restrain and take care of him or her, in the same manner as the justices might have done.--If the directors differ in opinion from the justices, they shall report the matter to the high court of chancery, who shall thereupon award the writ de idiota inquirendo, directed to the sheriff of that county from whence the person supposed to be insane shall have been removed, and such person shall be put into the custody of the said sheriff, and remain there until the inquisition be taken and returned, and then shall be enlarged or registered, as the said court shall order. The court of a county, city, or borough, shall refer it to three justices to examine into the state of mind of an infant child, or ward, in their county, city, or borough, suggested to such court, by the parent or guardian, to be insane, and upon the report of the said justices, if the suggestion appear to be true, shall order such insane to be removed in the manner before directed, to the hospital, where he or she shall be received and registered. The expence of maintaining, and endeavouring to cure a registered insane, shall be reimbursed out of his estate, if any such there be, and in case of an infant, not an orphan, shall be repaid by the parent, if of sufficient ability to support such infant, to be adjudged of and certified by 69 the court of the county where such parent resides, and may be recovered by an action commenced and prosecuted in the names of the directors, who shall account for what shall thus come to their hands. Accounts of expences incurred in execution of this act, as well for repairing the hospital, and other necessary incidental works and services, shall be audited and discharged in the same manner as other public accounts. The directors shall enlarge every person confined in the hospital, who shall appear to them to be perfectly cured of insanity, and give such person a certificate thereof. A person registered in the hospital shall nevertheless, during the time of his or her confinement there, be deemed an inhabitant of that county in which was his or her legal settlement at the time of his or her removal to the hospital.
II. This act shall commence and be inforce from and after the first day of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven.114
An act appropriating the public revenue passed by the General Assembly in 1785-1786 stated
That a sum not exceeding six hundred pounds, out of the contingent fund, be set apart for the purposes of the public hospital in the city of Williamsburg, upon warrants from the auditors, under order of the executive, on application of the board of directors.115
On March 10, 1786, the directors ordered
That the said Committee be authorized to employ some proper Person to make an Estimate of the Sum of Money, which may be necessary to repair the said Hospital, and other Buildings thereto belonging and to inclose the same with a proper Inclosure as it formerly stood.116
The following month, on April 3rd, the directors
Ordered that the Hospital and other Houses within the Inclosure be properly repaired. That a Committee be appointed to agree with proper persons to carry into effect the said Order and to superintend the said Repairs; 70 and also to have erected such other outhouses as may appear to them necessary. And that the said Committee do consist of Mr. Digges, Mr. Blair, Mr. Madison, & Mr. Burwell any three of whom may act.
That Joseph Hornsby esquire be appointed Treasurer to the Hospital, who is authorized to draw from the Public Treasury such sums of Money as may be set apart for the purposes of the Hospital; and to pay to the Order of the Committee such sums as may be considered necessary for making the said Repairs.117
Ledgers of Humphrey Harwood show that he made repairs in August and September to the hospital building, well, oven, smokehouse, stable, kitchen, and dairy:
The Public for the Hospital of Lunatics Dr.
1786 nd August 22 To 2180 Larthes a 1/6 per C & 4250 4d nails a 4/ £ 2.8.6 To 152 bushels of lime a 1/. & 6 bushels of Hair a 2/ 8.4.- To carting 5 loads of sand a 2/ & 17 day's labour a 2/6 2.12.6 To 43 days work a 6/. Repairing larthing & plastering; turning Trimers, laying Hearths & mending Chimnies 12.18.- To 2334 Bricks a 3/. p C. & 14 bushels of White wash a 2/ 4.18.- To White washing 27 Rooms a 5/6 7.8.6 To do passages 60/ 3.-.- To cuting through Wall. & working in Door frame -.12.- To 2 days labour a 2/6 & 30 bushels of lime 1.15.- Sepr. 4 To 2800 Bricks 60/. & 8 bushels of lime 8/ 4.12.- To cuting out Cellar door frame. & working in one 5/ -.5.- To do. three window frames a 2/6 -.7.6 71 [Sepr. 4] To Repairing Well 15/. & rebuilding Oven 22/6 1.17.6 To do. underpining to smoke House & Stable 5/. & 22 bus. lime a 1/ 1.7.- To laying Kitchen floor & Hearth 30/. & repairing passage 3/ 1.13.- To larthing & plastering 25 Yards in Dairy & passage a 6-½d. -.16.6 To White-washing Kitchen, Dairy & passage 20/ 1.-.- To 10 Days labour a 2/6 1.-.- £56.17.0 £56.17.- Per Contra Cr. 1786 nd October 2 By Cash in full of Joseph Hornsby Esqr. £56.17.-
On October 11, 1786, minutes of the directors state that the hospital was repaired and ready to receive lunatics:
The Hospital being now in repair for the reception of such Lunaticks or persons of unsound mind
Resolved that such persons as come within the description of the Act of Assembly entitled "An Act to make provision for the support and maintenance of Idiots Lunaticks and other persons of unsound minds" be received into the said Hospital.
Resolved that James Galt be appointed Keeper of the said Hospital.
Resolved that Doct John d Sequeyra be appointed Physician to the said Hospital.
Resolved that Mary Galt Wife* of James Galt be appointed Matron to the Hospital.
Ordered that the Treasurer to this Hospital be directed to draw for the Sum of Four hundred pounds being the balance appropriated by the Assembly for the purposes of the said Hospital; and that the President be required to write to the Treasurer of this Commonwealth on this Subject.
Ordered that the Treasurer of the Hospital pay to John Saunders the sum of Fifty pounds on Account. And also that he pay to William Barrom Goaler the sum of Ten pounds on account.119
At the order of the directors President Dudley Digges wrote to Hon. J. Ambler, Esq., on October 13, 1786:
The Court of Directors have at length effected the repairs of the Hospital for Lunatics, &c., and put it in a proper Condition to receive some unhappy Patients who have long suffered for want of this humane Asylum, established and intended by the Legislature of our Country for their benefit and support. In doing this, however, the whole sum of two hundred pounds, lately received from the Treasury, hath been exhausted; and therefore the 73 Court of Directors have come to a Resolution, which I have now the honor to enclose, requiring Mr. Joseph Hornsby, Treasurer to the said Hospital, to draw on you for the sum of four hundred pounds, being the balance of six hundred pounds voted by the Gen'l. Assembly for the purpose of supporting this same Hospital, &c.120
Onley Winsor, who visited Williamsburg in November, 1786, commented on the hospital:
Here is a large handsome brick Mad House (for Lunaticks &c)--all the public buildings except the Mad House, are in a decaying situation, as most of the Private buildings, business haveing almost intirely left this place since the removal of the Government.121
Fanny Eads of Amherst County and Mary McKenny of Westmoreland County were "The only two patients who remained here during the war and were put in upon the re-establishment of the hospital." Another patient, William Thomas, "left Williamsburg in 1781 and was returned from Eliza. City County 29th Octo. 1790."122
At a meeting on January 5, 1787, the directors admitted William Carter, Jr., of the city of Richmond under a conditional arrangement:
And it appearing to the Court that the said William Carter is a person of unsound mind, but for as much as the Hospital is without Money to support him and on that Account wou'd have been Rejected, his Father undertook to support him at this place until such sum of Money can be received from the Public as will be sufficient to support the Hospital at which time the said William Carter is to be reimbursed such expenditures.123
Three days later on January 8, 74
Following the meeting President Dudley Digges wrote Governor Edmund Randolph and enclosed minutes of the meeting where John Tomer was refused admittance due to the diminished financial condition of the hospital:
The Court took into consideration the Case of John Tomer brought to the Hospital from the County of Princess Anne by virtue of a Warrant under the hands and seals of John Hancock, Charles Williams and William White Gentlemen Justices for the said County and it appearing from the Depositions of Thomas Tomer and Mary Tomer taken and returned by the said Justices that the said John Tomer is a person of insane and disordered Mind.
It is the Opinion of the Court that the said John Tomer is insane and of disordered Mind and therefore a fit object to be received into the said Hospital, but the Finances of the said Hospital being at present in such a situation as not to enable the Keeper to support any such objects, It is Ordered that the said John Tomer be returned to the County of Princess Anne until the Public shall by an advance of Money enable the Keeper of this Hospital to maintain such unhappy objects of which due notice shall be given to the Public by this Court PROVIDED nevertheless, if the parents or Friends of the said John Tomer will provide for his support and maintenance in the said Hospital, this Court will at any time receive him, and when their situation shall enable them reimburse the sum or sums that may be advanced by them.124
Wmsburgh Janry 8th 1787.
I have the honour, to enclose to your Excellency, a Copy of a Resolution of the Court of Directors, respecting the public Hospital, established for the reception of Idiots, Lunatics & persons of insane Minds. By this resolution you will plainly discover the distressed situation of that Hospital: and your Excellency will feel, (from Sympathy I am sure) how unhappy the Members, who compose that Court, must have been, at being obliged to adopt such a Resolution.
The former general Assembly voted the Sum of Six hundred pounds to be paid out of the contingent Fund, to 75 repair and to support this humane establishment, and in the Month of June last, a Warrant was obtained for two hundred pounds, part of the said Sum, and the Money was duly received & applied, and did effect such a reparation of the said Hospital, as to enable the Court of Directors to take two unhappy Patients out of a Gaol, and hitherto to provide for and support them; but that Sum of Money hath at length, and for sometime past, been exhausted, and therefor in the Month of October last an application was made to the Executive & to the Treasurer for the balance of four hundred pounds--but without effect: this failure, let it proceed from what cause soever hath occasioned the enclosed Resolution, and must prevent, inevitably, the Hospital from answering the humane intention or expectation of the Legislature unless by your Excellency's Indisposition, or some other cause, Money can be procured from the Treasury to the amount of a Warrant obtained so long ago as the said Month of October. The Mode to effect this, is humbly submitted to the Executive, & therefore it is unnecessary for me to say more upon the Subject. I have the honour to be your Excellency's most humble & most obedient Servant.
His Excellency Edmund Randolph
To his Excellency
recd Jany 10. 1787
On May 29, 1787, Isaac Howlett of Gloucester County was received since his father was willing to bear the expence of his support.126
On September 8, 1787, the minutes of directors record that advancements of money from the state treasury enabled the hospital to receive patients and specified the daily allowances of provisions for each lunatic: 76
The requisite advancements of Money having been lately procured from the Treasury, and the Hospital being at present in a State of Reparation to receive such unhappy persons as are objects of the Institution,
Resolved that notification thereof be given to the Citizens of this State by advertizing the same three times in the public papers.
Resolved that any sum of Money to be drawn Quarterly, not exceeding the sum of Twenty five pounds p annum for each Lunatic, be applied to the support and maintenance of each person confined in the said Hospital, and that the Accounts of the Disbursements for Provisions, Fuel, and Cloathing be settled at the end of every three Months.
That the following daily allowances of Provisions be given to each Lunatic. That they have for Breakfast Water-Gruel, Mush and Molasses, or Rice, with Bread, Butter, and Salt, or Milk. Four days in the Week, they shall be allowed one pound of fresh Meat with Bread, or half a pound of Bacon occasionally, and a sufficient quantity of Broth, for Dinner besides Vegetables, & one Quart of small Beer each Day. The remaining three Days, they shall be allowed Rice, Mush, Milk-pottage, with Molasses, or Butter, or Bread & Cheese. For Supper they shall be allowed any of the Articles which are given for their Breakfasts. But general Regulations as to Provisions may be dispensed with whenever the peculiar circumstances of any patient may in the opinion of the Physician render it necessary.127
James Galt had saved paling and other property belonging to the hospital in 1782 for the directors also resolved at their September 8, 1787,
that Mr. James Galt be allowed the sum of Ten pounds for his trouble, and expence in saving and securing the paling and other property belonging to the Hospital in the Year 1782. And that the Treasurer be directed to pay the same.128
Several months later at its meeting on November 26, 1787, when several more patients were admitted, the directors 77
Ordered that the whole of the Ground belonging to the Hospital be immediately inclosed and that Mr. Digges, Mr. Andrews & Mr. Hornsby be appointed a Committee (any two of whom may act) to agree with proper Workmen for that purpose.129
Later references in the minutes record orders and payments made for paling and other repairs:
[March 22, 1788]
To Robert Greenhow for Sundries furnished p Accot. and for Glazing Windows &c. £ 5.3.3
[May 27, 1788]
1787 Decr. 24 To Cash pd. John Saunders in part of his Accot. for pailing £50.-.- 1788 May 5 To Cash pd. John Saunders in part of his Accot. for Pailing 35..7..- 30 To Cash pd. John Saunders in full of his Accot for Paling 56.18.0.
[January 10, 1789]
Ordered that the Commissioners of Accounts be authorized to contract for the building an Addition to the Smokehouse for any price not exceeding Eight pounds.132
[February 16, 1790]
Ordered that Joseph Hornsby, James Southall and Robert Andrews Esquires be appointed a Committee to enquire what additional Buildings are necessary to the Hospital and report the same to the next meeting.133
[June 18, 1790]
Ordered that Mr. Andrews, Mr. Southall, and Mr. Travis be appointed a Committee to contract with proper Workmen for erecting a Stair-case at each end of the Hospital, and also to have fixed in the passage below, two Iron Grate Doors, for the purpose of admitting air into the Cells, in such manner as they shall think best.134
The partition may have created a hallway between the keeper's rooms on the first floor of the hospital. Presumably the keeper's apartment had two rooms. The photograph* showing Lord Botetourt's statute in front of the building (circa 1862) shows open doors at the front and back--thus indicating that no partition blocked the area between the front and back doors.
[July 31, 1790]
Ordered that Mr. Andrews, Mr. Southall and Mr. Travis be appointed a Committee to contract with proper Workmen for running a partition in the Chamber of the Keeper.135
Ledgers of Humphrey Harwood also show repairs made at the hospital in 1788 and 1790:
The Hospital for Lunatics Dr. 1788 th Octor. 13 To 4 bushels of lime 4/. & mending plastering 3/6 -.7.6 To 1 peck of Hair /6d. & 1 days labour 2/6 -.3.- To mending Back -.3.- £0.13.6 See postea 36 fol: Ledger C £0.13 6 The Hospital (for Lunatics) Dr. Cr. 1790 th April 28 To amt. brt. from folo. 130 ante Ledr: B £-.13..6 To 1 peck of Whitewash 3 ¾ -..-..3-¾ To whitewashing 1 Room 3/9 £-.17.6-¾ Augt. 7 To 6 bush. of Whitewash a 1/3 -.7.6 To whitewashing 12 Rooms a 3/9 2.5.- To do. 2 passages a 4/ & 2 Clossets a 2/6 -.13.- 79 To do. the stairway 2/ -.2.- To 10 bushels of lime a 9d. & 160 Bricks a 2/9 -.11.10-¾ To mending plaistering in the Rooms & Brickword round the Door 7/6 -.7.6 To laying an Hearth 2/6 -.2.6 Octor. 13 To 8-½ bushels of lime a 9d. -.6.4-½ To mending plaistering & working in a door frame &c 7/6 -.7.6 £6..0..10 drawn off By the above, not settled of 13/6 as the acct. had not been audited 13.6 £5.7.4 By Cash 27th Jan. 1791 of Jo. Hornsby £5.7.4 £5.7.4 £5.7.4 Same Dr. Dr. Cr. 1791 th April 14 [crossed out] [charge illegible] To pulling down a large Chimney -.16.- (see postea folo. 70)
James Anderson, a Williamsburg blacksmith, made repairs at the hospital 1789-1791. These included taking down and putting up a lightning rod and putting leg irons on patients:
The Lunatic Hospital
1789 August 25 To taken down and putting up the Conductor 0.10.0 To altering Do 2/6 0.2.6 By 69 cwt of old Iron @ 31 To a new boe for a door lock key 0.1.3 To Mending a lock ? Do a key 1/3 0.2.6 Sepr 1 To four Stays for Windows @ 2/6 0.10.0 To Eighteen Dogg Nails for Do C ld 0.1.6 2 To four Stays for two Windows @ 2/6 0.10.0 80 [Sepr 2] To twenty Dogg Nails for Do @ ld 0.1.8 To Mending a Bar and putting on Do 0.1.10-½ 8 To Mending a door lock key 0.1.3 9 To putting a boe to one Do 1/3 Mending one Do 1/3 0.2.6 October 29 To Mending a legg Iron 1/6 Repairg a Screw 7-½d 0.2.1-½ To 3 Screw'd locks @ 3/ 0.9.0 Novembr 4 To a Spring for a lock pr Door 0.1.3 17 To lengthing a half Staple 7-½d large Round Do 9d 0.1.4-½ 1790 January 29 To a large Round Staple 0.0.9 March 13 To Repairg a Rake 0.2.6 15 To Six teeth for a Rake 0.1.6 April 28 To mending a key for a lock 0.1.3 May 21 To three large Spikes @ 3d 0.0.9 22 To putting a boe to a key 0.1.6 July 24 To a leg Iron & Chain 2/6 A Staple 7-½ 0.3.1-½ To putting Irons on a Man 0.1.3 26 To two Stays for windows @ 3/ 0.6.0 To eight Nails 8d Repairing a Screw'd lock 1/3 0.1.11 To a key for a door lock 0.2.6 29 To Six knees for Windows @ 2/6 15/ twenty four Nails 2/ 0.17.0 August 2 To Six knees for Do @ 2/6 15/ twenty four Nails 2/ 0.17.0 4 To a Side for a leg Iron 1/6 One foot of Chain & a Swivle 2/6 0.4.0 To putting them on 0.1.3 5 To a hook and two Staples for a door 0.1.0 11 To a pair of large kitchen tongs 0.12.6 12 To Repairg a leg Iron 1/6 Do a Chain 1/3 0.2.9 23 To putting a handle in a flat Iron 0.1.6 September 17 To putting a bit to a key for a lock 0.1.6 November 3 To mending a lock 1/3 A Staple 7-½d 0.1.10-½ 23 To four Rivets for a lock 0.1.3 81 1791 January 31 To a Spring for a lock 0.1.3 March 3 To mending a pair of large hinges for a door 0.3.9 To ten large Spikes @ 2d 0.1.8
At a meeting of the directors on September 11, 1788, the treasurer presented a statement of his account with the hospital. This is the first detailed account which appears in the minutes and is therefore included to show expenses of the hospital during one year, October 1, 1787, through September 8, 1788:
[Sept. 11, 1788, pp. 87-88]
Dr. The Hospital for Lunaticks in Account with Joseph Hornsby Treasurer.
1787 October 1 To Cash paid James Galt by Order of the President £10.0.0 31 To do. paid do. do. 10.0.0 Decr. 1 To do. paid do. a Quarters Salary as Keeper 25.0.0 To do. paid do. a Quarters Salary of M Galt as Matron 6.5.0 To do. pd. do. allowance for provision of Self and Matron 12.10.0 To do. pd. do. 4 Negroes hire 8.7.6 To Do. pd. do. his expences to Richmond for money 2.12.9 To Do. paid do. to purchase Corn 30.0.0 To do. paid Doct. d. Sequeyra a Quarters Salary 12.10 0 24 To do. pd. John Saunders in part of his Accot. for pailing 50.0.0 1788 Jany. 10 To do. pd. James Galt Messrs. Hunt & Adams Account 10.14.5-¼ To do. pd. do. Capt. Massenburgs Account 3.8.8 82 [Jany. 10] To do. pd. do. Dormoys Account 2.9.0 To do. pd. do. Jane Taylors Account 1.14.6 11 To do. pd. Wm. Wilkinson juns. his Account for Wood 13.0.0 March 11 To do. pd. James Galt a Quarters Salary as Keeper 25.0.0 To do. pd. do. a Quarters Salary to M. Galt as Matron 6.5.0 To do. pd. do. allowance for provisions for Self and Matron 12.10.0 To do. pd. do. Negro Hire 8.0.0 To do. pd. Doct dSequeyra Quarters Salary 12.10.0 15 To do. pd. William Wilkinson junr. his Accot. for Wood 11.10.0 24 To do. pd. James Galt Sundry Accots. p Receipts 16.13.10-½ To do. pd. do. by order of the President 20.0.0 April 5 To do. pd. William Russell ½ Years Salary due 1st Inst 5.0.0 15 To do. pd. Robert Nicolson his Account 3.10.6 21 To do. pd. James Moir his Account 18.0 May 5 To do. pd. John Saunders in part of his Accot. for Paling 35.7.0 10 To do. pd. James Galt on Account 10.0.0 30 To do. pd. John Saunders in full of his Accot. for Paling 56.18.0 To do. pd. do. his Accot. by Order of the Directors 8.8.3 June 2 To do. pd. Doct d Sequeyra a Quarters Salary 12.10.0 To do. pd. James Galt a Quarters Salary as Keeper 25.0.0 To do. pd. Mary Galt as Matron 6.5.0 To do. pd. Jas. Galt allowance for Provision for Self & Matron 12.10.0 To do. pd. do. Negro Hire 8.0.0 To do. pd. do. for Cash advanced to Chas. Barrett a discharged person from the Hospital 1.4.0 83 [June 2] To Cash paid James Galt on Account 2000 25 To Do. pd. James Davis for 1 Cow for the Hospital 4.10.0 To Do. advanced James Galt last December 11.1.4 27 To Do. pd. Will Russell a Quarters Salary due 1st Inst 2.10.0 July 26 To do. pd. Charles Taliaferro for a Cow for the Hospital 4.0.0 Carrd. over 1788 Debit brought over Sept. 1 To Cash paid James Galt a Quarters Salary as Keeper £25.0.0 To Do. pd. do. for Mary Galt as Matron 6.5.0 To do. pd. do. Allowance for provision for Self & Matron 12.10.0 To do. pd. do. Negro Hire 8.0.0 2 To do. pd. Doct d Sequeyra Quarters Salary 12.10.0 3 To do.pd. William Russell Quarters Salary 2.10.0 8 To do. pd. W. Wilkinson junr. his Account for Wood 15.0.0 £620.7.9-¾ To my Commission 31.0.4-½ To balance carried to New Account 16.4.9-½ Contra Cr. £667.12.11-¾ 1787 Sept. 25 By Cash on hand at last Settlement £67.12..11-¾ Octo. 17 By Cash of J. Ambler esqr. Treasurer 600.0.0 £667.12.11-¾
Examined with the Vouchers and passed by the Directors the 11th day of September 1788.138
On January 7, 1788, the House of Delegates
Resolved, That for the support of the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg for the year 1788, the sum of 600 £ be allowed out to the fund of 1,000 £ 84 reserved, subject to the votes of the General Assembly, out of the revenue of 1787, to be paid to the order or orders of the director of the hospital.The Senate approved the resolution the next day.139
By October 31, 1788, the directors had not received the money granted by the last session of the Assembly and resolved
that the President be desired to communicate to the Assembly by letter to the Speaker of the house of Delegates that in consequence of the failure of the fund from which the allowance for the support of the Hospital was to be drawn, no part of the Money granted by the last Assembly has been yet Received, and that unless some immediate and effectual provision for this purpose shall be made, the institution must be discontinued, and the Lunatics sent back to their respective Counties.140
An act passed by the General Assembly in late December 1788 recognized that funds for the lunatic hospital and other state supported operations often came very late in the year. When this happened the governor could direct the state treasurer to borrow from other funds and replace the money as soon as possible.141
At their session in December of 1788 the House of Delegates sent to the Senate a bill "concerning the public hospital in the city of Williamsburg." The act passed in late December 1788:
An act concerning the public hospital in the city of Williamsburg.
1. BE it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after the passing of this act, a court of directors may at any time be holden for the public hospital, in the city of Williamsburg, without the president, if he shall fail to attend, and the eldest member present shall act as president, pro tempore. Any director who 85 shall remove to the distance of twenty miles, or upwards from the said city, shall be considered as having vacated his office. Vacancies in the court of directors may be supplied by the executive. If upon the examination of any person charged with being a lunatic or ideot, or otherwise insane, the said court shall be of opinion that he or she ought not to be confined, it shall be lawful for the said court, forthwith to discharge him or her. Every act coming within the purview of this act, is hereby repealed.142
At some time prior to the directors' meeting on June 18, 1790, more than one patient may have been placed in a cell for the directors "Ordered that in future separate Apartments be allotted to the different Patients in the Hospital."143
On June 15, 1790, special treatment was ordered for a patient whose case the directors determined
requires an attention different from that of the other patients in the Hospital. It is Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital be allowed for an additional Servant to attend on him at the rate of one shilling per day; that he provide a Bed and furniture for one Room for the accommodation of the said Arrell and also that he be allowed for the Board of said Arrell at the rate of twenty five pounds per annum to be furnished from his own Table.At their meeting on July 23 the directors discharged David Arrell:
Mr. David Arrell who was received into this Hospital the fifteenth day of June last, having been permitted by this Court to reside without restraint in a private family in this City from that time, and having uniformly conducted himself in a prudent, rational and peaceable manner, the Court are of opinion that he cannot with propriety be any longer detained here and it is therefore ordered that he be discharged.14486
On October 29, 1790, John Bracken, President of the Court of Directors, wrote to Thomas Mathews, Speaker of the House of Delegates:
Wmsburg. Oct. 29. 1790
I am desired by the Court of Directors to state to you the present situation of the Hospital for Lunatics in this City, & to request the favour of you Sir to communicate such statement to the Honble. the General Assembly. Inclosed you have their annual account of Monies paid from Sep. 1789 to Sep. 1790, & from thence it will appear that their Expences within that period have considerably exceded the usual appropriations of the Legislature for that purpose. The great increase of Patients (of which you have also a List inclosed) must necessarily occasion an Increase of Expence, but the very heavy charges incurred in conducting to the Hospital the unhappy Objects of it have more particularly contributed to this End. In some instances they have greatly exceded the sum of 20£ for a single Patient. I hope therefore Sir that it will not be attributed to presumption, if I take the liberty to suggest it to the consideration of your House, whether a different provision for this article of expence might not be expedient, & that the Counties, from which Patients may be sent, shou'd become chargeable with it. Where a Lunatic is possessed of any Estate it is indeed directed by the Law, that the Expences incurred by the Hospital on his accounts shall from thence be re-imbursed. But from distance of situation & a variety of other circumstances, the Directors can seldom, if ever, enforce this Law, Whilst the nieghbouring Magistrates cou'd always with ease in such instances carry it into effect, & they wou'd feel themselves impelled by interest so to do. Where there is no Estate, the respective Counties wou'd in defraying the first expence be thereby relieved by a future diminution of their Levies for the Poor.
I must beg leave farther to add, that besides the general provision for the support & maintenance of the Hospital, the Directors wish to be enabled to build some convenient & indeed necessary out-houses, & also to fit up a few Cells under the first Floor for such unhappy Patients as may be in a state of raving Phrenzy. I 87 cannot presume to determine what wou'd be the expence of these Improvements, but am persuaded it wou'd not exceed one hundred pounds.
I have the Honour to be with all due respect, Sir145
Your most obedt. Servt.
John Bracken Pr. of the
Court of Directors
The list of patients* referred to above shows that
at the end of 1787 there were 7 patients
at the end of 1788 there were 7 patients
at the end of 1789 there were 15 patients
and on Oct. 29, 1790 15 there were 15 patients
Having considered the letter from John Bracken on the present state of the hospital, a committee of the House of Delegates made this report to the House on November 22, 1790:
Mr. Andrews reported, from the committee to whom was referred a letter from the president of the court of directors of the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg, together with other papers respecting the said hospital; that the committee had, according to order, had the same under their consideration, and had agreed upon a report, and come to several resolutions thereupon, which he read in his place, and afterwards delivered in at the clerks' table, where the same were again twice read, and agreed to by the House, as followeth:
Your committee find, that from the 1st day of November 1786, to the 30th day of October last, inclusive, there have been received into the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg, thirty-six patients; of whom three have been taken out by their friends, eight have been discharged, one has escaped, nine have died, and fifteen remaining there on the said 30th day of October last.
Your committee further find, that there has been paid on account of the expenses of the said hospital, from the 1st day of September 1789, to the 1st day of September 1790, the sum of 684£. 4s. 11d.
It further appears to your committee, that a few additional cells, and some out houses are necessary for 88 the reception of certain unhappy objects, and for the accommodation of servants.
It further appears to your committee, that the charges for carrying patients to the said hospital are often enormous, and that the courts of the counties from which they are sent, can seldom be prevailed on to give any information to the president and court of directors, respecting the estates of the patients, by which means it happens that the whole expense of maintaining and keeping the patients falls on the public, which must in many instances be an unreasonable burthen on the community;
Therefore, resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That the president and court of directors of the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg, ought to be empowered to have three cells constructed under the first floor of the hospital for the reception of patients, who may be in a state of raving phrensy, and to have such out houses erected, as may appear to them necessary.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That a sum not exceeding [blank]hundred pounds, ought to be appropriated to defray the expense of constructing the said cells, and erecting the said out houses.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That where the patients have no estate, or not sufficient for the purpose, the expense of carrying them to the said hospital, ought to be defrayed by the public, out of the money appropriated to the use of the said hospital; but that the number of guards and their allowance ought to be regulated.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That whenever a patient is sent to the said hospital, a certificate ought to accompany him from the court of his county, to the president and court of directors, setting forth, whether such patient has any estate, and if he has, the annual nett profits thereof; and that the said county court ought to have power, and be obliged under a certain penalty, to take measures that the nett annual profits of such patient's estate, or as much thereof as might be requisite, should be paid yearly to the president and court of directors for the patient's support and maintenance.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That the sum of (blank] hundred pounds, ought to be appropriated for defraying the ordinary expenses of the said 89 hospital for the ensuing year.
Ordered, That a bill be brought in pursuant to the said resolutions; and that Messrs. Andrews, New, Johnston of Augusta, Marshall, Thornton, Rose, McKee, Strother, Holcombe, Harrison of Charles City, and Henry, do prepare and bring in the same.146
In response the following act passed in December 1790:
An act concerning the Hospital for the reception of persons of unsound mind.
Sect. 1. BE it enacted by the General Assembly, That it shall be lawful for the court of directors of the Hospital for the reception of persons of unsound mind, to cause to be constructed three additional cells to the said hospital, and also to have such outhouses erected, as may appear to them necessary. And the auditor of public accounts is hereby directed to grant to the said court of directors, a warrant on the treasurer for any sum of money not exceeding one hundred pounds, to be paid out of any public money in his hands, for the purpose of defraying the expences of constructing and erecting the same.
Sect. 2. And be it further enacted, That when any insane person, shall hereafter be removed to the said hospital, the justices before whom such person shall be examined, shall cause a. certificate of the estate of such insane person (if any there be) and of the probable annual profits arising therefrom to be sent to the said directors, together with the proceedings directed by law to be forwarded in every such instance of removal, and shall also certify such removal and the insane's estate to the next court to be holden for the county, city or borough whence such removal was. On receipt of such certificate it shall be lawful for the said court of the county, city or borough as aforesaid, to appoint a committee into whose hands shall be committed such insane's estate for the safe keeping and good management thereof; which committee shall have power to sue for, and recover all debts due to and be liable to be sued for all debts due from such insane person, in the same manner as executors to deceased persons are or may be, and out of the profits of such insane person's estate, the said court may direct to be defrayed, the expences attending as well 90 the removal as the annual support of every such person whilst remaining in the said hospital, to be paid to the said court of directors: Provided nevertheless, That such court may allow a reasonable support to the family of such insane person (if any he hath) out of his estate, so that neither the expences attending such insane person, nor the allowance to his family, shall defeat the claims of the creditors of such insane person.
Sect. 3. Upon the appointment of any such committee by any county, city or borough court, such court shall take bond with good security in a sufficient penalty, for the true and faithful performance of the trust thereby reposed, and in case of failure in the examining justices to perform the duties by this act enjoined, or in any such court to appoint such committee as aforesaid, and take such bond and security as is hereby required, the justices in either case so refusing or neglecting shall forfeit and pay for every such refusal or neglect fifty pounds, to be prosecuted for and recovered by the attorney general in the name of the said court of directors for the use of the Commonwealth.
Sect. 4. And be it further enacted, That in future not more than two persons shall be paid as a guard for removing any insane person to the said hospital, who shall have the same allowance made them for their services as is at present allowed by law to guards employed in removing of criminals, and who shall be paid by the said court of directors out of the monies appropriated for the use of the said hospital.
Sect. 5. All and every act or acts of Assembly coming within the purview of this act, shall be and the same are hereby repealed.147
An act reducing to one several acts providing for lunatics passed the General Assembly on December 24, 1792:
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That the present directors of the hospital for the reception of persons of unsound minds, and their successors, to be chosen when vacancies happen, by the governor, with the advice of the council, are hereby constituted and appointed a body politic and corporate, to have perpetual continuance, by the name of the directors of the hospital 91 for the maintenance and cure of persons of unsound minds; and by that name may sue and be sued, and may and shall have, and use a common seal, and are enabled to take and hold any estate, real or personal, given or to be given to the said hospital, or to themselves, for the use thereof; so as the annual revenue, or income of such donations, exceed not three thousand dollars; any law or statute to the contrary, notwithstanding.
2. The said directors shall, and may so often as it may be necessary, choose a president to continue in office until his death, resignation or removal; and they, or any seven of them, shall form a court, and shall from time to time ordain regulations for the government of the said hospital, and appoint a keeper and matron thereof, with nurses and guards when they shall be necessary; and provide for the accommodation, maintenance and cure of the patients remaining and to be received therein.
3. By warrant to be directed to the sheriff or serjeant, a justice of the peace shall order to be brought before him, any person whose mind, from his own observation, or the information of others, he shall suspect to be unsound, and with two other justices, who at his request shall associate with him, shall enquire into the state of such person's mind, and the said justices shall write down as well what shall appear to themselves, as what shall be testified by witnesses, touching the supposed insanity; and if two of them adjudge the party to be such a person as ought to be confined in the hospital, and some friend will not become bound with surety, to restrain and take proper care of him or her, until the cause for confinement shall cease, the said justices, or two of them, shall order the insane to be removed to the said hospital and there received, and for that end direct a warrant to the sheriff or serjeant, and a mittimus to the said keeper, transmitting therewith to the latter, the examinations of the witnesses, and a relation of such facts as the said justices shall think pertinent to the subject, to be laid before the directors.
4. The said keeper immediately after the person removed shall be delivered to him, the receipt of whom he shall acknowledge, in a writing signed by him, and delivered to the sheriff or serjeant, shall inform the president thereof, who shall require his colleagues to meet as soon as may be, and at such meeting, which shall not unnecessarily be delayed, the directors if having 92 considered the case, they concur in opinion with the justices, shall register the insane as a patient; but they may at any time afterwards deliver him or her to a friend, becoming bound to restrain and take care of him or her, in the same manner as the justices might have done.
5. If upon the examination of any person charged with being a lunatic or idiot, or otherwise insane, the said court shall be of opinion, that he or she ought not to be confined, it shall be lawful for the said court forthwith to discharge him or her.
6. When any insane person shall be removed as aforesaid to the said hospital, the justices before whom such person was examined, shall cause a certificate of the estate of such insane person, (if any there be,) and of the probable annual profits arising therefrom, to be sent to the said directors, together with the proceedings before directed, to be transmitted to them; and shall also certify such removal, and the insane's estate, to the next court to be holden for the county, city or borough whence such removal was. on receipt of such certificate, it shall be lawful for such court, to appoint a committee, into whose hands shall be committed such insane's estate, for the safe keeping and good management thereof; which committee shall have power to sue for, and recover all debts due to, and be liable to be sued for all debts due from such insane person, in the same manner as executors to deceased persons are or may be; and out of the profits of such insane person's estate, the said court may direct to be defrayed, the expenses attending, as well the removal as the annual support of every such person while remaining in the said hospital, to be paid to the said court of directors: Provided, That such county, city, or borough court, may allow a reasonable support to the family of such insane person, (if any he hath,) out of his estate, so that neither the expenses attending such insane person, nor the allowance to his family, shall defeat the claims of his or her creditors. Upon the appointment of any such committee by the court as aforesaid, such court shall take bond, with good security, in a sufficient penalty, for the true and faithful performance of the trust thereby reposed in them; and in case of failure in the examining justices to perform the duties by this act enjoined, or in case of failure in any such court, to appoint committees 93 as aforesaid, and to take such bond and security as is hereby required, the justices in either case so refusing or neglecting, shall forfeit and pay for every such refusal or neglect one hundred and fifty dollars, to be prosecuted for, and recovered by the attorney general in the name of the said court of directors, for the use of the commonwealth.
7. If any person possessing lands or other property in this commonwealth, shall have removed, or shall hereafter remove out of the state, the high court of chancery, or the court of the county or corporation in which the greater part of such person's property is, (on satisfactory proof being made that such person has become insane) shall and may appoint a committee, into whose hands shall be committed such insane's estate, for the safe keeping thereof, and for the necessary support of such insane, and his or her family; which committee shall give the like security, have the same powers, and be governed by the same rules, as are prescribed for the committees appointed by virtue of a certificate from justices of the peace, who have examined insane persons, agreeably to the directions of this act.
8. In case an infant child or ward, be suggested by the parent or guardian of such infant child or ward, to be of unsound mind, the court of the county, city or borough, wherein such person may reside, shall appoint three justices, to examine into the state of his or her mind; and upon the report of the said justices, if the suggestion appears to be true, such court shall order the insane to be removed to the hospital, in the manner before directed, where he or she shall be received and registered.
9. The expense of maintaining and endeavouring to cure a registered insane, shall be paid by the public, and reimbursed out of his estate, (if any such there be); and in case of an infant, not an orphan, shall be reimbursed by the parent, if of sufficient ability to support such infant; to be adjudged of, and certified by the court of that county, where the parent resides, and may in either case be recovered by an action, in the name of the directors, who shall account for what shall thus come to their hands.
10. Accounts of expenses incurred in the execution of this act, as well as for repairing the hospital, and other necessary incidental works and services, shall be 94 audited and discharged in the same manner as other public accounts.
11. The directors shall enlarge every person confined in the hospital, who shall appear to them to be perfectly cured of insanity, and give such person a certificate thereof.
12. A person registered in the hospital, shall nevertheless, during the time of his or her confinement, be deemed an inhabitant of that county, in which was his or her legal settlement, at the time of his or her removal to the hospital.
13. In case of the absence of the president of the directors, the members present, may choose a president, pro tempore.
14. Any director who shall remove to the distance of twenty miles or upwards, from the said hospital, shall be considered as having vacated his office.
15. Not more than two persons shall be paid as a guard for removing any insane person to the said hospital; which two, shall have the same allowance made them for their services, as is at present allowed to guards employed in removing criminals, and who shall be paid by the court of directors, out of the monies appropriated for the use of the hospital.
16. Where any person of unsound mind, is, or shall be seized or possessed of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, in trust, or by way of mortgage, the committee appointed for the care of such person, on the petition of one or more of the parties interested, and after hearing them all, may execute any such deed, or perform any other such act, as the trustee or mortgagee, if he were of sound mind, might have executed or performed. And such deed or other act, shall be as valid, except that he shall not be bound by a warranty or other covenant contained in the deed. Such committee may also make or take a surrender of a former lease, or take or make a new lease, as the case may require, and as it shall seem most for the advantage of such insane person; out of whose estate, any fine that may be advanced, and all other just expenses that may be incurred in order to obtain a new lease to him, shall be reimbursed, and the new lease shall not only be chargeable with such fine and expenses, but shall remain subject to all incumbrances which the lease surrendered would have been subject to.95
17. The lands, tenements and chattels, of all idiots and lunatics whatsoever, shall be kept in like manner as is herein before directed, in the case of such as be sent to the hospital, safely, without waste or destruction; and they and their household, shall live and be maintained competently, with the profits of the same; and the residue, besides their sustentation, shall be kept for their use, to be delivered unto them when they come to right mind; and if they die in such state, their lands and chattels shall be distributed in the manner directed by the act, intituled, "An act to reduce into one the several acts directing the course of descents."
18. All and every act and acts, clause and clauses of acts, concerning any matter or thing within the purview of this act, are, and shall be henceforth repealed.
19. This act shall commence in force from and after the passing thereof.148
Though the hospital remained open during the 1790's it failed to obtain adequate financial support. Finally James Galt called on Gov. Henry Lee with a letter dated July 14, 1794, from Robert Andrews, a member of the Court of Directors and professor at the College of William and Mary:
Mr. Galt waits on you for the purpose of procuring money for the use of the Lunatic hospital, and supposing it might give more weight to his application, he has requested me to represent to you the necessities of that institution. I am sensible that this is not necessary, and that your directions respecting the draft will depend on the state of the Public treasury. When the directors of the hospital last met on enquiry into the claims on it, they found them to amount nearly to the sum now applied for, and I believe Mr. Galt has been obliged to borrow money of his friends for its support.149
The problem was not the asylum's alone, for the state government was nearly destitute. On October 20, 1794, J. Ambler wrote to the Lieutenant-Governor: 96
The extremely embarrassed state of the Treasury compels me to solicit the advice and direction of the Hon'ble Board.
We have at present in the public Chest $6,882.97 cents only, and we have had for some time past the most pressing demands made on us, on account of the State's subscriptions to the several Canals; the Federal Building; for the support of the Lunatic Hospital and the public Arsenal, to the amount of more than fifty thousand dollars--besides numberless warrants hourly presented by individuals, and payment pressed in the most urgent manner. Should we attempt to discharge these as they come in, the Treasury will be exhausted in a few days, and of course the firstmentioned claims remain totally unprovided for. Under this extreme embarrassment, I must entreat the advice and direction of the Hon'ble The Executive, who alone are authorized to determine what claims the present exigencies of Government may render it necessary to give a preference to.150
Though major alterations and additions were not carried out during the 1790's minor repairs were made at the hospital.
Minutes of a meeting held on February 10, 1791, show that the directors
Ordered that Robert Andrews Joseph Hornsby and James Southall Gent. or any two of them be appointed a Committee to contract with proper Workmen for erecting the necessary buildings to this Hospital.151On August 11, 1792, the directors
Ordered that Champion Travis & Robert Greenhow Gent. be appointed to contract with proper Workmen for erecting the necessary buildings to this Hospital in the room of the Committee formerly appointed.152On October 17, 1793, the directors
Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital be directed to have a Room built for the purpose of holding Corn and other Grain and that the expence thereof be paid by the Treasurer.15397 On February 19, 1794, they
Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital be directed to have built three Necessary Houses for the use of the Hospital.154Humphrey Harwood presented this account for repairs in 1794:
155 On May 16, 1794, the directors
The Hospital of Lunatics Dr. Cr. 1794 th £ S D £ S D Feby. 19 To 1 days Hire of Nat, & 2 Bushls. Lime a 9d. 0.5.6 March 3d. To whitewashing one Room a 3/. & ½ Busl. Whitewh. a 2/ -.4.- To mending oven & ½ Bushl. Lime a 9d -.1.6 April 23 To 3/4 of a days Hire of Nat a 4/ -.3.-
Ordered that Mr. President, Mr. Bracken, Mr. Benjamin Waller, Mr. Andrews, & Mr. Hunt be appointed a Committee any three of whom may act for the purpose of agreeing with proper workmen to enlarge the Walks or Yards of that part of the Hospital allotted to the patients so as to comprehend all the ground East and West, South of the building reserving sufficient ground for the Domestic Accommodation of the Hospital.156On November 1, 1794,
The Court anxious that the humane intentions of the legislature in establishing this Hospital for the accommodation of the unfortunate objects of its institution may be fully answered and convinced both from their own observation and the Report of the Physician that the Yards ought to be considerably enlarged, and at the same time guarded against the inconveniency to which they are exposed in the Summer Months from being so limitted in the grounds at present appropriated to their use, think it their duty to propose to the Legislature the enlargement of the Yards of the Hospital.
Resolved therefore that the Delegate from the City of Williamsburg be requested to move the Legislature to 98 direct that the expences which it is conceived will not exceed four hundred pounds and which may be incurred in such enlargement of the Yards be paid out of the public Treasury.157
On May 13, 1797, the directors
Ordered that James Galt be allowed the sum of five pounds fourteen Shillings being the amount of the Cost for inclosing the Lot purchased by the Directors of Sally Curtis and that the Treasurer pay the same.158
When Sally Curtis purchased this property [lot 77 and probably also 76] from William Cole on August 14, 1780, it was described as "lying on the south of the Street opposite to the Mad House now in the occupation and use of Sarah Curtis, formerly the property of Charles Taliaferro & by him sold to John Ferguarson of whom I bought them for a valuable consideration."159 The plan of Williamsburg drawn by Benjamin Bucktrout in August 1800 labels lots 76 and 77 "Taliaferro" and indicates that there was a spring on lot 77. Mention of the spring also appears in a description of the asylum included in a report of a committee of the House of Delegates to examine the Lunatic Hospital in 1835.160
On October 14, 1789, the directors
Ordered that Mr. Bracken and Mr. Travis be appointed to examine the inclosure round the Hospital, and if necessary in their opinion, to have such temporary repairs done as may be requisite.161James Galt reported to the directors on July 21, 1800, that the gutters needed immediate repairs: 99
The Keeper of the Hospital having stated to the Court that the Gutters of the building were in a ruinous state, and that the said building would probably receive considerable injury unless a speedy repair was made. Therefore Ordered that he the said Keeper contract with some proper person for the immediate repairs of the same and that he lay before the Court an Account of the expence thereof for their inspection.162On September 1, 1800, the directors asked James Galt to purchase a dozen windsor chairs:
Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital furnish one dozen Windsor Chairs for the use of the House, and that the Treasurer make payment for the same.163
Orders to the Treasurer for payment indicate other work done for the hospital. William T. Galt presented claims for making coffins and unspecified carpenter's work (1795-1798) ; James Semple for bricklayer's work (1795-1801); Josias Moody for [black]smith's work (1796-1800); Robert Greenhow for plank, scantling,and necessaries (1798-1799); William Piggott for carpenter's work and repairs (1798-1799); William Allen for timber (1799); and John Bowden for carpenter's work (1801).164
Several descriptions of Williamsburg for the mid-1790's mention the hospital. In 1795 St. George Tucker, a resident and professor of law at the College of William and Mary, published a letter to the Reverend Jedediah Morse, author of The American Universal Geography. Tucker mentioned the hospital and other public buildings: 100
The hospital for lunatics, a church, the town and county court house, and a magazine, now occupied as a market house, complete the list of public edifices: neither of them appears to have been constructed with any view of architectural fame. -- The hospital for lunatics is calculated to accommodate between twenty and thirty patients in separate rooms, or cells. They have, I believe, never been all filled at the same time; the house is neatly kept, and the patients well attended; but convalescents have not sufficient room for free air, and exercise, without danger of making their escape...165
Duc de Francois Alexandre Frederic La Lochefoucauld-Laincourt who visited Williamsburg in 1796, wrote about the hospital:
There is besides at Williamsburg an hospital for lunatics, which is supported from the public treasury. It is a fine building; but in it the unfortunate maniacs are rather abandoned to their wretched state than subjected to any treatment which might tend to their recovery. From the observations made in Virginia on maniacal complaints, the principal causes assigned for them are enthusiastic devotion and spiritous liquors; and it appears that such as arise from the latter of these causes are less difficult of cure than those which owe their origin to the former. There are only fifteen lunatics of both sexes in this hospital, which is capable of containing thirty.166
Isaac Weld, generally displeased with what he observed in Williamsburg in 1796, made this comment about the hospital: "There is an hospital here for lunatics, but it does not appear to be well regulated."167
In 1797, seven years after the act authorizing the fitting up of three cells in the basement of the hospital, the directors 101 finally took steps toward making this addition. Lack of need for their use may explain the delay:
[June 17, 1797]
John Bracken and Champion Travis are by the Court appointed to contract with proper Workmen for the fitting up three Cells for the reception of Lunatics.168
[July 20, 1797]
Mr. Bracken and Mr. Travis who were by this Court appointed to contract for the fitting up of three additional Cells, reported, that on examining the foundation of the building they had found that its depth was not sufficent to admit of them; whereupon It is Ordered that they proceed no farther in the said Work.
Ordered that Public notice be given that no more Male Lunatics can be received into the Hospital, until the present number of Lunatics shall be diminished, or the building enlarged, of which notice shall be given.169
[March 28, 1799]
Ordered that two Cells be prepared as soon as possible for the reception of the patients, one on each side of the Cellar, and that the Keeper be directed to have the same done upon the best terms he can.170
[June 5, 1799]
Ordered that the Clerk of the Hospital notify to the Public by Advertising in the Public Gazette that no more patients can be received into the Hospital until further notice, all the Cells being now full.171
During the early years wood enclosures surrounded the yards where patients were confined. The directors took steps in 1799 and 1800 to replace the wooden enclosures with brick ones:
[August 3, 1799]
It appearing to the directors from their own view that the yards in which the Patients are confined require to be entirely rebuilt, and it also appearing to the Court that a Brick inclosure will be most convenient and in the 102 end less expensive. It is ordered that Mr. Greenhow and Mr. Saunders be appointed a Committee to receive proposals for the same and Report to the Court the probable expence which will attend the said Inclosure.172
[August 15, 1799]
The Committee appointed to receive proposals for rebuilding the yards to the Hospital with Brick, Reported, that they had published the same, and that James Semple had offered to erect the said Walls in a Workmanlike manner at the price of eleven dollars for every thousand Bricks which the said Walls may contain. Ordered that the Committee aforesaid be requested to enter into a contract with the said James Semple for the building the said Walls on the terms aforesaid, which Walls are to be each ten feet in the whole hight, two Bricks thick, Ninety feet in length, and forty feet wide.173
[August 26, 1799]
The Committee appointed to contract with James Semple for building the Walls around the Yards at the Hospital reported that they had entered into a contract for the same, and had taken Bond with approved security for the execution thereof.
Ordered that the Treasurer pay to James Semple twelve hundred and fifty Dollars as an advance under the contract above mentioned.174
[June 3, 1800]
It appearing to the court upon enquiry that the Yards to be built to the Hospital under a Contract entered into between the Directors and James Semple of this City, will be much more convenient and commodious by altering the size thereof. It is Agreed between the contracting parties that instead of the size mentioned in the said Contract, the said Yards shall be Seventy two feet in length, forty seven feet wide, and twelve feet high from the foundation each. That the Walls shall be three Bricks in thickness from the foundation to the surface of the Earth, two and an half Bricks thick from the surface aforesaid to the Water-table, and two Bricks thick from the Watertable to the top of the Wall. That the said James Semple be paid for the same after the rate of Eleven Dollars for every thousand Bricks which the said Walls may contain agreeable to the Contract aforesaid.175
[July 19, 1800]
James Semple having informed the Court that the yard to the East end of the Hospital which he had contracted with the Directors to build, was now completed, the same was examined and inspected by the Court, whereupon It is Ordered that the same be received.176
[July 21, 1800]
The Physicians to the Hospital having stated to the Court that a covered Walk within the Brick yards to the Hospital was necessary for the protection of the Patients from the heat of the Sun.
Ordered that the Keeper have the same erected on the best terms he can, and that the expences attending the same be laid before the Court for their inspection.177
[August 22, 1800]
Ordered that Mr. Bracken, Mr. Greenhow, and Mr. Travis be appointed a Committee to Superintend the building the Brick Wall to inclose the yard at the West end of the Hospital.178
[September 22, 1800]
Ordered that James Semple have leave to make use of a direct passage through the North Yard of the Hospital for the purpose of conveying the necessary materials to the Brick Yard now building at the West end of the Hospital, and that he leave the same in the like order he finds it.179
[October 1, 1800]
Ordered that the Treasurer of the Hospital be directed to apply to the Executive for a Warrant from the Auditor of Public Accounts on the Treasurer of the State for Two thousand Dollars to defray the extraordinary expences incurred in the erection of the two Brick Yards, and the ordinary expences of the institution.180
[October 10, 1800]
Ordered that the Treasurer of the Hospital pay to James Semple five hundred Dollars on Account, in part payment of his contract for building the Brick Yards of the Hospital.181
[October 25, 1800]
Mr. James Semple having completed the Brick Yard at the West end of the building, the Court viewed the same, and it appearing to have been finished agreeable to contract It is Ordered that the same be received.
Ordered that Mr. Bracken and Mr. Andrews be appointed a Committee to measure the Walls of Both Yards built by Mr. Semple and to estimate the amount thereof to be paid for agreeable to the contract entered into with the said Semple.182
On June 24, 1800, the directors received eighteen locks ordered by James Galt from Matthew Anderson:
Ordered that the Locks being eighteen in number imported by Matthew Anderson under the direction of the Keeper of the Hospital for the use of the said Hospital be received, and that the Treasurer make payment for the same with a Commission of five percentum on the amount of the Cost and charges attending the importation thereof.183
[August 23, 1800]
Ordered Matthew Anderson be requested to make sale of the Locks imported by him for the use of the Hospital At the price they cost the Public, the Court finding upon inspection they do not answer the purpose for which they were intended.184
Matthew Anderson's daybook (1800-1804) records the sale of some of these locks:
[June 1, 1801]
Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital apply to Mr. Matthew Anderson for four of the Locks belonging to the Hospital which were deposited with him for sale for the use of the Hospital.185
Williamsburg April 15, 1801
Cash Dr. To the Lunatic Hospital Received of Capt. Bright for a lock £1.8.-
Williamsburg August 3, 1801
Littleton Tazewell To The Lunatic Hospital for an Iron Rim Lock £1.8.-
Williamsburg January 13, 1803186
Merchandise dr. To Lunatic Hospital for two locks sold Colo. Cary 2.16.-
Dr. John de Sequeyra remained physician to the Hospital from 1773 until his death in 1795. However, as an account quoted earlier shows, Dr. John Minson Galt treated patients at the hospital in the years 1773-1775. As early as 1783, Galt and Dr. Philip Barraud treated some patients at the hospital, as this account indicates:
Dr: Lunatic Hospitall 1783 Jan 6 Pill Misc ij? 2 Cerat (Fanny) 8/. March 31 ? 2 Cerat 1/ 9.- 1787 May 23 Pulv Cath (Fanny) 1/6 1.6 July 5 Visit Howlet 5/ 9th Dressing Howlet 6/ .11.- 24 Crem Tart Howlet 3/. Septr 10th Pill Merc dos iij Janny 4.6 Dec. 7 Pulv. Merc. dos ij. Howlet dos iij. Bol. Camphor dos I. p Cath (Fanny) 8.- 28 Pulv. Cath. Merc. dos vi Bol. Cord dos XI 15.- 1788 Jany 22 Visit Vredue & fractured finger Howlet. Feb. 7th ?iss. Cerat. 10.0 March 18 Pulv Cath do Vj. Ap. 2d. Vin. Antimon. ?i 10.6 Apr. 23 Pil. Merc. dos XXX. Pulv Cath dos xii 1.7.- May 23 Vin Emet I June 25th. ?ss. Vin Antimon 2.3 July 19 Pulv Cath No XII 12/ Pil alter at No. LX 20/ Aug. 29th ?3 Vin. Emet 1.15.- Oct. 7 Pot. Cath. Emp Vesic. & P. Cort dos ijj. Daniel James 7.- 106 [Oct.] 17 ?iij. Vin. Antimon. 26th. Pulv. Cath dos vij 10.-.- Nov. 4 ?i. Castor. Russ. 5. VS. Parish 19th. VS. Barret. ij. Pulv. Serp. 8.6 Dec. 10 ?ss Tinct. Thebaic. 1.- £8.-.3 1789 Mar. 15 P. Cath. Dos. xii 12/ Vin. Antimon. ?IV 4/ 16.- June 22 ?ss. Ipecac 1/6 P. Cath. dos xii 12/ Pil. Merc dos xxx. 15/ 1.8.6 Aug 12 Pulv Cath dos xxiv 24/. Pil Merc. dos. 60. 30/ 2.14.- £4.18.6 1790 Apl 28 V. S. Mr. Parish 3/. May 11th. Vin. Antimon ?viij 10/ 10.- 25 Cathartics 25/. July 1st. ij Laud Liq 5/. P. Cath dos iij c ol. Cm 1.16. July 9 VS. Woman 3/. Aud. 2d. Pil. onis dos ij Pulv. Restoin sevt. 5/ 8.-.- Sep 2 Vint Snow Decoct. Antiseptic xi 12.- Octr. 6 P. Cath dos. xxvj 36/. ?ij. E. Vitriol 5/ ?i P . Ipecac 8/ 2.4.- i T. Thebaic 2/6 Novr. 15 Emp. Vesic Burton 5.6 Nov. 23 Emp. Vesic 27th. P. Teb. CDvjii. Decr. 16th Pil. Alt. No IX 1.19.- £13.2. 1791 May 9 To acct. render'd to this date from The Hospital Book. 5.12.- 1792 Mar 23 To dressing Smith from this date to June 23. with Dressings for Leg &c 2/6 per day 11.12.6 To dressing Brady's feet from 23 March to to 23 June with dressings @ 2/6 per day 11.12..6 May 25 Pill Merc do XI abd dos 2 oz VS Hill & pill Cath 7/ 1.7. Tart solub ?ij 8/. Tinct Metamp ?ij Ballu 5/ 13.- 107 June 22 Emp visccoit pulv bash 4.- £25.9.- Dr. continued 1792 June 23 To dressings & surgery Smith & Brady from this date to Jany 1. 1793-- in which time they were dressed 115 days Each @ 2/6. each per day 28.15. July 16 pulv bath iv 4/ pill Cath 2/6 pill merc 2/6 9.- pill Alter do xv 7/6 ?ij Tart Solub 8/ 15.6 Aug 2 Mist Antidisent. 5/. Mist rep 5/ 10.-.- Sep 16 pulv cath ij 2/. 18 PCP dd xxiv 12/ 14.- 18 Pulv Cath 1/ 1.- 31.4.6 1793 May 2 Pulv Cath no iiij May 15th Bol Camph dos xxx & P. Cath No 4.1.3 - 17 VS (Fuz) June 8th VS (Hill) 6.- July 3 Dressing Bradys feet to the 30th of this Month Aug 4 p. Emet (Nancy Lock) 14th Mist Aotring 8 (For Do 5.- 19 Mist antidysent ?xij (Nancy Lock) 6.- Sept 16 Pulv Ipecac ?i 18th Emp Vesicat & P. Tudor dos vi (Hill 8.- Novr 30 Dressing Smith 120 Days Pill alter dos x & Cath (Brady) 6.- Decr 1 Dressing Smith from this day 1794 Feby 10 Emp Vesicat & Mist Draphor ?x (Mrs Ship) 7.6 18 Pulv Camph dos 8 & Mist mindor ?8 iij. Pulv & Mist rept 16.- Mar 23 Pill merc ij dos P. Cath dos vi May 9th 8.- 4.5.6 Carried to Ledger B folo. 133
On February 10, 1791, Sequeyra requested that the directors accept the offers of Dr. John M. Galt and Dr. Philip Barraud to assist him: 108
Doct. d. Sequeyra Physician to this Hospital having mentioned to the Directors that from indisposition he is apprehensive of being some times prevented from attending the Hospital and Doctor Galt and Doctor Barraud having offered him their assistance.
Resolved that this Court doth approve of the said proposition.188
The appointment of Dr. John Minson Galt and Dr. Philip Barraud as physicians commenced February 14, 1795:
Resolved that Messrs. Galt and Barraud be appointed Physicians to this Hospital (and Surgeons) and that they be allowed a Salary of Fifty pounds per Annum to commence on the fourteenth day of February 1795.189On March 31, 1795, the directors
At their next meeting on June 30, 1795, the directors rescinded the order for a medicine chest and agreed to compensate Galt and Barraud for medicine supplied by them:
Resolved that a Book be kept at the Hospital in which the Physician is to make regular entries of the State of the patients, his attendance, and prescriptions.
Ordered that a Medicine Chest be purchased for the use of the Hospital under the direction of the Physician.190
Ordered that the order made on the 31st of March last directing that a Medicine Chest be purchased for the use of the Hospital be Rescinded and that Messrs. Galt and Barraud be allowed the sum of Ten pounds per annum in addition to the Salary allowed them as a full compensation for the Medicine necessary for the Hospital and for their attendance in all cases of Surgery, to commence on the fourteenth of February 1795.191On November 7, 1796, the directors
Ordered that the Resolution entered into on the 31st day of March 1795 directing a Book to be kept for the 109 purpose of making regular entries by the Physicians be amended as follows "Resolved that the Physicians of the Hospital be desired to attend at least once in every Week, and oftener if the particular state of any of the Patients shall require it, and that a Book be kept in which they shall enter the State of the Patients, their attendance, and prescriptions."
Ordered that the Keeper of the Hospital do visit all the Patients in their Cells at least once in every day, and see that the same are kept in Order.192
James Galt died December 8, 1800. At its December 16, 1800, meeting the directors
The temporary appointment of William T. Galt, son of James Galt and nephew of Dr. John Minson Galt, became permanent. Mary Galt, William's stepmother, remained matron of the hospital.
Resolved that an appointment to the said office of Keeper be made; to commence on the first day of January next, and to continue until the first day of October next, and that the Court will proceed to a permanent appointment to the said Office on the last Tuesday in September next.
Resolved that William T. Galt be appointed temporary keeper of the Hospital agreeable to the proceeding Resolution.193
There is a gap in the minute books of the court of directors between July 23, 1801, and December 5, 1822.
In January 1802 the General Assembly passed another act concerning the support and maintenance of lunatics:
An ACT to amend an act, entituled, "An act reducing into one the several acts making provision for the restraint, support and maintenance of ideots and lunatics, and the preservation and management of their estates."
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That the committee of the estate of an ideot or lunatic removed to the hospital in the city of Williamsburg, shall account with the auditor of public accounts and pay into the treasury, as well what he may be liable to pay for the expenses attending the removal of such ideot or lunatic, as for his or her annual support while in the hospital; and the bond of such committee shall in all future cases be so changed as to make him account and pay as aforesaid, and the said committee shall account for and pay the said expenses of removal and the first year's support of such ideot or lunatic, within twelve months after the date of his bond, and the allowance for his or her annual support on or before the same day in each year thereafter, so long as the said ideot or lunatic shall remain in the hospital.
2. Be it further enacted, That the clerk of the court by whom the committee shall be appointed to an ideot or lunatic so removed as aforesaid, within six months thereafter, shall transmit to the auditor, a certified copy of the bond of such committee, and also of the order of such court relative to said ideot or lunatic, and his estate; and the court of directors shall, whenever an ideot or lunatic shall be received into such hospital, certify to the auditor an account of the expenses attending his or her removal, and also the sum allowed for his or her annual support, and when any such ideot or lunatic shall be discharged, the court of directors shall certify the same to the auditor of public accounts, which copy of the bond of a committee with the order of the court 111 aforesaid, and the certificate of the court of directors may be given, and shall be received as evidence against any such committee on a motion made against him under this act; and if any such committee shall fail to account and pay into the treasury as aforesaid, the expenses attending such removal and the allowance for the annual support of such ideot or lunatic so long as he or she shall remain in the said hospital, then and in that case the auditor shall be, and he is hereby authorized and required, forthwith to recover of such committee by motion in the general court, the sum due on account of such ideot or lunatic: Provided always, That twenty days previous notice be given to such committee of the said motion.
3. All acts and parts of acts, coming within the purview of this act, are hereby repealed.
4. Provided, That when an ideot or lunatic shall be sent to the hospital and a committee shall be appointed, no suit or action depending against such ideot or lunatic shall abate, but a scire facias shall issue against the committee, and the same proceedings shall be had thereupon against such committee as if the said suit or action had originally been brought against him, and the judgment shall be entered up against him, upon which a fieri facias only shall issue, to be levied of the goods and chattels of the ideot or lunatic in the hands of such committee. And when an ideot or lunatic shall be discharged from the hospital, no suit depending against his committee shall abate, but a scire facias as aforesaid, shall issue against the person so discharged, and the same judgment shall be had against him or her in the same manner as if such suit had been originally brought against him or her.
5. This act shall commence and be in force from and after the passing thereof.194
Several accounts for work between 1803 and 1805 refer to architectural and other details of the hospital [repairing brickwork, rooms, cupola (steeple), porch, cellar, men's apartment, roof, store room, bath house, stable, wood pile, and building a corn house and shelter in the men's yard]: 112
Lunatic Hospital Dr.
1803 To Robert Ratcliff May 3 To 12 Bus. lime @ 1/ £ 12.- 250 Bricks @ 3/ 7.6 4 days work of a Bricklayer @ 6/ 1.4.- 2 ditto of a Labourer @ 3/ 6.- Whitewashing 18 rooms @ 3/ 2.14.- 4 Passages @ 8/ 1.12.- 1 Stairway 3.- June 13 To 11 Bus. lime 11/ 1 load sand 9d 11.9 100 Bricks 3.- 6 days Work of a Bricklayer @ 6/ 1.16.- 3 ditto of a Labourer @ 3/ 9.- 25 To 2 ditto of a Bricklayer @ 6/ 12.- July 7 To 4 Bus. lime 4/ 100 Bricks 3/ 7.- 1 Days work Reubin Ratcliff 7.6 1 ditto Ben 6.- 1 ditto Labourer 3.- Augt 27 To 6 Bus. lime 6/ 100 Bricks 3/ 9.- 2 days work of a Bricklayer 12.- Whitewashing 1 Room 3.- 29 To finding and laying 5655 Bricks @ $10 16.19.3 £29.17.-
Wm. T. Galt
Allowed by the Court of Directors Decr. 27th. 1803195
Will Russell CC
Received of Ro. Greenhow this 18th. of February 1804
the Sum within mention'd
1803 The Lunatic Hospital To John Bowden Dr £ S D To a door for the Mens apartment 6.- Aug 3 To a Coffin for Joe Thomas 1.-.- 4 To ditto Mary Johnson 1.-.- 26 To ditto Nancy Farm 1.-.- Sept. 26 To do Agatha Chainie 1.-.- To 8 Cellar window frames @ 7/6 3.-.- To a new jam & sill for a door, hanging & fastning 5.9 To 3 new window Sills 1.10-½ To Benches for Portch @ 1/ p foot for 28 feet 1.8.- To repairs to Ballusters of the portch 16.8 113 [Sept. 26] To do for the floor of do 8.9 To 29 feet of Scantling @ 3d 7.3 To 30 feet of Sill facing 3-½ 8.9 To making a Shutter 2.6 To putting on 4 Iron straps to Portch 1.6 To 12 pannells of new paling @ 2/3 1.7.- To glazing 64 panes of glass @ 4d 1.4.4 To framing, palling & railing wood pile 16.3 To planking Stable 3.9 To 8 posts for Bath house 11 feet long 2/ each 16.- To 5-½ Squares of planking @ 5/ p square for do 1.7.6 To 5-½ Squares of framing @ 3/9 p sqr. do l.-.7-½ To 5-½ squares of framing & planking roof @ 3/9 do 1.-.7-½ To plank and framing Shed to do 12.- To making & hanging a door for do 5.- To Sleepers C[ ? ] & flooring 1.4.- To ducking Chair 18.- To repair to the Vally & Steeple of the house 8.- To making & fitting circular Sash 5.- To One Lindsay painting 22 days @ 6/ p day 6.12.- To George Tunaing do 19 do @ 5/ do 4.15.- To 21 pannels of pails 3 rails to the Pannel @ 3/ 3.3.- £37.2.1-½
Alld. by the Directors
Decr. 27. 1803. W. Russell CC. Wm. T. Galt
Be pleased to pay to James Henderson or order the within account & oblige
To the Treasurer of Lunatic Hospital
Your mo obt Servt John Bowden
Willbg 4th Jany 1804
Recd 21 Feby 1804 the amount of the within Account of196
We hereby certify that the House, intended for the purpose of Keeping Corn at the Lunatic Hospital has been finished according to contract. Jno Bowden was the undertaker. The amount of Bowdens bill was £41..6..3 Jany 2. 1804
Littn. Tazewell Comm
James Semple sr. do.
Decr. 5th. Cash advanced him for Purchase of £ S D
Recd payment of Ro. Greenhow this 22d Jany 1805 paymt. in full for the within agreeable to contract.
15..0..0 Cash advanced as above
£26..6..3 paid him Jno. Bowden
The Lunatic Hospital to John Bowden Dr
1804 March 27th To putting up shelves in store room 5.6 To repairs about the stable 3.0 To putting on 2 Locks @ 1/3 2.6 To making cart & finding Timber 1.16.- To repairing Lower Cell 7.6 To 42 feet of ¼ plank for do 9.10 To making Gate finding scantling & Hanging 6.6 £3.10.10
Recd paymt of the above of Ro. Greenhow this 9th of April 1804 for John Bowden
Wm. T. Galt198
The Lunatic Hospital
In acct. with John Bowden
1804 £ S D April 9th Puting up shelves in Store room 7/6 0.7.6 To a horse manger 3/ puting on two lock 2/6d 0.5.6 Repairing two lower Cells 9/ finding 42 feet 1-¼ plank 9/ 0.18.- Building shelter in mens yard @ 60/ 3.0.0 Steps to bath house & finding plank 12/ 0.12.0 115 [April 9] Making a Gate 6/ Moving two Small houses 24/ 1.10.0 Augst 2d To a Coffin for John Tann 20/ Building a room 24/ 2.4.0 Putting 2 locks on Cellar door 2/6 2 Sills to windows 6/ 0.8.6 To puting 2 Jambs and a Sill to Cellar Door 7/6d 0.7.6 To repairing Cellar door 3/6d finding 2,1 feet of Scantling 5/ 0.8.6 Puting on a lock on bath house 1/3d 0.1.3 £10.2.9 deduct for plank furnished by J. Henderson 4.8 Wm. T. Galt £9.18.1
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors Sept. 25th 1804 And ordered for payment
W. Russell C.C.
Please to pay Mr. Randolph Roper the above sum and oblige yours
Septer. 27th. 1804
Octr. 19th. 1804 Then recd payment of the within Sum in full of Ro. Greenhow199
The Lunatic Hospital To James Semple Dr.
1804 May 8th To 1 Bushel of lime 1/ mending a back 2/ 3.0 whitewashing 29 Rooms C 3/ 4.7.0 5 Passages @ 8/ 8/ 2.0.0 3 Stairways @ 3/ 2 lower Cells 3/ 15.0 2 Closets @ 3/ loch * 6.0 £7.11 0 *deduct over charge 2.0 £7.9.0
Wm. T. Galt
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors the 29th June 1804 And Ordered to be certified for payment
Teste W. Russell C.C.200
On January 23, 1804, the General Assembly appropriated $1500* for the erection of an addition to accommodate patients, the keeper and the matron:
An ACT authorizing an addition to be built to the lunatic hospital in Williamsburg.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That the court of directors of the lunatic hospital in the city of Williamsburg shall be and they are hereby authorized and required to cause to be erected and built an addition to the present hospital in the said city, or a separate building, at their discretion for the accommodation of the patients, the keeper and matron of the said hospital. And the auditor of public accounts is hereby authorized and required to issue to the order of the court of directors a warrant or warrants on the treasury, for any sum not exceeding four hundred and fifty pounds, in addition to the sum appropriated for the use of the said hospital, to be paid out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, and to be applied by the said court towards the erection of said building: Provided, That it shall not be lawful for the said directors to expend in the erection of the said building more than the sum herein before mentioned; nor shall the commonwealth in any event be liable for any excess.
2. This act shall commence and be in force from and after the passing thereof.202
On April 20, 1804, the directors ordered Robert Greenhow, treasurer of the hospital, to pay fifty dollars in advance to Carver Mercer, undertaker. of the additional building.203
Carver Mercer presented a bill for £9.18..0 dated September 28, 1804, for an extra fireplace and a step ladder: 117
Lunatic Hospital To Carver Mercer Dr.
1804 Sepbr 28th To building Extra fire place containing 3000 bricks @ £3 p 1000 9.0.0 To a Step ladder @ 18/ 18.0 £9.18..0
Wm T Galt204
The Convalescent House was completed in April 1805. John Bracken, Littleton Tazewell, and Champion Travis, directors, reported:
We have this day examined the additional building to the Lunatic Hospital undertaken by Carver Mercer, & are of opinion that it is finished according to Contract, & that the Treasurer pay to the said Mercer such balance as may be due thereon
Aprl. 22. 1805
April 20 Recd of the Treasurer $50.00 May 26 1804 Recd of the Treasurer $300.00 Septr 11 Do Do 500.00 Decr 1 Do Do 100.00 April 25 1805 Then recd of the Treasurer the balce. remaining agreeable to the within order 550.00 Carver Mercer 1500.00
Aprl. 25, 1805
Surviving accounts mention repairs for maintenance. In 1805, in addition to general repairs, John Bowden and William Henley repaired a stable (20 feet by 12 feet), repaired a smokehouse and shed (10 feet by 18 feet), moved the necessary, repaired old paling and hung two gates: 118
Dr. The lunatic Hospital 1805 To John Bowden & Wm Henley January 11th To making a Coffin for Mary McKenny £1.0.0 To putting on one lock 0.1.3 To glaseing 17 pains glass at 4-½d p pain 0.6.4-½ To 5 pair of strips for winders at 1/6 p pair 0.7.6 To one hanging tile 0.1.0 February 9th To makein Coffin for Addington 1.0.0 To silling a stabel 20 by 12 at 1/ p foot 3.4.0 To putting in a crossgearder and partition 0.12.0 To mooveing the same 3.0.0 Febry 17th To makeing a Coffin for Chishlam 1.0.0 To weather boarding stabel 1.16.0 To repairing shingeling 0.7.6 To one dore 3/9 to caseing and hanging the same 3/9 0.7.6 To fitting and hanging one dore and faceings 0.4.0 To faceing one dore and peaceing out flore 0.5.0 To fixing up stall rack and maingers 0.10.6 To putting on too barge boards and one cornerbord 0.3.0 To frameing in sleapers and laying flore in one end stabel 0.10.0 To silling a smoke house and shead 10 by 18 2.16.0 To a cros gearder at 6d p foot 0.5.0 To frameing sleapers and floreing smoke house and shead 0.18.0 To weather boarding smoke house and shead 1.4.0 To Caseing one dore and corner board 0.3.9 £20.2.4-½ Braught Over £20.2.4-½ March 25th To makeing Coffin for Jacob Hackler 1.0.0 To mooveing the smoke house 0.18.0 To one sil to the wall dore and found timber 0.6.0 119 [March 25] To mooveing the nessessary house 0.6.0 To mooveing and putting up 26 pannels of old pailling at 1/ p pannel 1.6.0 To repairing old pailing 0.1.6 To finding 23 feet scantling at 3-½d pr foot 0.6.10-½ To makeing and hanging 2 gates at 4/ pr gate 0.8.0 £24.14.9
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital held the 28th day of March 1805.
The above claim was allowed, and ordered to be paid by the Treasurer
Will: Russell C.L.H
Recd payment of the Treasurer April 11th 1805 in full of the above of206
In January 1805 the General Assembly passed a law to compensate persons who carried lunatics to the hospital that could not be received into the hospital:
An ACT allowing compensation to certain persons for carrying lunatics to the Williamsburg hospital, and for other purposes.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That James Vaughan shall be entitled to receive from the public treasury thirty-six dollars, for carrying a lunatic from the county of Goochland to the Williamsburg hospital, and back again to the said county; and that James C. Moorman and William Arthur shall be also entitled to draw from the public treasury fifty-seven dollars, for carrying a lunatic from the county of Campbell to the same hospital, and back again; and that Emanuel I. Leigh and John Chaffin, shall also be entitled to receive from the public treasury forty dollars, for carrying a lunatic from the county of Prince Edward to the aforesaid hospital, and back again to the said county; and the auditor of public accounts is hereby authorized and required to issue his warrants for the same.
2. And be it enacted, That when the board of directors shall refuse to receive any lunatic in the said 120 hospital for want of room therein, the officer and guard to whom such lunatic was entrusted, shall carry him or her back to the county from whence such lunatic was brought, and deliver him or her to the magistrates before whom the examination was had, who are authorized and required to give to the officer conducting such lunatic, a certificate of the services so performed by himself and guard: whereupon, the auditor shall issue a warrant in favour of such officer and guard for the same allowance as if the lunatic had been regularly received. And, in any such case of a lunatic returned to the county from whence he was sent, if it shall be necessary to confine such lunatic in the jail of the county, the jailor shall be compelled to receive such lunatic, and shall be paid for each day's maintenance of him or her in the same manner as jailors are now paid for prisoners in confinement for offences committed by them. All which expenses shall be reimbursed out of the estate of such lunatic, if any he or she may have.
3. This act shall commence and be in force from and after the passing thereof.207
An act concerning idiots and lunatics passed in January 1807 incorporated the provisions of the 1805 act.
An ACT concerning ideots and lunatics.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That when the court of directors of the hospital at Williamsburg for the reception of persons of unsound minds, shall for want of room or other cause, refuse to receive any person sent to the said hospital, under the act, entitled, "An act reducing into one the several acts making provision for the restraint, support and maintenance of ideots and lunatics, and the preservation and management of their estates," the officer and guard to whom such ideot or lunatic, or supposed ideot or lunatic was entrusted, shall carry him or her back to the magistrates before whom the examination was had, who are authorized and required to give to the officer conducting such ideot or lunatic, or supposed ideot or lunatic, a certificate of the services so performed by himself and guard, and of the distance of the said hospital from the place whence such ideot or lunatic, or supposed ideot or lunatic was sent; and upon production 121 of such certificate to the auditor of public accounts, he shall issue a warrant in favour of such officer and guard, for their services and travelling expenses, allowing to each five cents per mile for going to the said hospital, and the same for returning, besides ferriages, and allowing further to such officer, four cents per mile going, and the same returning, for each ideot or lunatic, or supposed ideot or lunatic, besides ferriages, to be paid out of any monies in the public treasury.
2. When upon the return of an insane person to the county whence he or she was sent, it shall be necessary to confine him or her in the jail thereof, the jailor shall be compelled to receive such person, and shall be paid for each day's maintenance of him or her, in the same manner as jailors are now paid for prisoners confined for offences.
3. All expenses under this act shall be reimbursed, in the manner directed by the before recited act, out of the estate of the insane person or persons, on whose account they were incurred, if any he, she or they may have: Provided, Such person or persons be found insane by the said court of directors.
4. So much of any act as comes within the purview of this act, shall be, and the same is hereby repealed.
5. This act shall commence and be in force from and after the passing thereof.208
Before May 25, 1821, when the buildings at the asylum were first insured against fire, several property owners with lands adjacent to the hospital took out policies which mentioned the hospital.
On February 7, 1806, James Moir insured his house, a kitchen, and stable, located at the corner of Main Street and a cross street which ran from Main Street past "the E end of Hospital."209
On May 5, 1806, Wilson Miles Cary insured his house and kitchen on the south side of Market Square. One of the bounds 122 of the property was a street joining James McClurg's lot and "Mad House Square."210
On September 5, 1809, Samuel Griffin insured a dwelling, laundry, kitchen, and stable occupied by Elizabeth Gatliff at the corner of Francis and Henry Streets. Henry Street separated the property from "the Lunatic Hospital Lots."211
On June 21, 1815, Samuel Travis insured his dwelling and smokehouse located on "a Street in Williamsburg dividing them from the Lunatick Hospital and situated between John Bowdens lot on the east and Thomas Turner on the North."212
On January 25, 1819, Roscow Cole insured a dwelling bounded by the "Publick Square," "Mrs. Tyler's Brickhouse," "The land of Mrs. Jane B. Cary" and the "Lunatic Hospital Grounds."213
During the spring of 1805 James Semple repaired the oven, smokehouse, well, stable, cellar, necessaries, and whitewashed rooms:
Lunatic Hospital Dr
1805 To James Semple Senr. Febury 11 To 2 Bus. lime 2/ mending oven 5/ £ 7.0 23 To 15 Bus. lime 15/ Building 2 Backs 7/6 1.2.6 Mch 10 To underpining Smoake House 10.0 Building Well within 4.0 22 Bus. lime for Stable 1.2.- Cartage 2 loads Sand 4.- 1250 Bricks @ 3/ 1.17.6 underpining Stable 12.6 mending 2 Windows & Door in the Cellar 4.6 123 April 20th To finding & laying 1100 Bricks in a Cellar Hut @ $10 3.6.0 2 Bus. lime for plastering 2.0 May 4 To 3-½ Bus. lime 3/6 mending Well 6/ 9.6 whitewashing 27 rooms @ 3/ 4.1.- 4 passages 1.12.0 1 Stairway 3.0 100 Bricks 3.0 24 To 8 Bus. lime 8/ 300 Bricks 9/ 17.- Carting Sand 2/ mending Oven 5/ 7.- underpining Necessary 10.- June 24 To Whitewashing 1 room 3.- £17.17 6
Wm. T. Galt
Allowed by the Court of Directors and ordered to be paid by the Treasurer the 25th day of June 1805.
W. Russell C.C.D.
Wmsburg June 25th. 1805 Recd. the within in full of Mr.
Robert Greenhow Jas. Semple Senr.
James Semple Rect. for $59.59214
John Bowden presented several accounts for carpentry and other repairs between 1805 and 1806:
The Lunatic Hospital 1805 In account with John Bowden £ S D April 10th Framing Cellar door way in New house making door planking &c 19.3 To building a cellar cap 1.16.0 To putting a lock on cellar door 1/3d 1.3 To 5 pairs of Glass @ 4-½ Mooving house 24/ 1.5.10-½ To building two Necessary houes 6.6.0 To 1 pannel of pails 2/ a partition up Stairs $6 1.18.0 Runing Stair case at 3 p Step 16 Steps 2.8.0 Augst 11th To a partition down Stairs 2.8.0 To a Coffin for Rebecca Mitchel 1.0.0 124 [Augst 11] Mooving Store room Shelves 0.4.6 Door fram to Stairs 10/ 2 Doors 12/ 1.2.0 puting on 3 locks 1/10-½ hand railes & bares to Stair case 6/ 0.7.10-½ To a Curb for a Well 41/ 2.1.0 To framing 4 Sqr. and 64 feet of Sleeprs @ 3/9d 18.9 4 Sqr. and 64 feet of flooring @ 12/ 2.15.6 4-½ Sqrs. of post and rail framing 3/9d 16.10-½ 4-½ Dtto. of planking at 5/ p Sqr 1.2.6 A door 5/ puting on fastings 2/6 7.6 hewing and fixing post 4/ 4.0 £28..2.10-½
Wm. T. Galt
Allowed by the Court of Directors Sept. 24th. 1805
W. Russell CC:
Recd paymt of the above in full of the Treasurer John Bowden215
The Lunatic Hospital in account with John Bowden
1805 Octr 14 To 4 pannels of pales @ 3/ p pan. £ 12.- 18 To a Coffin for James Webb 1.0.0 Dec 2d To Ditto for Mattheas Shry 1.0.0 To framing and planking platform on the top of the Hospital 5.10.0 To 72 feet of Ladders @ 9d p foot 2.14.0 20 To a Coffin for Peggy Reddin 1.0.0 To 2 new Shutters @ 2/6 ea 5.- To a pine Table 18.- To taking off and putting on two locks 2.6 To repairing a Shutter 1/ glazg. 26 pains C 4-½ pr pn 10.9 To 2 Sqr. and 52 feet of framing 4:10-½ pr. Sqr 12.1-½ To framing Girder to Corn House 3/ 3.- [To] making and hanging a Gate 5.6 £14.12.10-½
Allowed by the Court of Directors
Decr. 31. 1805
Wm T. Galt
W. Russell C.C. Ro. Greenhow Will please to pay the above to Wm. T. Galt.
Recd payment of the within Acct. of the Treasurer of the Lunatic hospital Jany 3 1806
Dr The Lunatic Hospital To John Bowden 1806 April 3d To glazing 4 pains of Glass. @ 4-½d 1.6 28th To Coffin for Ann Clark at 20/ 1.0.0 To puting on two locks C 1/3 each 2.6 To Fixing on four latches & cetches on 4 Gates 4.0 £1.8.0
Examind and allowed by the Court of
Directors. June 25th. 1806 Wm. T Galt
W. Russell CC:
4th. of July 1806
I Do assign the within to James Henderson for value reced: John Bowden Recd 8 July payment James Henderson217
Accounts of John Bowden, Robert Ratcliffe, Robert Greenhow, Benjamin Powell, and Richard Garrett show repairs [kitchen, men's shelter, cupola (steeple), roof, shutters] and the erection of a shelter for women in 1808:
The Lunatic Hospital To John Bowden Dr.
1808 June 1st To repairs to the Steeple Shingling, Leading, planking, & Studing as pr. agreement 7.10.0 To repairing the roof with Shingling 7/6 7.6 Taking up and new laying platform 12.0 To making fine par. folding Shutters 6 pannels each 11 puting flaps 4.10.0 painting & hanging ditto @ 2/ each 10.0 £13..9..6
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors Wm. T. Galt218
W. Russell C.C.
June 11th 1808
Luntic Hospital To Robt Ratcliffe Dr.
To 20 bus lime 20/: 1 bus hair 3/ 1.3.0 mending plastering 16/ 3 loads sand 3/. 19.0 3 days labour C 3/ 9.0 100 larths 1/6 300 Nails @ 7-½ 3.4-½ 27 Cells @ 3/ 4.1.0 7 large Rooms @ 3/9 1.6.3 5 large passages C 8/ 2.0.0 7 small passages & stairway C 3/ 1.1.0 2 Clorsets @ 1/6 3.0 11.5.7-½
Wm. T. Galt
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors
W. Russell C.C.
Recd Payment of the above in full of the Treasurer this219
6 July 1808 Robert Ratcliffe
Dr. The Lunatic Hospital To Ro. Greenhow
1808 June 29. 1 bot Sprs turpte 2/6 July 9. 2 lb 6 dy wrought 0.2.6 July 15 Nails 2/6. 1 Stock lock 9/. 19th Nails & screws 2/3 0.13.9 1 large paint brush 4/. 23 Tarred Rope for 0.4.0 25 Bathing house 2/6. 1 Scythe Stone 1/. 0.3.6 Sep 14 1 14 lb keg Spanish Brown 13/6 0.13.6 20th 2 paint brushes 2/9. 6 lb 10 dy nails 6/ 0.8.9 26 3 lb 10 dy nails 3/. 28th. [?] lead & sprs turpte 3/3 0.6.3 £2.12.3
Examined and allowed by the Court of Wm T. Galt
Directors Decr. 27th: 1808
W. Russell cc
[Endorsement] Ro. Greenhow
July 15th: 1808 the Lunitick Hospitle To Benjamin Powell Dr To Repairing a lock 3.0 Aug 6 To a harsp and stapel 1.3 Sept 2 To mending a key 1.6 To 10 bars for the Windows Wait 63-3/4 Pounds at 0/9 Per Pound 2.7.7-¾ £2.13.4-¾
Examd. & allowed by the Court of221
Directors Sept. 27. 1808 Wm T. Galt
Will Russell C.C.
1808 The Lunatic Horspital Dr To Rd Garrett Sept 19 To under silling Kitchin 60 feet @ 9d £2.5.0 To 16 feet for Do at 1/ pr foot 16.- To 2 hands 2-¼ days Repairing Kitchin & shed at 9/6 p day at (5/ & 4/6d) 1.1.- To repairs to mens shelter 5.3 To Bilding shelter for women $13 3.18.- To puting up Gate post 6/ 6.- £8.11 3
Examd. & allowed by the Court of Directors222
Sept. 27th. 1808
W. Russll C.C.
Wm. T Galt
Between 1809 and 1811 surviving accounts of Richard Garrett, Robert Ratcliffe, and John Bowden show repairs (porch, cellar, and interior rooms of the hospital, the kitchen, the shed) and the erection of a shelter in the men's yard:
The Lunatic Hospital
1809 In a/c with Richard Garrett April 10th To 2-¾ Sqrs. framing & flooring 7/6 £ 1.0.7-½ 25 feet of silling to Porch @ 6d 12.6 putting in Sleepers 1/ 30 feet of sill 1.0 facing at 3-½ d 3/9 piecing floor 3/ 11.9 128 8-½ yds of ballusters @ 4/ per yd 1.14.0 Hand rail and post to steps 5.0 putting a Sill to yd. door 3/ 3.0 making shutter 2/6 mending two others and hanging the three 3/ 5.6 putting up a sill to cellar door 3/ 3.0 Framing three upright post & putting them up 4/6 4.6 5..0.10-½ 350 feet of Inch plank @ 12/ a 100 2.2.0 27 ditto of 1-¼ Inch @ 2-½ d 5.7-½ 65 ditto of scantling @ 3d 16.3 5 ditto ditto [ ? ] C 9d 3.9 1 Cedar sill for Cellar door 1/6 1.6 £8.10.0-¼
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors June 28th 1809
Wm. T. Galt
W. Russell c.c.
Recd paymt. of the Treasurer in full July 29 1809
Rd Garrett [endorsement]
The Lunatic Hospital
To Robert Ratcliffe Dr.
Sep 15th To Whitewashing 2 Rooms @ 3/ £ 0.6.0 19 " 10 Bushels Lime 10/ 650 Bricks 19/6 1.9.6 " 1 Day's work of Henry 6/ 1 ditto of Reubin 8/ 14.0 " 2 Days' labour 3/ painting walls 3/. mending Back 3/9 9.9 Aug " Whitewashing 27 Rooms C 3/ 4.1.0 " Ditto 6 large do. C 3/9 1.2.6 " do. 5 do. Passages @8/ 2.0.0 " do. 5 small do. " 3/ 0.15.0 " do 2 Closets " 1/6 0.3.0 " 1 Bushel Lime 1/ putting in Cellar Window 3/9 0.4.9 £11.5.6
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors Oct. 5th.
1809 Wm T. Galt
W. Russell cc
Rec payment of the Treasurer in full of the within Accts
R a/c for
The Lunatic Hospital
To John Bowden Dr
1809. To putting on a Lock 1/3 1 Window Frame £ & Casing 7/6 0.8.9 " a Coffin for Ben. Atkins 20/ 3-¾ Days' Painting 22/6 2.2.6 " Painting Porch and Benches 12.0 £3.3.3
Examined and alld. by the Court of Directors
Octo. 5th. 1809
W Russell cc.
Wm. T. Galt
Recd payment of the within full of the Treasurer of the Lunatic hospital
John Bowden John Bowden a/c & Rect for £3.3.3225
1810 To Robt Ratcliffe Dr April 10 Omitted in my a/c 2 bushels Lime 2/ 100 bricks 3/ £ 0.5.0 mending Kitchen back 4.6 Sept. 8 To laying 4000 bricks @ 60/ 12.0.0 " Lathing & plastering 5.0 " 1 lb nails 1/ laths 6d 1.6 whitewashing closet in Celler 2.0 £12.18 0 Deduct 7/6 p thousand for 4000 bricks laid 1.10.0 11.8.0
Wm. T. Galt130
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors Octo. 7th. 1810 and ordered to be certified for payment
W. Russell C C
Octr 4 Recd of Roscow Cole Treasurer of Lunatic Hospital The within sum in full
The Lunitick hospitle
To John Bowden Dr.
1810 July 14th To Making two waters Each 2/6d. 5.0 To 43 Stops for windows 1-½d. each 5.4-½ To 3 dead lights at /4d pr light 1.0 To Bilding Shelter in Mens yard 3.6.0 To Bilding Closet in Celler 3.0.0 To Reparing Steps in Mens yard 3.0 To putting up one pannel of pales & post 2.3 To Shinglin 13 Squar 8/ 12-½ feet of Shinglin at 7/6 pr Squar 4.18.5-¼ To Shinglin 3 dormants at 7/6d Each 1.2.6 To 2 pare of Cant boards at 2/6d Each 5.0 To 2 Sills for Dormants at 2/6d. pr 5.0 To Cheaking 2 dormants at 6/ Each 12.0 To 2 sets of frunt Caseways for dormants at 2/6d Each 5.0 To Reparing Each Dormant 1.0 To 17 feet of Barge Board at /2-½d 3.6-½ To Reparing Celler Stares 6/ 6.0 15.1.1-½
Wm. T. Galt
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors October 1st 1810 and ordered to be Certified for payment
W. Russell C.C.
Octr. 3d. Treasurer of the Hospital will please to pay to Wm. T. Galt the above account.
1810 Lunatic Hospital to Robt Ratcliffe Dr £ S D Octr 6th To 1 bushel lime 1/ pinting Chimney 3/ 4 Decr 15th To 1200 bricks @ 3/. per 100 for Cellar Cap and steps 1.16.- To 15 bushels of lime for ditto 15/ 15 1811 Henry 3 days @ 6/ per day 18 Febru 1st To mending back 3/9 mending Plastering and harth 1/6 5.3 To whitewashing 28 small rooms @ 3/ 4.4 To 6 large Do @ 4/6 eah. 1.7 To 5 large passages @ 8/ eah 2 To 4 Closets at 2/ eah 8 To 6 stair ways @ 2/ eah 12 To 2 passages 2/ Do 4 for the To 10200 bricks @ 40/ per thousand 20.8 dreans To 128 bushels of lime @ 1/ per [drains?] bushel 6.8 To Henry 17-½ days @ 6/ per day 5.5 Sepr 7th To laying of harth 3/9 3.9 £44.18 Deduct for overcharge in 10200 bricks 5.2 £39.16
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors September the 30th 1811. W. Russell C.C.
1811 Octr 2 Received of the Treasurer the above in full
The Lunatic Hospital
1811 In acct with John Bowden Janry 5th To a. Coffin for Go. Chapley 1.0.0 Feby 7th To do for Susannah Mason 1.0.0 8 To do Robert Olive 1.0.0 puting on 3 locks @ 1/3d 3.9 Shingling and boarding Shed to Stable 1.10.0 4.13.9 Glazing 38 pains of Glass @ 4d. 12.8 £ 5.6.5
Allowed by the Court of Directors W. Russell Cd.
April 1st 1811
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the L. Hospital the above In full
Wm. T. Galt229
The Lunatic Hospital
to John Bowden Dr.
1811 April 10 To putting in 47 pains glass @ 4d. 15.8 May 22d. putting on 2 locks @ 1/3 2.6 June 20 putting 2 new sills to door 9.- " putting on Celler Cap 4.6 29 putting on a Lock 1.3 " 8 feet of Scantling @ 5d. 3.4 " 5 squar of fraiming @ 4/6 1.2.6 " 5 squar of flooring @ 12/ 3.-.- taking up old floors 18.- cutting & hanging 2 doors 2.6 60 feet of wash boards @ 2-½d. 12.6 4 dead Lights for Kitchen @ 4-½d. 1.6 July 1 Coffin for William Lawson 1.-.- repairing steps with 5 steps & 2 sides 7.3 £ 9.-.6
Eaqual $30.8 Wm. T. Galt
Examined and allowed by the Court of Directors
July 6th 1811 W. Russell CC
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the L. Hospital the above sum of Nine pounds & 6d.
July 8 1811
Between 1812 and 1816 accounts of John Bowden, Thomas Sands, Robert Ratcliffe, James Hay, James Guthrie, and John M. Pearman indicate that an ashes house, bath house, grainary, stable, and straw house were built. In addition to general repairs specific work was done on the cellar, corn house, kitchen, men's yard, and necessary houses:
To Jno. Bowden Dr. May 15th 1812 To finnishing a lock puting in the garrette £0 4 6 133 23th 4 squares of Sleeppers fraimd in the seller at 3/9 15.0 4 squar's flooring plain & squar joints at 12/ 2.8.0 To Unhanging three dores cuting the same & hanging Do 7.6 To 19 feet of shelves in the front of the shed of the Kitchen 9.0 26th To a Coffin for Mr. Whiteman 1.0.0 27th To 26 feet of dressers in the Kitchen at 1/ 1.6.0 28th To 38 feet of shelves in the Kitchen @ 6d pr. foot 19.0 puting on a lock 1.3 June 20th puting up 16 feet of dressers in the seller 16.0 26th puting on two locks at 1/3 pr lock 2.6 28th puting on two locks 1/3 pr lock 2.6 To Altering a starcase in the seller 3.0 £8.14.3
Wm. T Galt
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital held the 30th day of June 1812.
The within account amounting to twenty nine dollars and four cents, was examined by the Court and allowed
Teste A. Robinson C.C.
I do Hereby asign the within acct to Wm. T. Galt
July 1st 1812
July 3. 1812 Recd paymt of Roscow Cole Treasr of the L H in full of the within
Wm. T. Galt231
April 10th 1813
The lunitick hospitle to John Bowden Dr
April 10th to putting post for the Bath house bot reparing gate han[g]ing the same 0.4.6 16th to the Making Boddy to Carte 0.15.0 To Boring holes in Corne house In side and End 7.6 Sept the 2 1813 To Making a Corfin for Mr Love 1.0.0 To putting on 2 locks at 1/3 pr 0.2.6 October 25th to a Corfin for Charity Brandon 1.0.0 3.9.6
Wm. T. Galt134
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital held the 4th day of January 1814.
The within account amounting to eleven dollars and fifty eight cents was examined and allowed.
Teste A. Robinson CC
Jany 17. 1814 Recd paymt. of the within of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the L H232
1813 To Thomas Sands Dr.
Sept. 4th To laying fifteen thousand four hundred and ninety Bricks, being the Bath House a $9.50 pr 1000 $147.15-½
Wmsbg. Sept. 6th Pay Thos. Sands the amt. of the above acct.
Henry Skipwith Senr. To the Treasurer William Tazewell of the Hospital Committee for building the Bath House at the Lunatic Hospital
Recd. the above amount of the Treasurer this 8th Septr. 1813233
September 18th 1813 Lunitic Hospital To Robert Ratcliffe Dr To makeing drean [drain?] 6/ $1.00 October 13th to do one @ 7/6 1.25 December 20th To whiteworshing 2 Roms @ 4/ 2 small do C 3/ 2.33 The brick work dun to the Corn house 2520 bricks @ $9.00 23.68 $27.26
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital held the 4th day of January 1814.
The within account, amounting to twenty seven dollars and twenty six cents, was examined and allowed.
A. Robinson C.C.
January 8. 1814 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treas of the L. H.234
the within a/c In full Robert Ratcliff
$46 48/100 Pay to John Bowden the sum of forty six dollars and forty eight cents in acct of Work done on the Bath House at the Lunatic Hospital.135
Henry Skipwith Senr
of William Tazewell
Committee for building
a bath House for the L H
To the Treasurer235
the L. Hospital
Novr. 8th. 1813.
Novr 9. 1813 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within named sum in full
$50.80 Pay Ro: Ratcliff, for Brickwork done at the Lunatic Hospital under the direction of the committee for building a stable and straw House for sd. Hospital, the sum of fifty dollars and eighty cents.
Decr. 30th. 1813 Henry Skipwith Senr
To the Treasurer William Tazewell.
of the Hospital.
Jany 3d 1814 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of $50.80 Robert Ratcliffe236
To John Bowden Dr.
1814 Feby 28 To a Coffin for John Harris @ 20/ 1.0.0 May 12th a Coffin for Nancy Williamson 1.0.0 June 23 do for Mary Sydnor 1.0.0 puting on two locks @ 1/3 each 2.6 24th glazing 14 pains of Glass @ 4-½d 5.3 puting two new Sills to mens & womes necessary @ 3/ each 6.- casing & hanging Stiles to do 4.6 2 doors to do at 7/6d each 15/ (a platform) 15.0 Steps to Corn House 36/ 1.16 - 26 feet of Shelves C 5d 8/ repairs to Steps 4/ 12.0 a Grind Stone fram @ 7/8 two Shutters 5/ 12.8 Centre bourd for turning the Arch on to the Ashes House 4/6d 4.6 a door fram to do 3/ a door 2/6 5.6 puting on a lock 1/3 repairs to Porch 2/ 3.3 a Window Sill to Kitchen 2/ 7 pair Sash Stops 5/3 7.3 136 14 Sash Stops at 2 Cnts each 28/100 1.8 Augst 26th a Coffin for Martha Garrett 1.0.0 Sepbr 24th Glazing 28 pains of Glass @ 4-½d 10.6 26th a Coffin for Samuel Aslin 1.0.0 Ocbr. 10th making two necesary Seats & puting them up @ 6/ each 12.0 puting up a pannel of pails & hanging two Gates 4/6d 4.6 a Small shutter to the Cellar 1/6 1.6 repairs to mens bench under their Shelter 1.6 1815 March 8th glazing 33 pains of Glass 12.4-½ making three new wheel barrows @ 15/ each. 2.5.0 repairing other two @ 4/6 each 9.0 £15.12.3-½ 1815 amount brought over £15.12.3-½ March 22d a Coffin for Lucy Turner 1.0.0 a new 18 light window fram 18/ 18.0 April 6th puting on three locks @ 1/3 each 3.9 finding key and fixing it to a lock 2/ 2.0 caving the above window fram 3.9 puting on 6 new Nosed Sills @ 7/6 2.5.0 puting in 4 Window Seats @ 3/9 each 15.0 puting on Strap Irons to the bath Chair 2.0 puting up old casings to Windows 4/ 4.0 To Hanging the mens Yard door puting on two Iron Straps 3.0 £21.8.9-½ $71.46-½
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg for the maintenance and care of persons of unsound mind held the 24th day of June 1815.
This account of John Bowden amounting to Twenty one pounds eight shillings and nine pence half penny being exhibited, and examined by the Court was allowed and ordered to be paid by the Treasurer
Leond Henley Clk
June 26. 1815 Received of Roscow Cole Treasur. of Lunatic Hospital the within acct in full John Bowden237
1814 To Robt Ratcliffe Dr £ s d Octo 17 To 4 Bushals lime 4/ hare 9d 4.9 To Larths 1/6 mening Larthing & plaster ing 9/ 10.6 £ 15.3 1815 May 10 To 22 Bushals of lime 1/ 22/ 1.2.0 June 1 To 7 days work of henry @ 6/ 2.2.0 Wm Washer 5 days @ 3/ each 15.0 1-½ peck hair at 1/6 peck 2.3 £4.16.6 To Whitewashing 27 Small Rooms 3/ each 4.1.0 To 8 Large Do @ 4/6 each 1.16.0 To 5 Large pasag's at 8/ 2.0.0 To 4 Closets @ 2/ do 8.0 To 6 stair ways @ 2/ do 12.0 To 4 small passages do 8.0 $46.92 14.1.6 6 red 28.1 Wm. T. Galt £14.1.6
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 21st day of July 1815
This account due the estate of Robert Ratcliffe deceased amounting to £14.1.6 being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer.
Leond. Henley C.C.D.
Recd of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the above Acct in full238
July 27. 1815
Ro: McCandlish atty
F G T Corbin admr.
The Lunatic Hospital
To James Hay Dr
1814 Decr 2 To Repairing 2 Locks & fitting Keys to Do $ 0.63 138 1815 Jany 10 [To] putting Stem in Lock 1/. Do. Ears to Spade 3/ .66 " 1 Large Hinge 13/6. 2 Knees & nails for do. 4/ 2.92 Apl 29 1 Hook for Haimes 9d. Staple & Tyer Nails 1/9 .42 " 2 Lynch pins for Cart 2/ 1 Wheel barrow Hoop 12 lbs 15/ 2.84 " 4 Clamps for Ducking Chair 2.25 " Eyes, Gudgeons & Hoops for wheel Barrow .75 " repairing 2 boults & Rings in Keys for Ducking Chair .34 May 5 piecing 2 Hooks & 1 New Staple for Gate .25 " Making 5 Screws for Locks (chains) .84 Augt. 24 Brasing Key for Lock 1/6. Mending 2 Knives 2/ .58 " repairing Leg Irons 1/6. do. Rake 3/ .75 " Laying Axe 6/ Alterg 2 pr. Leg Irons 3/ 1.50 " putting 3 New Taps to do .75 Sep. 10 " Altering 3 pair Leg Irons .75 " putting 8 Nuts to Leg Irons 1.33 Oct 8 " 1 New Grubbing Hoe 6-3/4 lb 1/9 p. lb 1.96 " Laying 1 do 5/ 1 Chopping ax 4 lb 2/ p. lb 1.34 15 Repairing 1 pr. Leg Irons 1/6 .25 " Cutting 2 Hoops, & putting on Nails to Wheel Barrow 1.00 " 1 New Key for Lock 4/6. 2 Brass Nuts for do 3/ 1.25 $23.36
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 27th day Wm. T. Galt of February 1816. This account being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer. Teste
Leo. Henley CCD
Feby 29. 1816 Recd of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within in full239
1815 To James Guthrie Dr Augst. 13 To a Coffin for Martam Quarles £ 1.0.0 Framing roof of the Ashes House 6.0 facia & barge boards to do 4/6 Centre do 2/6 7.0 Hanging gate mending pannel pails 4.6 Windless to Well 4/6 making gate 4/6 9.0 repairs to Wheel barrows 4/6 2 new Wheels 9 13.6 2 Cellar Window Shutters 5/ a pair Steps 18/ 1.3.0 Sepbr. 30 a Coffin for Peggy Brown 1.0.0 a pair hanging Stiles to Shutters 1/6 1.6 Ocbr. 14 a Coffin for James Boucher 1.0.0 Four lights Sash 3/ Glaizing 48 pains Glass 18/ 1.1.0 21 a Coffin for Benjamin Leady 1.0.0 To a Circular Sash 4/6 4.6 Novr. 16 a Coffin for Isaac Sherry 1.0.0 28 a do for Sally Bazden 1.0.0 29 do for Parish Garner 1.0.0 Decbr 14 do for Betey Swiney 1.0.0 £12.10..0 41.67
Wm. T. Galt
Returned into the Court of directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg the 27th day of February 1816 and being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer
Leo. Henley CCD
The Treasurer of the Hospital will be pleased to pay to Robert Saunders the amount of the within account.
Test Febry 28th. 1816.
James Guthrie Xhis mark
Mar. 1. 1816 Recd. payment of Roscow240
The Lunatic Hospital to John M. Pearman Dr.
1816 June 26th to White washing 28 Small rooms at 50 cents each $14.00 to 8 large do at 75 cents 6.00 to 5 large passages @ $1.33-1/3 6.66-2/3 to 4 Closts [Closets] at 33-1/3 cents each 1.33-1/3 to 6 starways C 33-1/3 cents each 2.00 to 4 small passages at 33-1/3 1.33-1/3 to mending back and plastering Chimney 1.75 to 2-½ half bushels of lime 16-2/3 cents .41-2/3 to mending plastering rooms 1.00 $34.50
Wm. T. Galt
Returned unto the Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg the 16th day of July 1816 and being examined and passed by the Court, was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer thereof
A Copy Teste
Leo. Henley C.C.D.
July 16, 1816
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of Thirty four dollars fifty cents.
John M. Pearman
The Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital will pay to John Bowden twenty dollars in part for building a Granary for the Lunatic Hospital242
Decr. 4th 1816
Jno. C Pryor & Committee
Recd payt. of R. Cole Treasr.
On December 20, 1814, Pleasants Murphy, a member of Capt. Otey's troop, was in Williamsburg. With eight or ten others he "went To the Lunatic hospital where there is between 20 and 30 poor unhappy Creatures Confined with madness."243141
Accounts of James Guthrie, Thomas Sands, John Pearman, and Samuel Travis give details of general repairs to the bath house, convalescent house, corn house, dining room, hospital building, kitchen, men's and women's yards, necessary houses, oven, stable, and well between 1817 and 1821:
1817 January the 25 To Work don at the Lunatick hospital Pay James Guthrie $C To putting on 5 locks 7/6 To 3 aprons to Do 2/3 1.62-½ To 20 ketches to hold up sash at 3d each 0.83 To 3 bead strips 1/6 0.25 To making 4 nue wheal barrows and repairing 6.00 To making 3 pair of steps 17 steps at 3/ p step 8.50 To putting up nue well kirb and planking the same 7.00 To putting sill to door to nue hous 6/ 1.00 March 1 To makeing 2 nue Chears at 10$ each 20.00 To making 2 spade handles mortist through 4/6 each 1.50 To repairing platform 4/6 To mending floor in the hous 6/ 1.75 To making larg gate and fixing the same 13/6 2.25 To Liestand and hoper 18/ To bench to Chop meat on 6/ 4.00 To repairing lot fence 4/6 To repairing bench Cut meat 6/ 1.7.5 To glasing 29 pains of glas at 4-½d 1.81 To rivviting 18 hasps for padlocks &c at 2/3 each 6.75 March the 28 To 1 square and 8 feet of lining sell at 18/ p square 3.24 To 29 feet of washbord at 4-½ 1.81 To making 1 small window shetter 2/6 0.42 To hangingstiles to window 1/6 To mending floor nue hous 1/6 0.50 To nosing to door and mending floor to nesary 2/3 0.37-½ 142 To putting on lock to Do 1/6 To Do to barth hous 1/6 0.50 To putting on 1 lock to nue house 1/6 0.25 April 25 To making 1 Coffin 24/ 4.00 $87.11 To 2-½ bushels of sead oats omited 2.50 83.61 Brought over 5$ Deducted 13-½ Cents 5.13-½ $78.47-½
Wm. T. Galt
Reduct from the within $C
To 20 Ketches at ½d each l0d 0.13-½ To 2 Chears at 2$ 4.00 To 2 spade handles at 1/6 each .50 To 2 benches 1/6 each .50 5.13-½
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the fifth day of July 1817.
This account of James Guthrie's amounting to seventy eight dollars and forty seven cents & ½. being examined and passed by the court, was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer. A Copy
Leo. Henley CCD
July 5. 1817 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum seventy Eight dollars & 47-½ Cts: in full of the within a/c244
Leod. Henley James Guthrie X his mark
1817 July 26 The Lunatic Hospital To Thomas Sands and James Guthry Dr $C Amot in a former account 30/ Oats &c 5.00 th 28 To fixing Irons to 2 Chears 3/ 0.50 August th 16 To putting on 2 Dormants in kitchen at 42/ each 14.00 To 30 feet of ladders at 1/ To Cutting and fixing [e?]nd window [7/6?] 6.25 To mending Caising to hous window 2/3 0.37-½ To putting on 12 hoocks and staples at 4-½d 0.75 143 the 22 To making Coffin 24/ Cutting a senter bord 2/ 4.33 Octr th 1 To repairing 2 pannel doors 18/ fitting hanging Do 3/ 3.50 To putting on 2 locks 3/ To making Coffin 24/ 4.50 To repairing Cupelow To 38 feet Cornish at [6d] 3.12 To 37-1/3 feet of fashey at 6d To 19 feet planser at 6d 4.67 To 32 feet Cant bord at 6d To putting ogees to 4 windows 24/ 6.67 To 2 side Caising to windows 4/6 0.75 To 2 sets moldings round the Cupelow next the boll 5.00 To glasing 16 pains glas to Do at 4-½d 1.00 To mending planking to Do 3/ To 16 feet old bedmold 4/ 1.17 To piecing Cornerbord 1/6 To splising 1 joist 5/ .75 To mending floor 4/6 the 4 To making Coffin 24/ 4.75 To repairing 2 whealbarrows 6/ To 2 Do 6/ 2.00 the 6 To making Coffin 24/ the 18 To making 1 Do 24/ 8.00 To making dray 30/ To Cutting place for harthe 4/6 5.75 To making 6 pannel door 18/ fitting &c 1/6 3.25 $86.14-½ To account Continued and brought over $ C 86.14-½ To building shelter in the yard 24 feet long 20.00 To fixing 48 feet of double seat at 1/6 12.00 To makeing pair of front gates 10.00 To fixing up the same Compleat fiting hanging &c 2.00 To makeing doore frame to sell 12/ 2.00 To 1 square sleepers to Do at 7/6 1.25 144 To 1 square of Tongued and grovd floor at 27/ 4.17 To 40 feet of washbord at 4-½d 2.50 To 60 feet framing studs in sell at 7/6 0.75 To 60 feet of sealing Do at 7/6 0.75 To mending Caising to window 4/6 0.75 To hanging door 1/6 Caising over door 9d 0.37-½ To 20 feet of seat in the womans part at 1/6 p foot 5.00 To a framing round sink 6/ To 24 feet of porch bench at 1/6 7.00 th 22 To making Coffin 24/ To making 2 wheals for whealbaros 15/ 6.50 To repairing whealborrow 1/6 To making hors Cart 24/ 4.25 To putting on a lock 1/6 To fixing seat Nesary 6/ 1.25 th 28 To glasing 37 pains glas at 4-½d 2.31 To making Coffin 24/ 4.00 To painting house, gates, door, and porch benches $15 15.00 $217.99-½ One Sqr. planking against fence where the wood is throne 0.75 218.74-½ Wm. T. Galt $218.74-½
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg, held the 6th day of February 1818 This account of Thomas Sands & James Guthries for Two hundred and eighteen dollars and seventy four ½ cents being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer
Leo. Henley CCD
Received of Roscow Cole Treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the sum of Two hundred & Eighteen dollars & 74-½ Cents in full for Our Acct. against the Lunatic Hospital from July 26. 1817 to Nov. 28. 1817245
James Guthrie X his mark
The Lunatic Hospital
To Jno Pierman Dr 1817 Augt 22nd For Whitewashing 7 Small Rooms at 50/100 $ 3.50 do 1 large do .75 Mending plastering 1.50 400 Bricks 2.00 Backing & mending Kitchen Chimney 1.00 mending Oven 25/100 turning large Arch $2 2.25 2-½ Bushels Lime .62-½ $11.62-½
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 23d. day of December 1817.
This account of John Pearmans, Amounting to Eleven dollars and sixty two & ½ Cents, being examined and allowed by the Court, was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer. a Copy
Leo. Henley C
Decr. 31. 1817 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within Sum in full246
John M Pearman
1817 Octr th1 The Lunatic Hospital To Thomas Sands Dr $ C
To making 2 doors 6/ each 12/ To 1 Do 4/6 2.75 To fitting and hanging 2 door 3/ To 1 Do 1/3 0.71 To putting on 3 locks 4/6 To 3 bolt 2/3 1.12-½ To making 2 window shetters 5/ fitting and hanging Do 3/ 1.33 To putting in slats to 3 windows at 2/6 each 1.25 To 5-½ Square of framing at 7/6 p Square 6.87-½ To 5 Square and 85 feet of planking at 5/ 4.87-½ To 3 Square and 10 feet of floor at 6/ 3.10 To 48 feet of racks at 1/6 p foot 12.00 To 48 feet of manger at 1/ p foot 8.00 To fixing up 8 devisions for stols at 7/6 10.00 To 13 Square and 80 feet of shingling at 7/6 17.25 To making 2 shetters up stairs 5/ fitting hanging 3/ 1.33 To putting on 2 bolts 1/6 fixing platform 15/ 2.75 146 To 30 feet of Eve at 1/6 p foot 7.50 To 6 Square of floor 36/ fixing upper door Compleet 60/ 16.00 $96.84-½
The above work done by Thos. Sands & the same being approved by William T Galt we allow the same & the Treasurer is hereby requested to pay the above sum of ninety six dollars 84-½ to the said Thos. Sands
Re Jno C Pryor
Sam. Travis Commissioners
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within in full this 5 Novr. 1817. Thomas Sands247
November 13th 1817
The Lunitic hospital to John M. Pearman
to layin harth and furnishin Bricks $ 1.50 to Backin Chimny and reparin jams 2.50 to putin new Back to dinning rome Chimny .75 to reparin flour 4/6 to mendin wall to Cell 12/ 2.75 To Brickin up Cink in mens Yard 2.00 to 1-½ Bushels of lime at 1/6 Pr Bushel .37-½ Wm. T. Galt $ 9.87-½
Feby 7 1818 Recd. payment of Roscow Cole
Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital
John M. Pearman
1818 To Samuel Travis Dr April 20 To makeing 1 pair Tongues 9/ $ 1.50 May 21 " Hasp and staple 1/6 .25 June 4 Cutting Scythe and wedge for ditto 9/ .12-½ 9 1 pair pot Hooks 3/ .50 24 Repairing 2 Garden rakes 2/6 .42 30 " upsetting Grubing hoe 1/6 $.25 " 4 Revits for bucket 2/3 .38 " 1 Hoop for ditto 1/ .16 .79 July 6 Snib for Scythe .18 8 1 Garden rake 4/6 .75 13 " 2 Washers @ /6 .17 Augt 4 6 Staples @ 4-½d .38 Octor 29 Laying Ax 4/6 .75 Novr 9 2 Iron spoons @ 1/6 .50 18 Mending lock 1/6 .25 147 [Novr] 20 [To] Ditto key 2/3 .38 $ 6.94-½ 1818 To Amot Brot over $ 6.94-½ Decr 1 To Handles to slush tub 6/ 1.00 8 To 1-½ Feet chain 1/6 1 Hook for trace 1/3 .46 14 " 5 Links chain /9 .12-½ " Ironing 1 Large tub 5/ 1.00 15 repairing lock 1/ .17 18 Ditto pitch fork 2/3 .37 1819 Jany 22 1 Clevy pin 1/6 .25 25 punching 3 holes in spit /9 6 Scure for ditto 3/ .63 $10.95 " 4 Eyes & 3 Grudings 6-½ lbs 6/6 12 nails for ditto 1/9 May 7 1.20 $12.15 .50 11.65
deduct 3/. & charge it to W. T. Galt
Febry 27 [To] shoeing horse before 3/ $ .50 March 1 " 1 Garden fork 7/6 1.25 12 3 Links chain 1/ .17 15 1 Screw to leg Iron 1/ .16 18 5 Ditto 7/6 1 rivit /9 2 New keys 4/6 2.13 29 Mending dung fork 1/ .17 April 7 1 Tooth in rake /6 .08 May 4 Handle to spade 3/ .50 14 Top and handle to tea kettle 3/ .50 25 1 New rake 7/6 1.25 June 4 " Tyre Wheel barrow & rails 7/6 1.25 " 2 Rings 2 eyes 2 gugings 6/ 1.00 7 4 Eyes 6/ 2 Gugings 2/ 1.33 8 Cutting & putting tyre on wheel barrow 3/9 .62 10 mending rake /9 .13 Wm. T. Galt 23.18
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 2d day of July 1819. This account of Samuel Travis amounting to Twenty six 148 dollars and sixty eight cents being examined and passed by the Court was ordered to be certified to him be paid by the Treasurer to the Hospital Teste
Recd. payt of Roscow Cole
Treasr. the 14 Augt. 1819
amount of Account $23.18
To paid Wm. Munford for a
copy of the Laws 4.00
By 50 Cents chargd. to
Wm Galt .50
1819 May the 28 The Lunatick hospital To Thomas Sands and James Guthry Dr $ C To 17 feet scantlin for gate at 6 C p foot 1-02 To 4 feet plank for Do at 2-½ C 10C To making gate and fixing 10/6 1-85 To 66 feet timbers for wheal barrows at 4 C 2-64 To making 2 whele barrows at 30/ each 10-00 To making 1 dray whelbarrow 30/ To 36 feet plank at 2-½ C 96 5-90 To 2 lbs nails 1/6 To 2 nue axentrees and fixing grudgens 6/ 1-25 To repairing 2 whelebarrows 30/ To 1 Do with an old whele 24/ 9-00 To taking down shelvs and putting up again 87-½ 0-87-½ To putting tale bord to Cart and plank for the same 1/6 0-25 To making kirb to fireplace in kitchen 4/6 0-75 To 13-½ feet Scantlin for Do at 6 C 0-81 July th 26 90 feet of Scantlin for post and handrails at 6 C 5-40 To 65 feet of sills at 1/ p foot 65/ 10-83 To 25 feet scantlin for sleepers at 5C 1-25 To 4 larg posts of seeder at 2/3 each 1-50 To 42 feet of plank for banisters at 2-½ C 1-05 To 254 feet of 1-¼ inch plank at 6 C 15-24 To 9 feet scantlin under steps at 5 C 0-45 To 13 feet Do for gate frame at 5 C 0-65 149 To 10 garden rails 10/ 1-67 To remooving 16 pannels of old paling at 2/3 6-00 To putting up 3 pannels of nue Do at 3/9 each 1-87-½ To making 2 gat frame and fixing up 7/6 each 2-50 To slitting plank for pails 3/ To putting on latch 9d 0-62-½ To fixing hasp and staple for lock 9d 0-12-½ To 16 feet Scantlin for gate frame at 5 C 0-80 th 28 To putting under 25 feet of silling at 1/ 4-17 To 1 Square and 20 feet of Sleepers at 7/6 P Square 1-50 To plaining framing and fixing 4 posts below at 2/3 ea 1-50 $91-47-½ $ C 1819 the 28 The amount brought over 91-47-½ To laying of 2-¼ Square of Tongued and grovd floor at 24/ 9-00 To 51 feet of fashey and molding on Do at 6d p foot 4-25 To 63-1/3 feet of handrail at 1/ p foot 10-56 To 47-1/3 feet of foot Do at 6d p foot 3-94 To 165 banisters at 4-½d each 10-31-¼ To plaining up and Caping of 10 posts at 4/6 each 7-50 To moldings below to 10 posts at 9d each 1-25 To fixing steps and 1 step below 4/6 0-75 th30 To fitting and hanging 1 door 1/6 putting on bras nobd lock 2/6 0-67 To putting on bras nobd latch 1/6 hook and staples 4-½d 0-31 To making 2 doors for sink lind through 12/ each 4-00 To hanging stiles for Do 3/ fitting doors 3/ 1-00 Septr th 1 To Crank to well 1/6 0-25 octr th 21 To making Coffin 24/ To repairing kitchen steps 10/6 5-75 To putting in 1 step to Corn haus 1/6 0-25 $150-26-¾ Wm. T. Galt Novr th9 To making Coffin for Milner 24/ 4-00 To making 45 feet of benches at 1/6 the runing foot 11-25 To 99 feet of timber for the same at 5 C 4-95 Cr $170-46-¾ By over charges in the above account 9-50 Wm. T. Galt $160-96-¾
At a Court held for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg the 11th day of November 1819
This account of Thos Sands and James Gutthry's amounting to the sum of One hundred and sixty dollars and ninety 6 six and ¾ cents being examined and passed by the court, was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital for payment. Teste Leo: Henley CCD250
Lunitick Hospital To Samuel Travis Dr
1819 July 3 To 3 Screws for leg Irons 3/ 5 Staples 3/9 $ 1.13 7 Mending hinges & Nails for ditto 2/3 $ .37 " 1 New pair Large hinges 12/ 2.00 2.37 9 " Latch & Staple 2/ .33 10 " Hasp Staples Latch Ketch Large Staple & 5 Nails 4/6 .75 17 Mending rake /9 .13 29 1 Large Rake 10/6 1.75 August 14 Mending pitch fork 1/6 1 Large Staple /9 .37 26 Straightening 2 Bars 1/6 Ditto 2 Oven ditto 1/6 $ .50 " 1 New Oven bar 28 lbs @ 1/ 1 Bar oven top 1/6 4.92 " 1 pair Kitchen dog Irons 41-3/4 C 1/ 6.96 12.38 Octobr 9 6 Rivits 2/3 Mending Key 1/ .54 27 " Hasp & nails for ditto 3/ .50 Novemr 27 Mending Tongs 2/3 $ .37 " Laying 4 Hilling hoes C 3/9 2.50 " 1 New Ditto ditto 7/6 1.25 4.12 Decemr 9 Mending Hoe 1/6 .25 18 " 1 Hasp & Staple 1/6 .25 1820 Januay 11 1 Staple /9 .13 19 Handle to flat Iron 1/6 .25 20 " Repairing pot Hooks 1/6 .25 Februay 3 Mending Spade 1/ .17 8 " Handle to Spade 3/9 Stroping hoe 3/ $1.12 " Repairing 3 Rakes 2/3 Laying 2 Grubing hoes 7/6 1.63 2.75 151 [Feb.] 9 [To]Laying & Jumping peck axe 7/6 $1.25 " Setting hoe /9 2 Rings for rake 1/ .29 1.54 10 Repairing Rake & ring for ditto 2/3 .38 March 2 " 2 Tug chains 3/ .50 6 " Repairing dog Iron 6-3/4 lbs @ 1/ 1.12 20 " Ditto Rake 2/3 .38 22 " Repairing Large Rake 2/3 .37 31 " 1 pair Shoes 3/ .50 April 1 Eye to axe 4/6 .75 13 Laying Grubing hoe 3/ $ .50 " 1 pair wedges 10-½ lbs @ 1/ 1.75 2.25 22 5 Keys with chains 7/6 6 Staples 2/3 $1.62 " 4 Large Staples 2/3 .38 2.00 May 10 " 2 Linch pins & pieceing Bed bolt 2/3 .37 27 " 1 Large Staple /9 .13 38.71 1820 To Amot Brot over $38.71 June 3 1 pair Shoes & 1 pair Moved 4/6 .75 5 " 1 Large Staple /9 .12 15 Repairing 4 Leg Irons 12/ 2 New locks for ditto 5/3 2.88 23 Ditto 3 ditto ditto 2/3 1 Sett Shoes 6/ 1.38 26 1 Latch Staple & Ketch 2/3 $ .37 " 1 Hatchet 4-¼ lbs @ 1/6 1.06 1.43 29 1 S Hook /9 .13 July 7 11-½ Feet chain for well @ 1/1-½d 2.16 19 3 peck axes 19-3/4 lbs @ 1/6 4.94 Augt 4 5 Staples 2 Hooks & 5 Nails 5/3 .88 Septemr 1 " 20 Spike nails @ 2 cts $ .40 " 1 Hook & 2 Staples 1/6 1 Squar Staple /9 .37 .77 4 42 Nails @ 2Cts 1 Latch & Staple 1/6 $1.09 " 1 Ketch 1 Hook & 1 Large Staple 2/6 .42 1.51 Octobr 30 Mending Tongs 1/ .17 Novemr 3 1 S Hook /9 .13 4 1 pair Shoes 3/ .50 23 " 1 Axe 6 lbs @ 1/6 1.50 27 " 1 Large Staple /9 .12 152 [Nov.] 29 [To]1 Back ban Hook 1/ .17 Decemr 14 1 Sett Shoes 6/ 1.00 30 1 Eye bolt 1/6 $ .25 " 2 Bottom Irons 4 Nails & 2 Rivits 2/3 .38 .63 1821 Januay 1 2 pieces plateing on cart 2/ .33 6 1 Back ban chain 3/ $ .50 " 1 Snipe bill & Ring 1/ 1 Tug chain 1/ .33 .83 27 Repairing Lock /9 .13 31 " Ditto Leg Irons 4/6 Ditto Lock 1/6 1.00 Februy 1 1 Tug chain 1/6 .25 5 " 4 Links ditto & 2 Staples 1/6 .25 13 1 Sett Irons wheel barrow 6/ 1.[torn] 15 1 Ditto Shoes 6/ 1.[torn] 16 " Mending Rake 1/6 .25 March 3 Ditto ditto 1/6 .25 12 " Moveing 1 Shoe /9 .13 29 1 pair Hinges 22-3/4 lbs @ 1/ $3.79 " 14 Nails @ 2 cts .28 4.07 30 1 Hasp & 2 Staples 1/6 .25 $69.63
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 10th day of May 1821.
This account of Samuel Travis's against the Hospital amounting to Sixty nine dollars and Sixty three cents being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be certified to the treasurer of the Hospital for payment. Teste
Leo: Henley CCD
Williamsburg May 30. 1821
Reced of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c in full Saml. Travis251
1820 May th 22 The Lunatick Hospital To Thomas Sands & James Guthrie Dr $ C To 55 feet of hart plank for yard doors at 6C per foot 3.30 To 30 feet of inch Do at 2-½ - 4/6 To making 2 doors 24/ 4.75 To fitting and hanging 2 doors at 3/ each 6/ To hasps staples Do 3/ 1.50 153 th 21 To making Coffin 24/ To 38 feet scantlin for sink frames at 6 C 13/9 6.28 To making 2 frames and fixing them 30/ 5.00 August 15 To 20 feet plank for gates at 2-½ C 3/ To 13 feet scantlin Do at 6 C 1.28 To 2 Ceder posts 3/ To making folding gate and fixing up 15/ 3.00 To fixing latch Do 1/6 To fixing hook and staples to Do 9d .37-½ To 27-½ pannels of post and raling 6 rails to the pannel at 5/ 22.92 To 47 pannels of Do 5 rails at 4/6 per pannel 35.25 Septr th 4 To 4 Ceder posts for shelter in the womans yard at 3/ each 2.00 To 117 feet scantlin for Do at 6 cents per foot 7.02 To 1042 feet of plank for Do at 2-½ C 26.05 To building shelter 20 $ To Covering the old part again 45/ 27.50 To fixing 24 feet of Double seat at 1/6 per foot 6.00 To 33 feet scantlin for frame to seat at 6 C 1.98 To putting sill to the womans yard door 4/6 .75 To 4-½ feet scantlin for sill 27 C .27 th 24. To making Coffin for Thos [ ? ] 24/ 4.00 Octr th 1 To making Coffin for Robert Camron 24/ 4.00 $163.22-½ for over Charge 5 $158.22-½
Wm T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg held the 10th day of November 1820. This account of Thomas Sands Sr amounting to one hundred and fifty eight dollars and twenty two ½ cents, being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer of Hospital out of the current appropriation of this institution.
Leo C. Henley CCD
Thomas Sands Sr
Recd of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the L Hospital the within sum of one Hundred & fifty Eight dollars & 22/100 14th Nov 1820. Thomas Sands Senr252
Lunatic Hospital To John Pearman Dr
1820 July 7th To Whitewashing 35 small rooms @ 50/100 $17.50 9 Large rooms C 75/100 6.75 5 large passages C $1.33-1/3 6.66-2/3 4 Closets @ 33-1/3 cts. 1.33-1/3 4 small passages C 33-1/3 cts 1.33-1/3 6 Stair Ways @ 33-1/3 cts 2.00 Mending the plastering about house & backing Chimnies 12.00 400 Bricks @ 3/ pr 100 2.00 36 bushels of lime C 1/ 6.00 55.58-1/3
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg held the 19 day of July 1820. This acct of John Pearmans amounting to fifty five dollars and fifty eight cents, being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Teste Leo Henley CCD
July 29 1820
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr of L. H.
the within a/c in full
J M Pearman.
Jno M Pearman253
A/c & Rect.
July 29 1820
1820 Lunatic Hospital
To Thos. Sands Dr $ Cts. September 14th To working in the womans yard gate 3/ .50 To Do mens gate 6/ 1.00 1821 April 11th To one bushel of Lime 1/ .16-¼ June 15th To two Do 2/ .33 To Runing of gutters under the new house 12.00 155 July 19th To two bushels of Lime 2/ .33 August 20th To two Bushels of Lime 2/ sept. 10th to half Bushel of Do .40-½ September 11th To 18 yds. of plastering at 2/ p yd 6.00 To 2-1/3 yds. of Openings at 12-½ Cts. p yd .29 25th To half Bushel of Lime 8 Cts 8 October 1th To two Bushels of Do 2/ .33 2th To Laying of 1566 Bricks at $10 p thousand 15.66 To Cutting Down wall for sink 4/6 .75 3th To Laying of 14127 Bricks at $10 p thousand 141.27 To Repairing of steps to the Barth house 5.00 To half Bushel of Lime 8 Cts 8 To 3188 weight of Oat hay at 3/9 p hundred 19.92-½ To fixing of the grate Over the sink 3/ .50 To Cutting Out and fixing in the Dore in the Potion wall 7.08 November 7th To 1-½ bushels of Lime 1/6 .25 $211.94-¼
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Wmsburg held the 5th day of December 1821.
This account of Thomas Sands Junr. amounting to Two hundred and eleven Dollars, Ninety four & ¼ cents being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer to the Hospital
Leo: Henley CCD
Decr 10. 1821254
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c of Two hundred & Eleven dollars & 94-¼ Cnts in full
Thos. Sands Jr
1821 March th7 The Lunatick Hospital $ C To Thomas Sands Dr To making 12 pair shetters old hous at 12/ p pair 24.00 156 To glasing 12 pains glas and Cutting holes at 9d each 1.50 To 120 feet of 1-¼ inch plank at 5C 6.00 To 120 feet of broad plank at 4C 4.80 To painting 12 pair shetters at 2/3 pair 4.50 th28 To making gate for lot 12/ fixing up Do 1/6 2.25 To 8 feet scantlin for Do at 5C 0.40 To 12 feet of 1-¼ inch plank for Do at 5C 0.60 To putting up 23 pannels of post and raling 5 rails each at 4/6 p pannel & finding metearels 17.25 To repairing olde fence 6/ 1.00 April th8 To making Coffin for one of the mad men 4.00 May th3 To putting up partion in olde hous 30/ 5.00 To making door 7/6 fitting and hanging Do 3/ 1.75 To putting on lock and apron 3/ 0.50 To 46 feet of 2 inch plank for partion at 6 Cents 2.76 To 34 feet feet of 1-¼ inch Do for Do at 5C 1.70 To 11 beed strips at 4-½d each 4/1-½ To 16 ketches at 3d 4/ 1.35 To mending sash 1/6 glasing 1 pain glas 4-½d putting on lock 1/6 0.56 To 6 feet plank for beed strips 15C To 12 feet scantlin 3/7-½ 0.75 To painting partion 6/ 1.00 $81.67
Wm T Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the tenth day of May 1821.
This account of Thomas Sands sr against the Lunatic Hospital amounting to the sum of Eighty one dollars, and sixty seven cents, being examined and passed by the Court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer for payment
Leo: Henley C.C.D
May 21. 1821
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the with a/c in full Thomas Sands senr255
1821 June the 20 The Lunatick Hospital
To Thomas Sands Dr $ C To putting on a lock to the old hous 1/6 To apron to Do 9d 0.37-½ 157 th29 To repairs done to sell room in bettering hous 43 feet wash bord 4-½d 2.71-¼ To putting in sill to door 4/6 nosin to door 1/6 1.00 To taking up sume floor and blocking up sleepers 4/6 0.75 To 3-½ feet scantlin for door sill at 5C 0.17-½ August th1 To 22-½ feet of sill of Ceder at 1/p Foot 3.75 To 20 feet of timber for sleepers at 5 Cents 1.00 To putting under 22-½ feet of sill at [9d] 1/p foot [$2.81] 3.75 To 55 feet sleepers at 5/ p Square 0.50 To 55 feet of floor at [15/] 18/ p Square [$1.36] 1.80 To 1-1/3 Square of weather bording at 7/6 1.67 To 12-½ feet Cornerbord at 4 Cents 3/ 0.50 To 14-½ feet of Caisings of studs at 4 Cents 0.58 To 7-½ feet of lettis at 1/6 p foot 1.75 To Caising door with jams and hanging stiles 4/ 0.67 To putting in 3 studs 3/ To Do 1 post 1/6 0.75 To 13 feet scantlin for studs at 5C 0.85 To 74-½ feet of shelvs at [8-½] 10 Cents p foot [$6.31-½] 7.45 To making door 6/ fitting and hanging door 1/6 putting lock 1/6 1.50 To 2 gate post 9/ To hedding planing and fixing up 18/ 4.50 th13 To repair to Corn hous putting in 1 sleeper 1-½ Cents fashey 37-½ C 0.56-½ [54 cts] To floor to platform 3/ To pair steps 5 steps at [2/] 3/ each 15/ [10/] 3.00 [1.75] To making door 6/ fitting and hanging door 1/6 putting lock 3/ 2.00 To repairing planking to Corn hous 2/3 0.37-½ To making pair of lettis doors to bath hous 15/ fitting & hanging 3/ 3.00 To putting on hasps and staples 1/6 0.25 To putting in 2 nue axintrees to whelbarrows at 3/ each 1.00 To repairing 2 whelbarrows 3/9 To making 2 waters 12/ 2.62-½ 158 To making 2 drays nearly all nue 42/ [$5] 7.00 [deduct $5.28] $55.83-¾ August th14 1821 The account brought over 55.83-¾ To 35 feet timber at 5C 1.75 To 7 feet of wash bord to Closset at 4-½d 2/7-½ repairs to fashey 2/7-½ 0.87-½ To 170 feet of featheredg plank at 12/ 3.40 To repairs to shelvs in old Closset 1/6 0.25 $62.11-¾ deduct for over Charge [5.28] 56.83-¾
Wm T Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg held the 17. day of August 1821. This account of Thomas Sands sr amounting to fifty six dollars and Eighty three and ¾ cents being examined and allowed by the Court was Ordered to be paid by the Treasurer of the Hospital
Leo Henley CCd
Recd payt of Roscow Cole Treasr this 18 Augt. 1821256
Thomas Sands senr
An act passed by the General Assembly in February 1820 authorized a sum not to exceed $4000 for the erection of a brick building containing twelve cells for patients:
CHAPTER XXXIII. An act to enlarge the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg [Passed February 17th, 1820.]
1. Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That the court of directors of the hospital in the city of Williamsburg for the maintenance and cure of persons of unsound mind, be, and they are hereby authorized to contract for, or let to the lowest bidder, the erection of an additional brick building, containing twelve cells or apartments, for the reception of patients. To enable the said directors to erect the aforesaid additional building, they, or a majority of them, are hereby authorized, through their treasurer, in the manner now prescribed 159 by law, from time to time, to draw upon the auditor of public accounts for such sums as may be required for the completion of the aforesaid additional building, not exceeding, in the year eighteen hundred and twenty, four thousand dollars; for which drafts the auditor of public accounts is hereby authorized and required, to issue warrants on the treasury, which shall be paid out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. The accounts for money expended in the erection of the aforesaid building, shall be settled by the treasurer with the court of directors, and certified in the same manner as all other accounts of the hospital are passed and certified.
2. This act shall commence and be in force from and after the passing thereof.257
Excerpts from the director's minutes show that Thomas Sands, Sr., undertook the erection of the building and record his receipts for payment:
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg held the 21st day of April 1820
Ordered that Thomas Sands senr. apply to Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Hospital for the sum of Twelve hundred dollars in part for erecting an House on the Lot of the said Hospital.
Leo: Henley C.C.D.
Recd on the within Seven Hundred Dollars April 28th 1820
$700 Thos. Sands
May 8. 1820
Recd the further sum of Three hundred dollars.
Oct. 13. 1820
Recd the further sum of One hundred dollars.
Novr. 14. 1820258
Recd. the further sum of one hundred dollars in full of the within
An account of Roscow Cole, Treasurer of the asylum, shows disbursements of cash between June 29, 1820, and March 7, 1822, 160 for the erection of the new building:
The Commonwealth of Virginia for new Building at Lunatic Hospital To Roscow Cole Treasr. of Lunatic Hospital
1820 Dr Cr June 29 By Cash recd from Treasurer of Virginia $4000 " To allowance for my Expences to & from Richmd. in receiving do. $ 16 Novr. 14 " Cash paid Thomas Sands senr. in part for Erecting new Building (p Contract) 1200 " " do. paid do. in part of do 600 " " do. paid do. his a/c for Extra Work to do. 249.15 Decr. 13 " do. paid do. in part for Erecting do. p Contract 600 1821 Mar. 3 " do. paid do. his a/c for Extra Work to do. 22 Decr. 6 " do. paid Wm. T. Galt a/c for superintending the Erection of New Building 300 13 " do. paid Thomas Sands for balance due him for Erecting New Building p Contract 964 Balce. remaining in my hands p. Con.48.85 $4000 $4000 By balce. remaining in my hands this day p Con: $48.85
Treasr. of Lunatic Hospital
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 7th day of March 1822.
This account of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital for disbursements in erecting the new Building as an addition to this institution by which it appears that out of the fund of four thousand dollars appropreated by an act of the General Assembly for that purpose, there remains in his hands the sum of forty eight dollars and eighty five cents, which account being examined and allowed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Auditor of public accounts. Teste259
Leo: Henley C.C.D.
Alterations in putting grates over the two middle doors in each story were agreed to by a committee of the Court of Directors on September 15, 1820:
We the committee appointed by the board of Directors to contract with Mr. Thomas Sands to make alterations and additions to the house now erecting at the Hospital have agreed to have the within alterations & additions made as per bill within, amounting to two hundred and twenty seven Dollars and fifteen cents.
Septr. 15th 1820.
The committee have agreed with Mr. Thos. Sands Sr to put grates over the two middle dores in each story making 4 dores, at three dollars for the iron Bars & two Dollars 50/ for wood work over each Dore making sum of twenty two Dollars.
Octr. 18th 1820
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg the 10 day of November 1820.
This account of Thomas Sands Sr. amounting to Two hundred and forty nine cents [sic.] and fifteen cents being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer of the Hospital out of the fund in his hands appropriated for the building of the addition to the Lunatic Hospital.
Recd. of R Cole treasurer of the L Hospital the above sum of two Hundred & [forty] nine dollars & 15/c on 14th Nov. 1820
Thomas Sands Senr.
Leo: Henley CCD
To A Bill for additional windows to the hous at the Lunatic Hospital Septr the 15 1820
$ C To making 4 larg window frames at 18/ each 12.00 To making 4 Do inside do at 18/ each 12.00 To putting on ogees on 4 out side frames at 1/6 each 1.00 162 To making lights sash for Do at 1/ 6.00 To glasing 36 pains of glass at 4-½ each 2.25 To making 2 pair of sliiding shetters [shutters?] pannel at 9/ 3.00 36.25 To 38 pains of glas at 9d. To 50 feet plank shetters [shutters?] &c at 2-½C 4.00 To 200 feet of scantlin for Do at 6C 12.00 To 460 lbs of Iron to Do at 10 C 46.00 96.25 To making 14 sell frames at 15/ each 35.00 To addition to former shetters [shutters?] 7 at 1/6 each work 1.75 To taking out and Changing brick work to 6 windows 24.00 To 215 feet scantlin for Do at 6 C 12.90 To 50 feet plank for shetters [shutters?] at 2-½ C 1.25 To 560 lbs of Iron at IOC 56.00 Thomas Sands Senr. 130.90
Thomas Sands submitted an account for the extra work on January 9, 1821:
The Lunatic Hospital To Thomas Sands Dr 1821 Jany 9 To Extra Work to New Building for Wood & Iron Work for 4 Doors @ $5.50 22.00
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital and the city of Wmsburg, held the first day of March 1821. This account amounting to Twenty two dollars, being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital to be paid out of the fund appropriated for building the addition to the Lunatic Hospital
Leo: Henley CCD
March 3 1821 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c in full Thomas Sands senr261
The Court of Directors authorized $600 as the second payment to Thomas Sands for work on the building on November 10, 1820:
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Wmsburg held the 10th day of November 1820
Ordered that the Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital pay to Thomas Sands for the sum of Six. hundred dollars, being the second payment agreeably to contract for the building the addition to the Lunatic Hospital out of the fund in his hands appropiated for that purpose
Leo: Henley CCD
Recd. of Roscow Cole treasur of the Lunatic Hospital the within named Sum of Six Hundred dollars Nov 14th 1820.
Thomas Sands senr262
On receiving word December 4, 1820, that the building was nearly two-thirds complete, the directors ordered a further payment to Thomas Sands, Sr., of $600:
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg held the 4th day of December 1820.
Thomas Sands sr. the undertaker of the Building as an addition to this institution having applied to the court for a draft on the Treasurer of the Hospital for the further sum of Six hundred dollars out of the appropriation for that purpose and William T Galt the supervisor of said Building having reported to the court that the said Building is nearly two thirds compleated, It is ordered that the Treasurer of the Hospital pay to said Thomas Sands the sum of six hundred dollars in part of the last payment for the building of said addition.
Leo: Henley CCD
Decr. 13. 1820 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within in full Thomas Sands senr263
By the fall of 1821 the building was complete and ready for occupancy. On September 13, 1821, William T. Galt presented his account amounting to $300 for superintending the erection of the new building:
The Lunatic Hospital
To Wm T Galt Dr.
Sepbr. 13th To 12 Months superintendency of the New building as pr. agreement at $25 pr Month $300
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg held the 5th day of December 1821. This account of Wm. T Galt amounting to three hundred dollars, being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment
Leo. Henley CCD.
Decr 6 1821 Recd. of Roscow Cole treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of Three hundred Dollars in full264
Wm. T. Galt
At a meeting of the directors on September 15, 1821, the treasurer was ordered to pay Thomas Sands, Sr., the balance due him, $964:
At a Court of Directors of the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 15th day of September 1821
Ordered that Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital pay to Thomas Sands senior the undertaker of the building as an addition to the Lunatic Hospital the balance due him for said work according to contract
Leo Henley C C D
The amount of contract $3364
Cr 21 April 1820. Order for $1200 10 Novr. 1820. order for 600 165 4 Decr. 1820. order for 600 2400 Balance due of the Treasurer 964 has made no other paymt.
Leo Henley CCD
Decr. 13. 1821 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of Nine hundred & Sixty fourdollars
Thomas Sands senr265
On June 21, 1821, the directors contracted with Thomas Sands, Jr., to build a wall at the hospital:
Ordered that the Treasurer of this Institution pay unto Thos. Sands Jr. the undertaker of the building of the Wall the sum of Three hundred dollars in part of the sum contracted to be paid by the Commissioners pursuant to an order of the 10th day of May last $300.00
Leo. Henley C.C.D.
Recd. June 22nd. 1821 from Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of Three Hundred Dollars
Thos. Sands Jr.
An account of Thomas Sands, Sr., includes extra work on the new building as well as repairs on the Convalescent house, the hospital, the kitchen, and bath house:
The Lunatick Hospital
To Thos. Sands Dr.
1821 August 20th To Extray work to the nue hous 6.00 To runing a partion of wood plaind on both sides arid put up 5.00 To 128 feet of 1-¼ inch plank for partion at 5 C 6.40 To 1-½ lbs nails Do. 19 C To making 1 door 7/6 To 25 feet 1-¼ inch plank Do. 7/6 2.69 166 To fitting and hanging door 3/ putting on lock 1/6 .75 To putting on hasp and staple 1/6 To putting on 1 apron 9d .37-½ To 1 lock 9/ To 1 pair hinges 6/ To 2 lbs wrought nails 40 C 2.90 To making 1 door frame 12/ To 13-½ feet scantlin for Do 67-½ C 2.67-½ To painting of nue hous 1383 yds of painting 1 Coat at 10 C pr. yd. 138.30 To painting roof and Eve of bettering hous 180 yds of painting 1 Coat at 10 C 18.00 To putting on 19 ketches to windows at 4 C each .76 $177.85 To making 21 Cleets to shetters old hous at 4 C 1.84 To putting on 1 lock old hous 1/6 To repairing whelbarrow 12/ 2.25 $180.94 Octr. 1th To Making 2 door frames to nue yard 12/ each 4.00 To 53 feet scantlin for frames at 5 C 2.65 To making 1 door 10/6 To fitting and hanging 1 door 3/ putting on lock 1/6 2.50 To putting on 1 hasp and staple 1/6 To 38-½ feet of 1=-¼ inch plank at 5 C 2.17-½ To 14 feet scantlin lintons for both doors at 5 C pr foot .70 To making 2 spouts and 2 seats to sinks 18/ 3.00 To 32 feet plank for spouts at 2-½ C .72 To 10 feet of broad thick plank for seats at 8 C .80 To 127 feet of Ladders at 1/6 pr foot 31.75 To timber of seder and oak for 5 ladders 30/ 5.00 To making 2 sink frames at 5/3 each 10/6 To 15-½ feet scantlin at 5 C 77-½ 2.52-½ $236.76 Brought over from the other side 236.76 Novr. 14th To repairs to kitchen To 34 feet sill 34/ To 50 feet sleepers 15/ 8.17 To 185 feet of 1-¼ inch plank at 5 C 9.25 To 1-½ square framing at 7/6 11/3 To 1-½ square floor at 18/ 27/ 6.37-½ To repairing planking 1/6 To repairing floor bathhous 3/ .75 167 To naling up 9 Iron bares to bettering hous 1/6 .25 $261.55-½ O Ryann's charge for Timber for Ladders 5.00 $256.55-½
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 5th day of December 1821.
This account of Thomas Sands Senr. amounting to Two hundred and fifty six dollars and fifty five cents & ½ being examined and passed by the court, was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leod. Henley C.C.D.
Decr. 13, 1821 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the L. Hospital the above a/c in full Thomas Sands Senr.267
On November 1, 1821, Jesse Cole presented a bill for making twenty-six grates for over small doors and three grates for over large doors for the hospital. Presumably some of these grates were made for the new building but the use of the rest of them is unknown:
To Jesse Cole Dr
1821 Novr. 1 To making 26 Grates over small dorrs 988-3/4 lb. @ 9¢ $88.98-½ Do. 3 Do Large Do. 142 lb. @ 10 ¢ 14.20 $103.18-½
the above woork is Charged at the Price, it was Contracted for & well done Richd. Coke commee.
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in Williamsburg held the 5th day of December 1821
This account of Jesse Cole amounting to one hundred & three dollars, eighteen ½ cents, being examined and passed by the court, was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer to the Hospital
Leod. Henley CCD
Jesse Cole a/c $103.18-½
Jany. 21, 1822 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c in full268
Shields, Ashburn,and Company submitted a bill dated October 19, 1821, for printing notices in their newspaper:
The Lunatic Hospital (WmsBurg)
To Shields, Ashburn & Co. Dr.
1821 To ADVERTISING in "THE AMERICAN BEACON AND
NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH DAILY ADVERTISER"
Octo. 19 Notice of Completion of the new building and vacant cells for Males $2.50
Qun. 9 times
A/C Lunatic Hospital $2.50
March 6, 1822269
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the L. Hospital the within sum of Two dollars & fifty Cents Shields, Ashburn & Co.
On May 25, 1821, Roscow Cole, treasurer, insured the asylum buildings against fire with the Mutual Assurance Society under policy # 1640.* A plat on the policy shows the layout of major buildings: 169
[Building A],* insured for $15,000, is described as brick with a wooden roof, two stories high, and 110' x 33'.
[Building B], insured for $1,500, is described as brick with a wooden roof, two stories high, and 32' x 18'.170
[Building C], insured for $4,000, is described as brick with a wooden roof, two stories high, and 40' x 33'.
The kitchen, insured for $200, is described as a one story wooden building, 36' x 30'.
The stable, insured for $120, is described as a one story wooden building, 30' x 30'.
The granary and smokehouse are shown on the plat but not insured. Other known outbuildings [ashes house, bath house, dairy, and necessaries] are not shown on the plat.270
On March 4, 1822, the General Assembly resolved
That hereafter it shall be the duty of the directors of the hospital for the maintenance and cure of persons of unsound minds, to report annually, at the commencement of each session of the General Assembly, and render an accurate account of all monies received by them from the public treasury, and from the estates of lunatics; and the manner of disbursement; together with a list of the names of the persons in said hospital; the time received; their place of residence; and the expense of removal.271
Accordingly the directors of the hospital submitted the first annual report in January 1823. In 1824 at the January 5th meeting, the directors
On Motion, Resolved that the Clerk of the Board be Authorised and directed to make out and return to the Legislature of this State, the Report required by a resolution of said Legislature of the 4th March 1822 and that it shall be his duty in future, annually to make out and return said report after the same shall have 171 been examined and Approved by the president without the intervention of the Court.272
Thereafter, the directors filed a report each year with the exception of 1862-1864, 1867, and 1868. Lists of patients' names were no longer included in annual reports after the 1840/41 annual report except for the year 1865 when patients remaining at the asylum after the Civil War were listed by name.
Accounts with Thomas Sands, Sr., Thomas Sands,, Jr., and William P. Graves 1821-1823 show general repairs made at the hospital, among them work on [Buildings A & B], bath house, kitchen, men's and women's apartments, rooms, men's wall, and necessary:
1821 Decr th6 The Lunatick Hospital To Thomas Sands senr Dr $ C To makeing Davisis Coffin 24/[20/] 4.00 To repairing 3 whelbarrows all most nue $9 10.00 To 25 feet plank for Do at 2-¼ Cents X 0.56 To 25 feet Scantlin for Do at 5C X 1.25 1822 January th8 To repairing 2 whelbarrows 18/ To 5 feet plank 9d 3.12-½ th15 To putting handle to spade 4/6 [3/] To glasing 1 pain glass 4-½d 0.81-¼ February th24 To making Coffin for Diner 24/ [20/] 4.00 March th7 To makeing a Coffin for a man 24/ [20/] 4.00 th16 To 1 gate post for back yard heding and putting up 7/6 1.50 To fitting and hanging gate 2/3 To 2 shetters to windows 6/ 1.37-½ To fitting and hanging 2 shetters 3/ To 15 feet plank for Do 2/3 0.87-½ To putting on 2 locks 3/ To 2 jam casings 2/3 0.87-½ 172 th22 To makeing Coffin for a man 24/ [20/J 4.00 To making Chest 18/ To 76-½ feet plank for Do at 2-½C 4.91-¼ To 3 feet Scantlin for Do 19C To painting Do 3/ 0.69 To 2 lbs of nails 1/6 To repairing whelbarrow 6/ plank 1/6 1.50 To making 4 window frames for bath hous at 9/[7 /6] each 6.00 To making 4 lettis shetters at 4/6 each [2/6] 3.00 To 30 feet of Scantlin for frames at 5C 1.50 To 21 feet plank for lettis shetters at at 2-½C 0.52-½ To making frame to Cover wals at bath house 9/ [7 /6] 1.50 To 23 feet of Scantlin for Do at 5C 1.15 To making 2 door frames except hed pieces for bettering hous 3.00 To 30 feet Scantlin for Do at 5C 1.50 To 2 pair of hanging stiles 3/ To 14 feet plank for Do 2/3 0.87-½ To fitting and hanging 2 doors 3/ each To fixing 2 padlocks 3/ 1.50 To putting on 2 boxes for stock locks 1/6 0.25 To Cutting 2 holes for grates and fixing them 3/ each 1.50 To making 2 shetters for the same To fitting hanging 5/ 1.25 To stoping holes in door in old hous where the grates was 4/6 0.75 To 20 feet plank for shetters &c at 2-½C 3/ nails for Do 9d 0.62-½ To takeing up passag floor and laying the same 4.00 To 35 feet of Scantlin for Sleepers at 5C 1.75 To 3 lbs nails for floor &c 2/3 To making 4 kirbs to steps 6/ 1.37-½ To 12 feet Scantlin for kirbs at 5C 0.60 76.12-½ The account brought over 76.12-½ To makeing 2 frames for sinks 18/ [16/6] To 42 feet Scantlin for Do 12/7-½ 5.10 To shingling 80 feet of vally at 1/6 20.00 To 36 feet of vally bord at 4-½d p foot 2.25 To 34 feet plank for Do at 2-½C 0.85 173 To 200 shingles at 21/ p thousand 0.70 To fixing 2 windows to granary with bares &c at 8/ each 2.00 To 6 feet of Scantlin at 5C 30C 0.30 To 4611 lbs of oats at 5/ p hundred 38.41 July th1 To 4 days hire of Charls harris to paint at 6/ 4.00 149.73-½ Over Charge to be deducted [3.32] $146.41-½
$149.73 Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 29 day of July 1822.
This account of Thomas Sands's against the Lunatic Hospital, amounting to the sum of One hundred and thirty nine dollars and seventy four cents being examined, and passed by the Court, was ordered to be Certified to the Treasurer for payment. Teste
139:74 Leo. Henley C.C.D.
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital the above sum of One hundred & thirty Nine Dollars & 74/100 in full273
Augt. 14th 1822
Thomas Sands senr
1822 Lunitick Hospital Dr To Thos. Sands Jr $ Cts. June 11 To setting in window frame 6/ 1.00 To one Do 3/ To putting up front steps $15 15.50 14th To Laying of 1282 Bricks at $10 p thousand 12.82 To Runing of gutters 24/ in convalesnt. house cellar 4.00 To Repairing of steps to the Convoles sant house do 2.00 17th To setting in two window frames 9/ 1.50 24th To Laying of harth in the Kitchen 12/ repairg jamb's 2.00 To Fixing in Crane 12/ 2.00 To Runing up Back 18/ 3.00 To setting in four window frames in the Barth house at 9/ p frame 6.00 174 July 12th To Laying of one harth in the Convolessant house 1.50 To Repairing of Barth house steps 4/6 .75 To Runing of Culverts $45 45.00 19th To Repairing of 27 yds of plastering at 2/ p yd. 9.00 To white washing of 15 large Rooms & passages at 4/6 p Room 11.25 To 43 small Rooms at 3/ p Room 24.00 To Repairing of the seats in the yards 12/ 2.00 To Repairing of fire place in the mens apartment 1.00 To Do in the womans apartment 18/ 3.00 30th To 4 yds of plastering 8/ 1.33 To Laying of 1424 Bricks at $10 p thousand 14.24 October 12th To Laying of 2845 Bricks in Oven at $10 p thousand 28.45 $191.34 $191.34 Cts over in White washing $1 1 $190:34
Wm. T. Galt
Williamsburg Jany 14. 1823
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c Amounting to One hundred & ninety dollars & Thirty four Cents in full274
Thos. Sands Jr
To William P. Graves Dr
1822 Novr. 22d. To a linton over large door MensWall $ .95 Decr. 10th. Making the door and finding plank 2.34 Fitting and hanging door 37-½ putting in lock 25 .62-½ 1823 Jany. 4 Putting on a harsp and hooks .18-½ Feby Putting two locks 40. repairs to Wheelbarrow $1 1.40 12 A Coffin for Jane Murdaugh 3$ repairs to two Wheel barrows 1.74 4.74 175 Apl. 4 Three bread Waitors 2/6 repairs to one 30 lbs 1.55 May 6 A Coffin for Wiley Nash $3 Spade handle 25 3.25 A lock to a Cell door a hook & Staple 25 .25 A door to Mens Necessary $2.50 2.50 98 feet plank (heart) 1-½ $1.96 1.96 A door fram $1.25 repairing two pannels of pales 25 1.50 28 feet of plank @ 5 $1.440 Cedar post 25 1.65 A bread Waitor 2/6 a new Wheelbarrow $3 3.42 Wm. T. Galt $26.12
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in Williamsburg held the 19th day of August 1823.
This account of William P. Graves amounting to twenty six dollars and twelve cents being examined and passed by the court was ordered to be certified to the treasurer of the Hospital for payment
Leo: Henley CCD
Sept. 13. 1823275
Recd of Roscow Cole Trear. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to Twenty Six Dollars & 12/100
Wm. P. Graves
In January 1824 the directors paid Thomas Sands, Jr., for erecting a new wall around (Building C] and for "raising upon the Old Walls," and advertised for bids for the erection of a smokehouse, two storerooms, a dairy, alterations to the kitchen, repairs, and removals.276 At the May 17, 1824, meeting Thomas C. Lucas received the contract for his bid of $2,096.75.277
A committee appointed to examine the Lunatic Hospital submitted a report to the House of Delegates in February 1824. 176 The committee reported that the gardens, walks, and walls of the hospital were in good order. Open fireplaces were in use at the hospital. There were thirty-five cells for the men and thirteen for the females. The committee recommended that an additional building be erected.278
On March 5, 1824, the General Assembly appropriated a sum not to exceed $5,000 for the erection of an additional building at the hospital in Williamsburg.279 At their March 10, 1824, meeting the directors appointed a committee to contract for the erection of [Building D].280
An account with Shields and Ashburn shows that the directors began advertising on March 25, 1824, in The Beacon for proposals to erect the new building.281 An advertisement appeared in the Richmond Enquirer dated March 26, 1824, for "the erection of a two-story brick house 40 by 33 feet, with an abasement story."282 On April 23, 1824, the committee awarded the contract to Thomas Sands, Sr., who agreed to erect [Building D] by November 1, 1824, for the sum of $3,700.283 It was one-half complete in September.284 The directors received (Building D] at a meeting on November 6, 1824. Thomas Sands, Sr., received payment for it with the exception of $33.33-1/3 to be paid him upon completion of minor work on the building.285 The directors authorized the final payment January 5,1826.286177
On April 29, 1824, the directors authorized Leonard Henley to have a seal made for their use.287
The directors resolved to receive proposals for the erection of walls around the yard of [Building D] and the raising of the old walls. On January 29, 1825, the directors contracted with Thomas Sands, Jr., for erecting the new walls and with Addison Roundtree for raising the old walls.288 Thomas Sands, Jr., received payment in full for the walls on September 29, 1825.289 Addison Roundtree died before completing the work on the old walls but his securities finished the job and received payment on November 16, 1825.290
On April 25, 1825, the directors ordered the clerk to advertise that the cells in [Building D] would be ready for occupancy by May 15, 1825.291 An account with Shields and Ashburn indicates that an advertisement to that effect appeared in The Beacon beginning May 2, 1825, and in the Phoenix Gazette beginning May 4.292 By August 9 all cells were fu11.293
Apparently work on [Building D] continued even after the cells were occupied by patients. An account with Roscow Cole, treasurer of the asylum, shows payments were made in January 1826 for the erection of [Building D] and new walls, raising of old walls, painting of [Building D], and brick work in covered way and culverts to [Building D]: 178
The Commonwealth of Virginia, for a New Building &c &c Erected at the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg In acct.
with Roscow Cole Treasr. of the L. H
Dr Cr 1824 By Cash recd. from Treasr. of Virginia April 29 in part of Appropriation for Erecting to New Building &c $2500 June 12 To Cash paid Thomas Sands Senr in part for above (p Contract) $1233.33-1/3 Sept 24 " do paid do do 1233.33-1/3 Novr. 22 By Cash recd. from Treasr. of Virginia for balce of appropriation 2500 27 To Cash paid Thomas Sands Senr. on a/c of Erecting Building 1200 1825 Feby 11 do paid Thomas Sands Jr in part for Erecting New do Brick Wall to the above Building 200 Octr. 7 do. paid do. do. Balce. due him on do 706.56 " apart of Mitchum Hudgins a/c, this much being properly a charge on a/c of Painting New Building paid 5 Augt. 1825 71.25 " Cash paid Addison Roundtree for advance made him 24 Mar. 1825 in part for raising old Walls adjoining New Wall, to New Building, and rendered Necessary by the Erection of New Building &c 100 " Balce. paid Roper & Booker Securities of A Roundtree for Wall as Above 115.61-½ 1826 Jany 6 " Cash paid Thomas Sands Senr. for balance due him for Erecting new building p Contract 33.33-1/3 " do paid Thomas Sands Jr. a/c for Brick work in covered way & Culverts to new Building 100.73 " Balance remaining in the hands of R. Cole Treasr p Con: 5.84-½ $5000 $5000 By Balance remaining in my hands this day p Con: $5.84-½
Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the Seventh day of January 1826.
This account of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital Commencing the 29th day of April 1824 and ending on the 6 instant for monies paid on account of New Building and by which it appears that the sum of five dollars, eighty four & a half Cents is due to the Commonwealth being examined and found Correct by the board was ordered to be certified to the Auditor of public Accounts according to Law.
a Copy Teste,294
Leod. Henley C.C.D.
An account with Mitcham Hudgens, May-August 1825, for painting [Building D] shows the existence of a platform and cellar cap:
The Lunatic Hospital Dr
1825 To Mitcham Hudgens May 31 To Painting new building as p agreement $69.00 Extra painting Platform and Cellar Cap 2.25 71.25 May 15 To 12-½ day @ 4/6 p day $ 9.37-½ June 10 " 21-¼ days C 6/ p day 21.25 $101.87-½
Wm. T. Galt
Augt. 5. 1825 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to One hundred & One dollars & 87-½ Cents295
An account with Thomas Sands, Jr., November 1825, for the covered way and open culverts indicates that a system of draining 180 the cells in [Building D] existed:
The Lunatic Hospital for New Building &c &c
1825 To Thomas Sands Jr Dr Novr. To Laying 10.073 Bricks in Covered way & open Culverts to drain the Cells in the new Building @ $10 p 1000 $100.73
Wm. T Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 5th day of January 1826.
This account of Thomas Sands Jr amounting to One hundred dollars and Seventy three Cents being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leod: Henley C.C.D.
January 6. 1826296
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to One hundred dollars & 73/100 in full of
Thos. Sands Jr
Thomas C. Lucas submitted an account at the directors' meeting of June 14, 1825, for work on the new kitchen and [Building B]. The directors evidently changed the specifications for the kitchen wall:
The Lunitick Hospital to Ths. C Lucas dr.
1825 to runing the new B kitchen wall one foot Higher than it was to be in the foundashon two Bricks thick is 4320 Bricks at $9.50 pr. $41.00 paving Shed flore 588 Bricks at 6/ pr. 5.88 33 yards plastring nitc at 2/. pr. 11.00 5 yards opnings at /9 pr .62-½ one nue windo in d. with iron grats 12.50 $71.00-½ one nu windo Sil in Convelisont house 1.50 275 feet planke for doors & Closit & pertison at 12/ pr 5.50 62 feet Timber for two door frams & pertison at 5 cts pr 3.10 181 makeing two door frams at 9/ pr. 3.00 to Bilding Closit & makeing door for do. & hanging d 5.00 to makeing one door for [?d] & Hinges & nales 2.50 to runing pertison of planke & Letis work 4.75 $96.35-½ to 8 Chesnut post at /9 pr 1.00 Wm. T. Galt $97.35-½
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 14 day of June 1825 This account of Thomas C Lucas's amounting to Ninety seven dollars and thirty five ½ cents being examined and allowed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leod. Henley CCD
14 June 1825 Recd. of297
Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to Ninety Seven dollars & 35/100 Ths. C Lucas
At the directors meeting of January 5, 1826, Thomas C. Lucas submitted an account for extra work done in 1825 on the old kitchen and [Building B]:
1825 The Lunatic Hospital
To Thomas C Lucas for Extra work don on old Kitchen To 212 feet Plank @ 12/ p Hundred 4.24 " 10 feet 2 Inch ditto @ 4 Cents p foot .40 " 3 Cedar Post 9 feet long C 2/3 p Post 1.12-½ " Pound Lathing nailes 0.17 " Moving Partition up Stairs 1.00 " Cutting out 2 windows and Caising the same 3.00 " Making 11 Shetters for windows @ 3/ Each 5.50 " 4 Pounds rought nailes 0.80 " Mending Lathing up Stairs 2.00 " Putting in 2 new Sills to windows of Plank 0.50 " 1 Sill below of timber 1.00 " Putting up Shed 9.32-½ " Putting in 36 Paines of Glass 4d p Pain 2.00 " Mending and Planking outside of Kitchen 1.25 " 4 Cedar Post for Porch at Converlesant House 0.75 182 [To] Putting up hand rail round ditto 3.00 " Moving door and door frame in ditto 5.00 " Pieceing large door fram 0.58 " 30 yards Plastering 7.50 " Putting in window Sill 0.75 $49.89 Novr. To 2 Bushels and peck lime @ 1/ p Bushel 37-½ Wm. T Galt $50.20
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 5th day of January 1826. This account of Thomas C. Lucas amounting to Fifty dollars and twenty cents, being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leond. Henley C.C.D.
Jany 6. 1826298
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within sum of Fifty Dollars & Twenty Cents in full
Ths. C Lucas
Thomas C. Lucas received payment in full for the smokehouse, storerooms, dairy, kitchen, repairs, and removals on January 5, 1826.299
Work such as whitewashing, repairs to [Buildings A & B], and other improvements continued at the hospital during 1825 as accounts with James Guthrie and Thomas Sands, Jr., indicate:
1825 The Lunatic Hospital Dr To James Gurthrie July 1st To Putting up 16 feet of Shelvs in Cellar @ 4 cts p foot $0.64 " Steps in Dary 3/ 0.50 " takeing off 2 Locks & Putting on ditto 0.25 " Makeing Coffin Wm. Delong 3.00 4.39 Aug 4 " repairing 4 old watters @ 1/6 Each 1.00 " Makeing 2 new do and finding stuff 1.25 10 " 32 feet Plank @ 2 Cents p foot 0.64 " 8 feet 2 Inch Scantling @ 3-½ Cnts p foot 0.28 183 [Aug. 10 To] Makeing a window frame 1.25 " 4 lights of sash @ 9d p Light 0.50 " Makeing large door frame for wall 2.00 " Makeing Seat and Spout for mens yard 1.50 24 " 12 lights of sash @ 9d p light 1.50 " Putting in Dormant window in old Kitchen 4.00 " Putting Lock on Door 0.25 " Altering 29 Doors @ 9d Each 3.62-½ " Altering Irons of 4 Windows 1.75 " Glazing 46 lights of Sash 1.84 21.38 Sept. " Putting up 3 Pannels of old Pailing 0.75 4 " Putting a lock on one of the Cell doors 0.25 " Putting a sill under yard door 0.75 " Putting 3 Iron bars in Window 0.37-½ " Riveting on 2 large hasps on door 0.25 7 Putting up 26 feet Shelvs in Store room 1.04 " Makeing new wheel barrow 3.00 9 " Makeing 2 pair whiteoak steps 6 steps in Each 5.00 17 " Makeing 2 new wheel barrows 6.00 " Makeing Coffin for Jacob Fuller 3.00 18 " Makeing ditto for Saml. Naiper 3.00 19 " Makeing seat and Spout 1.50 22 " Makeing Coffin for Jane Hicks 3.00 23 " Sink frame and Caseing 1.75 24 " Makeing Battern door 1.25 " Fitting altering & hanging door frame reviting hasp & Staple 1.12-½ 32.03-½ 1825 Sept. 26 Amt. Brought over $57.82 To a bead and Caseing for better House Door $0.37-½ " Plank on flore 1 Caseing sill of door 0.37-½ " Cutting and repairing Cellar door fitting & Hanging 0.75 184 [Sep. 26 To] [back?] frame Caseing &c 1.25 " Makeing 2 Lined doors fitting & hanging @ 12/ Each 4.00 " Makeing 3 wheel barrow wheels 3/ 1.50 " Makeing 4 Axeltrees for wheel barrows 0.75 " repairing 4 Old wheel barrows 3/ Each 2.00 11.00 " Glazing 20 Paines Glass @ 4 Cts Each 0.80 " Makeing and fitting window Shutter 0.75 " Caseing door in Better house up Stairs 0.50 " Makeing battern door fitting and hanging 1.25 " Putting Lock on better house door 0.25 " Makeing 2 Large Waters 3/ Each 1.00 " Makeing Coffin for John Lathrope 3.00 " Makeing Dormer to Chimney on better house 3.00 " Putting up 45 feet Shelvs in new Kitchen C 4 cts p foot 1.84 12.39 " Makeing 2 Coffins 6.00 " Makeing 3 Ladders 34 feet long and finding Cellar @ 1/ p foot 17.00 " Building Shelter 52 feet long 20.00 " Makeing double Seat 52 feet long 10.00 " Putting Lock on yard door hook and Staple &c 0.37-½ " Cutting way for running Chimney in old house 0.50 " Cutting way to run Stair steps in old Kitchen and building plat form & running Stair steps 8.00 61.87-½ " Cutting and altering Lindal [lintel] over fire place in Kitchen 0.25 " Putting a step in old house Stairs and repairing Planking 1.00 " Shingling round Chimney of old Kitchen Cutting floor for hearth in do 3.25 185 [Sep. 26 To] Makeing Coffin for Levy Haws 3.00 " Makeing ditto for Wm Tankersley 3.00 7.75 Wm. T. Galt 150.83 By 238 feet of Plank @ 2/ pr. Hundred 4.76 $146.07
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the fifth day of January 1826
This account of James Guthrie amounting to One hundred and forty six dollars and Seven Cents being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be Certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for paymt a Copy
Leo: Henley CCD
January 12. 1826 Recd of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to one hundred & Forty Six Dollars & 7/100300
James Guthrie X his mark
1825 Lunitick Hospital Dr
To Thos. Sands Jr $. Cts.
July To Repairing of plastering 12/ 2.00 To whitewashing of 8 Large Rooms at 4/6 p Room 6.75 To do 9 large passages at 4/6 p passage 6.75. To do one small passage 3/ .50 To do 7 stairways at 2/3 p stairway 2.62-½ To do 29 small Rooms at 3/ p Room 14.50 To do 13 small Rooms at 2/3 p Room 4.87-½ To do two Clausets at 2/ p Clauset .67 To Runing up three Backs 18/ 3.00 To Repairing of Back and Jams of two fire places 30/ 5.00 To Laying of one harth 9/ 1.50 To Laying of 8749 Bricks at $10 p thousnd for a Culvert atrchd $7.49 $134.91 Cts
Wm. T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 21st day of July 1825186
This account of Thomas Sands Junr amounting to One hundred and thirty four dollars and ninety one cents being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment Teste
Leo. Henley CCD
July 22d. 1825
Recd of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to One hundred & Thirty four dollars & 91/100301
Thos. Sands Jr
Lunatic Hospital Dr
1825 To Thomas Sands Junr.
Septr 27 To whitewashing three rooms @ 3/ each $1.50 Setting and working in door frame in mens wall 1.50 Setting and fixing a door frame to Cellar Cap 1.00 Laying bricks and fixing Cellar steps 18/ 3.00 Fixing a seat to the mens necessary 1.50 Cutting out and fixing the seat to the womans ditto 3.00 Laying of 3126 Bricks in the two sinks to the walls @ $10 pr thousand 31.26 Laying floors to them @ 4/6 each 1.50 44.26
Wm T. Galt
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 29th day of September 1825
This account of Thomas Sands Jr amounting to Forty four dollars and twenty six Cents being examined and allowed by the court was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leod: Henley CCD
Lunatic Hospital Dr
1825 To Thomas Sands Junr.
Septr 15 To Laying of 120875 Bricks in the new wall 0,$7.50 Cents pr. thousand 906.56-¼ By Cash 200 Ballance due 706.56-¼
Wm. T. Galt187
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 29th day of September 1825. This account of Thomas Sands Jr amounting [to] Seven hundred and Six Dollars and fifty six & ¼ cents being examined and [allowed] by the Court was Ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital [for pa]yment Teste Leod: Henley CCD
Received of Roscow Cole treasurer of Lunatic Hospital the within amount Say Seven hundred and fifty dollars and Eighty two Cents
Octr. 7. 1825302
Thos. Sands Jr
1825 The Lunatic Hospital Dr
To Thos. Sands Jr $ Cts. November Whitewashing 6 Rooms at 3/ p Room 3.00 Pointing Round Chimney 3/ .50 Repairing plastering 4/6 .75 Laying hearth in the Cellar 12/ 2.00 Repairing womans wall 18/ 3.00 Laying 630 Bricks finishing men's wall at $8.50 Cts p thousand 5.53 Laying 11876 Bricks in the Old kitchen Chimney Partision walls &c at $10 p thousand 118.76 Laying 5133 Bricks p Boilers at $10 thousand 51.33 Laying 1297 Do in under pinning &c harths 12.97 Laying 1487 Bricks in Opinings at 15/ p thousand 3.72 Repairing of Oven 18/ 3.00 $204.56 Cts
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital held in the City of Williamsburg the 13th: day of March 1826.
Ordered that the order of the 5th: day of January 1826 passing Thomas Sands Junr's. account amounting to $177:89. for Plastering Brick work &c. be rscinded and thereupon the said Thomas Sands Junr. presented in Court his account in lieu thereof for the same services amounting to Two hundred and four dollars and fifty six cents, 188 which being examined and allowed by the Court, was ordered to be certified to the Treasurer of the said Hospital for payment.
Leonard Henley C.C.D.
March 15. 1826
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to Two hundred & four dollars & fifty Six Cents303
Thos. Sands Jr
On September 29, 1825 William T. Galt, keeper, reported to the directors that the well of the hospital was insufficient. The directors authorized him to have another well dug.304 An account with Thomas Sands, Jr., for work done in July 1826 shows that he furnished bricks for the well:
The Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg
1826 To Thomas Sands Jr Dr.
July To repairing plaistering 30/ $ 5.00 " altering fire place in females apartment 5.00 " whitewashing 51 small Rooms at 3/ each 25.50 " Do. 18 Small Rooms @ 2/3 each 6.75 " Do. 16 Large Rooms @ 4/6 each 12.00 " Do. 14 passages at 4/6 each 10.50 " Do. 10 Stair ways at 2/3 each 3.75 " Do. Closet 2/3 .37-½ " Laying 11240 Bricks in covered Culvert at $10 p thousand 112.40 $181.27-½ To Laying 7696 Bricks in covered Culvert at $10 p thousand 76.96 " Laying 38202 Bricks in the Chimney, at $10 p thousand 382.02 " Workmanship of openings, 2088 Bricks at 15/ p thousand 5.18 " Plaistering 94-2/3 yds. at 2/ p yd 31.55 " Running 72 feet of Gutters to the new Kitchen 8.91 " Do. 35 feet 2 In: Do. to the Dairy 4.35 189 [To] Do. 112 feet 6 In: Do to the Convalescent House 13.92 " Running 50 feet 9 In: Do to Smoke house 6.27 " Laying 4910 Bricks in Pavement at $10 p thousand 49.10 " underpinning of Garden House 294 Bricks at $10 p thousand 2.94 Amount carried forward and account continued $762.47-½ Amount brought forward and account continued $762.47-½ To paving of Culvert 9/ 1.50 " Repairing Oven in New Kitchen 18/ 3.00 " Fixing of frames and paving around 6 large Sinks at 9/ 9.00 " Fixing of frames 4 Small Sinks at 3/ each 2.00 " Laying 5 Hearths at 9/ each 7.50 " Cutting out 3 Doors and fixing in the Same at 9/ each 4.50 " Pointing around Chimney 6/ 1.00 " furnishing 6336 Bricks for Well at $6 p thousand 38.01-½ $828.99 To 1-½ bushels of Lime furnished at 1/ p bushel .25 $829.24
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 15th day of December 1826.
This account of Thomas Sands Jr. amounting to Eight hundred and twenty nine dollars and twenty four Cents was this day presented in Court and examined, and it is the opinion of the Court that the said amount be allowed subject to a deduction of one hundred and three dollars and forty eight cents for over charges for Brick work in rebuilding the Chimney and laying pavement and Gutters, which are allowed at $8. per thousand instead of $10 and upwards as charged in his said account and liberty is reserved to Mr Sands to establish his account for said Charges by evidence at the prices as charged. And it is further ordered that the Treasurer of the Hospital pay to the said Thomas Sands Jr the sum of Seven hundred and twenty five dollars and seventy six cents, being the amount of his account after the deduction aforesaid, being made upon his giving a discharge in full upon the same. But if the said Thomas Sands Jr shall be unwilling to receive his account subject to the deduction above made, Then the Treasurer will pay him in part thereof, 190 a sum not exceding Seven hundred dollars. see the other side a Copy,
Leond: Henley CCD
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 13 day of January 1827.
The Court resuming the Consideration of the foregoing account, and it appearing to them by the evidence of Dr Jesse Cole that Wm T. Galt the former Keeper of the Hospital contracted to pay Mr Thos Sands Jr. at the rate of ten dollars per thousand for his brick work in taking down and running up the Chimney charged for in the said account it is ordered that Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Hospital pay to the said Thomas Sands Jr. the further sum of Seventy six dollars and forty one cents which is an allowance at the rate of ten dollars pr thousand for building the said chimney.
Leond. Henley CCD
April 2d. 1827 Recd of Roscow Cole Treasur. of the Lunatic Hospital Eight hundred & Two dollars & 17/100 in full of the within say $802.17305
Thos. Sands Jr
An Account with James Guthrie for work done at the hospital in 1826 shows that he made a curb for the well:
1826 Hospital To James Gurthrie Dr
Jany 7 To making a Coffin for mad man Jenning $3.00 10 To making Do for Do Dunton 3.00 To a cant board to Corn house door 0.18-¾ To a cant board to better house door 0.18-¾ To fitting on lock & Caseing on sell door 0.37-½ To repairing check door on corn house 0.50 To handling a spade 0.62-½ 25 To takeing of & putting on lock womans apartment 0.37-½ March 3 To making two wheel drays for wood 6.00 4 To repairing a wheel barrow 0.75 To glazeing two panes of glass 0.12-½ 191 [March] 10 To making ley hopper 2.00 To repairing stand for Do 0.75 To a wheel barrow whee 0.75 11 To making two wheel barrows 6.00 May 9 To putting up two plates 24 feet ea 4.00 To 36 feet of Shelter 6.00 To two new posts & two new studs 1.50 To 52 feet of double seats @ 2-½ Cent p foot 6.50 18 To twenty feet of silling in garden house 2.50 To four sleepers in Do 0.50 To laying floar of Do 0.75 To planking in side & out side repairing 1.00 To putting up two small shelves for water 0.37-½ To fixing Door in sell 0.25 May 19 To putting up 8 pannels of pailing C 25 ct ea 2.00 To putting up Iron mill to grind homminy 0.25 June 24 To makeing a Coffin for madman for Thos Meron 3.00 To 13 pannels of New planking 9 feet high 13.00 To 9 Do of Do 7-½ feet high at 75 ea 6.75 To 3 battern Doors 2.25 fitting & hanging 25 ct. ea 3.00 To 11 pannels of Common pailing 25 ct ea 2.75 83.75 1826 Amt Brought over 83.75 July 17 To hanging 2 gates & hasps & Staples $ 0.75 To putting on 4 latches @ different places 0.50 To putting on a lock on Sellar 0.25 To putting 8 post & plate 24 feet long to throw wood over 2.50 To mooving garden House 1.50 24 To makeing a frame for sink in yard 0.50 Aug 5 To makeing a Coffin by John D Johnson for James Allen 3.00 12 To making Do by Johnson for Edward Lillins 3.00 192 [Aug] 22 To making frames for sinks five large ones @ $1.00 ea three small Do @ 50 ct ea 6.50 Sept. 5 To making two Kerbs for bottom of well 1.00 14 To a kerb for bottom of well of white oak 4.00 22 To two arch boards for turning Arches for Chimney 0.50 24 To a sink frame 0.50 Octr 2 To makeing three arch boards & putting strips on 1.00 To putting on two locks 25 cent ea 0.50 14 To making two Chimney pieces C $6.00 ea 12.00 To priming of Do 0.50 To putting timber under four fire places 1.00 To mooving timber a round fire place & a border a round Do 0.75 To Cutting & caseing of three doors and two pieces of Chear board 0.50 16 To shingling around Chimney 0.50 To putting up shelves in closet 0.25 23 To altering fire place in Womans apartment 0.50 Novr 21 To putting up 5 shelvs in cellar closet 1.25 Decr 2 To makeing a New gate 1.00 To fitting hanging & latch 0.37-½ To takeing down an old gate mooving & hanging 0.37-½ To putting up short pannel paleing & repairing of Do 0.25 To planking of fence for Throwing wood over 0.50 $129.50 1826 Brought over $129.50 Decr. 9 To makeing 42 feet of benches for porch C 16-½ p Do 7.00 13 To makeing a well Kerb 3.00 To an Roof of Do 3.00 $1442.50 To Putting up Pannel fence & Gate 62-½ To mending 2 Waiters 37-½ $143.50
Exceptd Dickie Galt Kpr193
1826 The Lunatic Hospital Dr
Decr. 14 To James Guthry To repairing wheel Barrow $ 1.00 " repairing 3 ditto 0.50 15th " putting up 1 Pannel pailings one gate 0.62-½ " repairing Cell 0.25 Dickie Galt Kpr $ 2.37-½
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 15th day of December 1826.
These accounts of James Guthrie amounting to One hundred and forty five dollars eighty seven & ½ Cents being examined and allowed by the Court were ordered to be Certified to the [Treasurer for payment.]
Decr 1826 Recd of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within Acct. amounting to one hundred & Forty five dollars & 87-½ Cts
James Guthrie X his mark306
On March 13, 1826, the directors ordered Galt to have the chimney at the east end of the main building taken down and replaced.307 As the previous account with Thomas Sands, Jr., indicates, the hospital hired him to rebuild the chimney.
The previous account with Thomas Sands, Jr., is interesting for another reason. It shows whitewashing of 85 rooms (69 small and 16 large), 14 passages and 10 stairways. This listing may be the total number of rooms, passages, and stairways in [Buildings A, B, C & D] in 1826. The annual report dated January 19, 1827, lists 76 patients in the hospital on January 1, 1827.308194
Robert Russell presented to the directors an account for digging and bricking the well:
1826 The Lunatic Hospital Dr
Oct. 20 To Robert Russell To diging and Bricking Well 32 feet deep 4/6 p foot $24.00
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 13 day of January 1827.
This account of Robert Russells amounting to Twenty four dollars being examined and allowed by the Court, was Ordered to be Certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment
Leond. Henley CCD
23 January 1827
Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amounting to Twenty four dollars
Robert Russell X his mark309
As the foregoing accounts with Thomas Sands, Jr., and James Guthrie indicate, work of various kinds continued at the hospital through the year 1826. Guthrie worked on the corn house and [Building B], moved the garden house, made shelter and seats for the yard, and altered the fireplace in the women's apartment. Sands ran gutters to the new kitchen, dairy, and smokehouse. Sands also laid the floor in the smokehouse and laid brick around the new well as the following account indicates:
The Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg
1826 To Thomas Sands Jr Dr
November 29 To Laying floor and Sink in Smoke House containing 1854 bricks @ $10 p thousand $18.54 195 [To] fixing step to Do. 3/ .50 " Laying 3150 Bricks around well C $10 p thousand 31.50 " Whitewashing 2 large Rooms C 4/6 each 1.50 " Do 2 Closets C 37-½¢ each .75 " cutting out and fitting in window frame 1.50 $54.29
Dickie Galt Kpr
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 15 day of December 1826.
This account of Thomas Sands Jr amounting to Fifty four dollars and twenty nine cents was this day presented in Court and examined whereupon it is ordered that the said amount be certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment subject to a deduction of two dollars a thousand for the Bricks Charged for as having been furnished and laid by said account a Copy,
Leond: Henley CCD
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 13 day of January 1827.
The Court resuming the consideration of the within account and for reasons appearing to the Court, it is ordered that the Order made in relation thereto on the 15 decr last allowing the said acct ,amount subject to a deduction of $2 pr thousand for the Bricks charged for by said account, be rescinded and it is ordered that Roscow Cole Treasurer of the Hospital pay to the said Thomas Sands Jr the sum of Forty Seven dollars & Ninety nine cents in full of said amount a Copy,
Leond: Henley CCD
April 2d. 1827 Recd. of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital the within a/c amountg to forty seven dollars & 99/100310
Thos. Sands Jr.
The keeper of the hospital, William T. Galt, died in August 1826.311 The annual report of 1905 lists Jesse Cole as his successor. Cole's service began in August 1826. Cole resigned in November of the same year. The same month Dickie Galt, half-brother of William T. Galt, became keeper.312
On May 19, 1827, the directors adopted a resolution stating that the matron, Mary A. Galt, could "occupy her private house [Galt Cottage] near the Hospital as a residence." As long as she used the house as her residence she was to have the use of one room "west of her present chamber" and two public rooms at the hospital.313 The Galt Cottage belonged to the estate of the matron's husband, the late William T. Galt, keeper. On December 28, 1827, the directors resolved that Mary A. Galt be allowed $50 per year in lieu of board at the hospital while residing in her house.314 This arrangement was made after the death of the matron's husband, Keeper William T. Galt. Thereafter, the matron and keeper were not husband and wife necessitating the accommodation of two families within the hospital which proved impossible because of limited space.315
On June 26, 1827, Dickie Galt was ordered to purchase 88 locks for the "use of the several apartments of the Hospital."316 On December 20, 1827, the directors ordered him to dispose of the old locks.317197
In August 1827, the directors ordered the keeper to have the wood yard moved and improved, a shed built in the female yard, window frames and sills made for [Building A], and in September the enclosures of the hospital repaired.318
By 1828 the hospital no longer used [Building B] as a convalescent house. A note in the directors' minutes for January 5, 1828, stated that the building formerly used as a convalescent house had "necessarily been taken for the Ordinary use of Lunatics." On June 20, 1828, the directors proposed that the erection of a wall around [Building B] and a new convalescent house be paid for out of the balance then due on the treasurer's account.319
The directors appointed a committee March 21, 1828, to have a seal made for the institution.320
Improvements and repairs of various kinds continued throughout 1828. On June 20th the directors ordered Dickie Galt to proceed to have a brick wall erected around [Building B], a roof put on the old kitchen, repairs made to the enclosure, window sills of hewn stone purchased for [Building A], roof of [Building A] painted, south side of [Building A] repaired, and lights substituted for the blinds of [Building A].321
On December 6, 1828, the directors ordered erected "to the North front of the main building of the Hospital a Portico 198 of the like demensions of the one on the Southside thereof."322 In January 1829 James Guthrie presented the following account for the erection of a portico on the front of [Building A]:
1828 The Lunatic Hospital
To James Guthrie Dr
To Building front Portoco compleat and finding all the meterials with Brick work $157
Dickie Galt kpr
Returned into the Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital of the City of Williamsburg the 9th day of January 1829, and being examined and allowed by the Court was Ordered to be Certified to the Treasurer for payment.
Leond. Henley CCD
Recd payment of Roscow Cole Treasurer of Lunatic Hospital Jany 9th 1829
James Guthrie X his mark323
At the same time he presented another account to the directors which listed the erection of a portico 10' x 20' probably on the rear of [Building A]. This account also shows Guthrie made shelters for the yards and seats to be placed under the shelters; did work in the cellar, kitchen, and closet; shingled two pedements; and put up and took down shutters:
1828 Lunatic Hospital To James Guthrie Dr July 21 To Makeing a doore frame $ 1.00 Sept 3 Makeing double Shelter 25 feet long 12.00 " Makeing double Seats 24 feet long under Shelter 4.00 " Making 3 doore frames @ 9/ each 4.50 199 [Sept. 3 To] Making a double a lined doore 1.50 " fitting hanging and putting on lock on ditto 0.50 " Caseing doore frame with agstripes [astragals] 0.37-½ " Caseing inside of doore 9.75 " Caseing Kitchen Window 0.37-½ " 20 feet of Corner and 32 do barge board C 2 Cents p foot 1.40 13 Repairing Planking in Cellar 0.75 " Putting shore post under 3 rooms 1.00 " Takeing up Poarch flore 0.50 20 Making a six Pannel doore 3.00 " fitting hanging and putting a lock on ditto 0.50 " Building platform hand railes newell post 4.00 " Makeing pair large steps newell post hand railes &c 3.50 " Setting in X Irons in Gerder 0.25 " Makeing 648 lights sash @ 9d p light 81.00 " Caseing one 18 light window in Kitchen 1.50 " Putting in window Sill in ditto 0.50 " Caseing with hanging stiles 0.25 " 10 feet of Corner board @ 2 Cents p foot 0.20 25 Makeing a large doore frame 18/ 3.00 " Making 2 Battern doors for Cellar 1.00 " fitting and hanging ditto 0.50 " Caseing on Brick work at doore 0.50 " Cutting way and putting in window frame in Kitchen 0.37-½ " fitting hanging stiles to window 0.25 " 40 feet new Cornice to Kitchen @ 4 Cents p foot 2.40 " 32 feet barge Board @ 2 Cents p foot 0.64 " Caseing doore in big house up stairs 0.25 " Putting on old window Caseing on 4 windows 0.25 " a new window Caseing to window 0.12-½ 132.28 200 Amt Brot over $132.28 To pieceing out floore up stairs 0.25 Putting old shelves in Closset up stairs 0.25 Putting old nask board up stairs 0.25 Putting one new window Seat up Stairs 0.25 2 new window Seats down stairs @ 1/6 each 0.50 4 new Shelves in Closset down Stairs 0.50 Mending floore down Stairs 1.00 30 feet of new wash and chair board 1.20 Cutting away and putting a doore in Kitchen 1.00 fitting and hanging ditto 0.25 fitting eight lights of sash in Kitchen 0.25 Takeing down and putting up stair case in Kitchen & 4 new steps in do 2.00 Repairing Stairway in Kitchen 0.50 Shingleing up 4 barge boards on Kitchen 0.50 12 Square weather boarding C 7/6 p square 15.00 Caseing one window 0.62-½ Takeing down and putting up 4 Pair Shutters 1.00 3 new window seats in houses @ 1/6 each .75 Takeing out old sash and putting in new 6.00 Shingling 2 Pedements on house 24 feet each 3.00 Sill under front doore 0.75 Putting a plank under front doore 0.25 Pieacing a wash board 0.25 Putting a piece of Moaldin under Pedement 0.18-¾ Putting old sash in Kitchen window 0.12-½ Putting 3 large studs in Kitchen 0.25 Makeing 2 small pannel doors and fitting & hanging 2.25 Repairing some Caseing in house 0.50 Takeing out old sash of 36 windows and fitting new 2.00 16 new Beed Strips for windows 1.00 Putting 36 Stone sills in windows 13.00 201 Makeing 4 Cellar window frames without bars @ 6/ each 4.00 2 ditto with Bars @ 9/ each 3.00 195.41-¾ Amt Brot over $195.41-¾ To Caseing window with hanging Stiles 1.00 " Makeing six 6 window Shuters @ 2/3 each 2.40 fitting and hanging ditto 0.75 Building Portoco 10 by 20 feet 55.00 Takeing down and putting up 3 pr Shutters 1.00 255.56-¾
Dickie Galt Kpr
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 9th day of January 1829
This account of James Guthries amounting to two hundred and fifty five dollars and fifty six & 3/4 was presented and being examined and allowed by the Court was Ordered to be Certified to the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment. a Copy,
Leond. Henley CD
Williamsburg January 9th 1829. Recd. of Roscow Cole Trear. of the Lunatic Hospital payment in full of the above a/c
John E. Finch
James Guthrie X his mark324
The portico listed in this account cost less than the north portico--$55 versus $157--possibly an indication that the rear portico was smaller than the one on the front of the main building.
In May 1829 three accounts mention columns, one stating that the columns were for a portico: 202
1829 The Lunatic Hospital Dr
To Henry Waddill
May 16 To underpenning one room in Cellar $50.00 " Paving and whitewashing same 1.50 " Running nine Pillars for Portico 4.00 " Getting and cleaning Bricks for steps 1.50 " Pulling down and putting up Steps 10.00 " underpenning Stable 3.50 " Laying 4 heaths and mending 6 Backs 5.00 " 10,000 Bricks @ 3$ per thousand 30.00 " cleaning 10 Thousand Bricks C 6/ pr. thoud. 10.00 70.50
Dickie Galt Kpr
Recd Paymt of R. Cole Treasurer
11 July 1829 Henry Waddill
At a Court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg held the 8th day of July 1829.
This account amounting to Seventy dollars and fifty Cents being examined and allowed by the Court was ordered to be paid by the Treasurer of the Hospital for payment.
Leonard Henley CCD
Henry Waddill's bill of bricklayer's work 16 May 1829 $70.50 pd. 11 July.325
The Lunatic Hospital in the City of Wmsburg Va to C. F. Stone Dr.
For turning 6 columns @ $3.00 each--$18.00
May 26th 1829
D. Galt Keeper
C. F. Stone
C. F. Stone's Recpt
for turning Columns
May 26th. 1829
Lunatic Hospital To John G Colley Dr Per Dickie Galt $ c To 6 white pine columns @ 200 c Each 12.00 5 ditto hewing ditto @ 50 c do 2.50 $14.50
Norfolk May 29. 1829
Recd Payt Jono G Colley
J. G. Colley Recpt for Columns
May 29th. 1829
At an evening meeting on January 9, 1829, the directors decided to abandon the plan for building a new convalescent house due to insufficient funds. Instead the directors ordered current expenses discharged and [Building A] made more secure from fire by the slating of the roof.328 On March 9th the keeper received an order to arrange for slating [Building A].329 An account with William Babbington in May 1829 listed 50 squares of slate:
M Dickey Galt For Lunatic Hospital To Wm Babbington
1829 April 13 Wharfage 2000 Bricks 20 $ .40 May 11 Ditto 4 Barrells Lime 4 Barrels Peas 2/100 .16 " 25 50 Squares of Slate @ 6-¼ 3.12-½ June 6 5 Barrells Flour 5 July 10 Casks Lime .30 " 12 60 Square of Slate @ 6-¼ 3.75 $ 7.78-½
April 13th Repayment Wm. Babbington
At the July 8, 1829, meeting of the directors, the clerk recorded Dickie Galt's account for hauling slate. At the same meeting the directors authorized the keeper to slate the other buildings in which patients lived and to sell at public auction the old shingles of the institution.330a
Roscow Cole, treasurer of the hospital, was ordered by the directors on January 6, 1830, to insure "all the Buildings belonging to this institution."332 The Mutual Assurance Society revalued and insured the hospital buildings under policy #6023* dated January 5, 1830. A plat on the policy shows the building layout:205
[Building A], insured for $11,000, is described as brick with a slate roof, two stories high, and 100' x 38'.
[Building B], insured for $2,500, is described as brick with a slate roof, two stories high, and 20' x 32'.
[Buildings C & D], insured for $5,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs, two stories high, and 40' x 34'.
A kitchen, insured for $2,500, is described as brick with a wooden roof, one story high, and 50' x 28'. This kitchen is considerably larger than the one shown on the 1821 policy. It is probably the new one enlarged by Thomas C. Lucas in 1825.
A laundry, insured for $500, is described as wooden with a wooden roof, one story high, and 32' x 27'.
A smokehouse, insured for $200, is described as brick with a wooden roof, one story high, and 20' x 32'. The smoke house and a dairy (valued at $50 but not insured) are probably the ones erected by Thomas C. Lucas in 1825.
The stable, insured for $400, is described as being entirely of wood, one story high, and 30' x 45'. It is shown on the property across Ireland Street.
A wood corn house, valued at $60, was not insured. It is shown on the property across Ireland Street.206
The location of an old building near the stable is shown on the policy.333
In 1830 property owners in the vicinity of the hospital insured their houses. A policy dated May 20, 1830, was taken out by Jesse Cole, executor of Samuel Travis, on the Travis House "situated on a street on the South dividing it from the lot of the Lunatic Hospital."334 On May 28, 1830, Ferdinand Stewart Campbell Stewart insured his buildings [Griffen House] "situated between the lots of the Lunatic Hospital East."335
Henry Waddill presented two accounts in 1830 for general work and maintenance at the hospital:
Lunictick Hospital To Henry Waddill Dr
1830 March To putting up two kettels $1.50 " mending three backs and laying harth 3.50 " plastering in different. Rooms 3.00 " mending under pining at stable .25 " mending wall in center building .5 May taking out 2 ovens and putting in same 4.00 " mending six fire places 5.50 " plastering and pointing over kettels 2.50 " building four arries 5.00 " mending Culvit 2.50 " paving .50 " putting in frame back of kitchen .25 June repairing 2 wells and furnishing 100 bricks 5.00 " plastering in kitchen 1.00 " plastering in center building .50 $35.50
Dickie Galt Keeper207
Mr Roscow Cole will please pay the within amount of Thirty five Dollars & fifty cents to Mr Dickie Galt Henry Waddill
July 6th 1830
July 7 1830 Recd336
of Roscow Cole Treasr. of the Lunatic Hospital (Williamsburg) the within amt. of Thirty five Dollars & 50/100
The Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg Va to
Henry Waddle dr
1830 Decbr 1st For Putting up new back & working new arch to old kitchen chimney & finding bricks & Lime $5.50 3rd repairing 2 necessarys & finding bricks & Lime 3.00 $8.50
Dickie Galt Keeper
4 Jany 1831 Recd. of Roscow
Cole Treasr of the
L. H the above a/c in full
Henry Waddle 337
Dickie Galt, keeper, received an order at the July 7, 1831, directors' meeting to repair and tin the cupola of [Building A] and to paint the window frames, windows, and eaves of [Buildings B, C & D].338 The directors paid William D. Delany on December 17, 1831, for tinning the cupola of [Building A].339
The General Assembly passed two acts in 1833 concerning the hospital. The first of these acts provided for the accommodation of Mary Galt in the convalescent department: 208
An ACT concerning Mary Galt.
Whereas it has been represented to the general assembly of Virginia, that Mary Galt, a daughter of the former very faithful keeper of the lunatic hospital at Williamsburg, has, for the last three years, been unhappily afflicted with a melancholy lunacy, which however, does not render her in the least degree offensive or vicious:
1. Be it therefore enacted by the general assembly of the commonwealth of Virginia, That it shall and may be lawful for the directors of the hospital for the maintenance and cure of persons of unsound minds at Williamsburg, and the said directors are hereby directed and authorized to receive into the convalescent department of that institution, the said Mary Galt, who is to be treated as a convalescent patient; and shall have and enjoy all the rights and benefits of that institution, as fully and as effectually as if she had been regularly committed under a commission of lunacy.
2. This act shall be in force from its passage.340
Mary Galt was probably the daughter born in 1801 of the first keeper, James Galt.341
The second act passed in 1833 authorized a sum not to exceed $6,000 for an additional building to accommodate forty patients:
An ACT to provide for extending and enlarging the lunatic hospitals.
4. Be it further enacted, That the directors of the lunatic hospital at Williamsburg, shall be and they are hereby empowered, in like manner, and for the same purposes as above prescribed, to contract for and cause to be erected, an additional building for that institution, calculated to accommodate an additional number of lunatics, not exceeding forty: Provided, That the mode of making the contracts therefor, and the payment on 209 that account from the treasury, shall be the same as above provided for the Western lunatic hospital: And provided, That the whole expense shall not exceed six thousand dollars.
5. This act shall be in force from the passage thereof.342
On March 15, 1833, the directors appointed a committee to "inquire into the best plan for enlarging the buildings of this institution." On April 10th the directors ordered the keeper to advertise in Williamsburg, Norfolk, and Richmond for bids for the extension of [Buildings C & D].343 Albert G. Chewning's bid of $8,600 was accepted by the directors on June 17, 1833.344 The contract with Chewning included many details about the old buildings as well as the new extensions:
The Condition of the above obligation is such, that whereas the above named Albert G. Chewning has become the contractor, to erect, with all possible dispatch, a new brick addition to the Lunatic Hospital in the City of Williamsburg, Va. to consist of two houses be connected, with the last erected East and West Wings of said Hospital as laid down in a plan drawn and furnished for that purpose, for the sum Eight Thousand Six hundred dollars, with the distinct understanding that the President and Directors and their Successors in office of said Hospital, are not bound to said Chewning for more than Six Thousand dollars, that being the sum that was appropriated by the Legislature for erecting an addition to the Hospital, but the President and Directors will petition to the next Legislature, and use their best endeavours to obtain the additional sum of Two Thousand Six hundred dollars to complete the buildings, and in the event of their not succeeding, they do not hold the said Chewning bound for more than such a portion of the work as may be adjudged equivalent for the Six Thousand dollars, the buildings to be erected with plain, neat and strong workmanship 210 and materials as follows: The walls to be built by the plan of sound, hard, well burnt new bricks in the proportion of two hard and one soft or samon brick to be laid, three courses stretcher and one course header, in the abasement Storys and all the courses of the middle and upper storys, a stretcher and a header, with suitable mortar and grouted throughout, the new buildings to be connected with old ones, by taking out half of every other brick of the old houses and supplying their place with the bricks of the new houses, also to have bond timbers under each Sett of Joists running as far in the walls of the old houses as may be thought necessary, and to have an Iron S or T strongly attached to the ends that enter the old Walls, to prevent the new brick work from settling from the old, each new house to have two Chimnies with a fire place with flues to each, in the middle and upper storys; to be strongly connected with the walls of the old houses, and so run above roof as to show two chimnies to each double house, as represented in the view plan: all the timbers for the Doors, Door and window frames, &c. to be of good quality, southern or pitch pine, all heart, free from bad knots and shakes and as much seasoned as may be Judged necessary by the superintendent of the buildings: The houses to be lathed whenever necessary and to be smoothly plastered throughout and have three coats of white wash - all the wood work that is exposed to view, to have two coats of paint besides the priming, and to correspond in colour with the paint of the houses to which they are to be connected. The abasement storys to be built by the plan, and not finished; except lintels over each door, they and the windows to be finished, and with two single, or one double frame, the thickness of the Wall with wooden grates and shutters, as in the old houses. The middle storys to be built by the plan: to have one Iron grate over each door, the doors to be made of seasoned inch and a quarter pitch pine, all heart and free from bad knots and shakes, and put together with three strong batterns of the same, to be hung by strong hook and eye hinges, and secured by such a lock and hasp as the doors of the old houses have on them, each window, to have two single or one double frame the thickness of the Wall, to have a panneled, hoisting sash with one light of 8 by 10 glass in each upper sash, to have an Iron grate, the length of the window frame, which is to be secured by a strong pad Lock: To have an entrance door, as laid down in the plan; to be a strong paneled one, with sash of ten lights of 8 by 211 10 glass over it, and an Iron grate, the size of the sash let in the frame of the door, and to have a plain flight of strong steps the width of the door, to enter said door: a stair way to be run from one of the rooms (most convenient) to enter the upper story as in the old houses, said stairway to have a door at bottom and top, with such a lock on each as the other doors on them, the floors to be clean laid of one and a quarter inch (Quartered) heart pine plank, well seasoned, free from shakes and knots that cannot be covered by the end of a mans thumb. The upper storys to be built by the plan and finished in every respect as the middle story, the doors and windows to be secured in like manner, except, that instead of paneled windows, to have sash with eighteen lights of 8 by 10 glass in each window. The roof to be built by the plan, of scantling of suitabledimentions, either of heart pine, cypress, Gum or oak free from bad knots and shakes, to be sheathed with merchantable, northern boards, one inch thick and to be put on with ciphered Joints and then covered with the best sixteen inch welch slate, and the hips leaded. Mr. Chewning is to be allowed to use, without charge, the slate &c which will be taken off the old north hips, of the old houses, and also, the two gratings, window frames, and windows, on the north end of each of the old houses, by supplying their places with doors, door frames, locks &c necessary to continue the passage from the old houses to the new ones. Should any thing have been omitted in the foregoing manner and plan of erecting the new houses, it is intended that they are to be, in every respect, such houses as the last erected east and west wings, of the Hospital, and when finished, to show two such houses as the view plan represents. Now if the said Albert G. Chewning, shall well, truly and faithfully, erect, with all possible dispatch, the brick addition to the said Hospital, by the plan and in the manner and with materials and workmanship, as aforesaid, then the above obligation to be void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue. Executed in presence of
Ro. Reives as to Albert G Chewning
Wm. H. Diggs
A. G. Chewning Seal
Wm. H. Diggs Seal
Reuben Chewning Seal
The appropriation of $6,000 fell short of Chewning's bid but the directors pledged to petition the General Assembly for the additional $2,600. If the additional appropriation was not forthcoming from the legislature, Chewning would be held accountable for only that part of the work that he could do for $6,000.
The extensions would be connected to the north ends of [Buildings C & D] in such a way as to continue the passages from the "old houses" into the new. This specification in the contract indicates that [Buildings C & D] had halls which ran north and south. Each addition would have two chimnies with two fireplaces to be connected to the old walls on the first and second floors. The basement story was to be left unfinished by Chewning with only a few details attended to. The windows in the basement would have wooden grates and shutters as in the "old houses." Specifications for grates, cell doors, windows, outer doors, locks, plastering, painting, and other particulars are spelled out in the contract shown above.345
In July 1833 the directors authorized the keeper to erect sheds in the yard for the use of the patients.346
In the annual report submitted to the legislature in January 1834, the directors stated that a sum of at least $17,000 213 would be needed to complete an addition containing the 40 cells mentioned in the act appropriating the money for the enlargement of [Buildings C & D]. The directors further stated that Albert Chewning had begun construction even though only $6,000 was available. According to the directors the building under construction by Chewning would destroy the symmetry of the arrangement of the institution implying that Chewning had begun work on extending either [Building C or D] but not both. The directors therefore requested an additional $11,000 to complete extensions to both [Building C] and [Building D], the walls, and the yards.347 In March 1833 the legislature appropriated $9,000 in additional funds.348
On December 2, 1833, the directors noted that Mr. Chewning was not using the proper bricks for the extensions to [Buildings C & D]. The bricks were to be of exactly the same size as the bricks in the old portions of the buildings. The directors were also of the opinion that no further brickwork should be done above ground until spring.
On the same date the keeper received an order to have the kitchen chimney pulled down and a new one built.349
At their December 17, 1834, meeting the directors of the hospital again noted that a convalescent house was not required under the present arrangement of the institution. However, the 214 directors communicated to the district representative in the legislature that the sum of $4,000 was needed for completing the additions to [Buildings C & D], the erection of an additional apartment for servants, and erection of walls to enclose the yards to the additions.350
In the annual report dated January 1835 the directors requested $2,600, the amount remaining on the contract for the extensions to [Buildings C & D], the walls, and the yards. The directors also noted that $1,500 would be necessary for the new accommodations for servants and for two culverts for the new additions.351 On March 12, 1835, the legislature appropriated the $2,600.352
The House of Delegates appointed a committee "to examine the state and condition of the Lunatic Hospital at Williamsburg." The committee made its report in February 1835. It stated that the hospital had the appearance of a "well-regulated prison." The buildings of the hospital were described by the committee as being on four acres of land. On two additional acres enclosed by paling and wooden fencing were located a bath house, burying ground, and spring. A wash house and a stable were the only wooden buildings in the hospital complex.
In a series of questions put to the directors, the committee ascertained that there were 63 cells at the hospital 215 42 single cells and 4 double cells (2 patients in each)--all above ground, and 17 cellar cells. The hospital could accommodate 60 patients--40 males and 20 females. Room for 100 patients would be available after completion of the 40 cells being added to [Buildings C & D].
The committee described the cells or rooms as being without fireplaces. The only heat was in the sitting rooms which had large open fireplaces. The patients were locked in separate rooms at night and brought to the sitting rooms during the day. The cells had straw-filled mattresses on the floor with cover for cold weather.
[Building B] was occupied by a few female patients. The committee made several recommendations for other uses to which [Building B] could be put but there is no evidence that these changes were ever made.
The committee found that the buildings had separate yards enclosed by high brick walls with shelters in each so that the patients could take air in bad weather.
The committee recommended that additional accommodations for servants be erected. Present servants' lodgings consisted of eight rooms in the upper part of the wash house and kitchen.
The keeper and his family occupied one chamber and three rooms the size of the cells probably in [Building A]. The 216 committee stated that there was a Miss Galt living in the asylum by an Act of Assembly in 1833.
The committee described the manner of serving food to the patients. Each patient received his food and then retreated to a "remote corner" where he sat down and ate it. No common dining facilities for patients were found and the committee recommended that a common table be provided for those patients who were well enough. When questioned by the committee, the directors, matron, and keeper expressed opposition to the idea of a common table.353 However, by 1838, certain patients were eating together.354
The committee recommended the procurement of land for a vegetable garden.355
In 1835 Albert Chewning rebuilt four chimneys of the institution which were damaged by the wind and a fifth chimney which did not match the others. He also dug and bricked two culverts and excavated for two privies. His account follows:
The Lunatick Hospital at Wmsburg
In a/c with A. G. Chewning Dr.
1834 Apl 1st To cost pd for a manuscript coppy of bill of appropriation 1.75 Augt. 3 To 63 ft of two inch Northern plank @ by Mr. Galt for a 2.86 1835 Apl. 10 To 552 ft. of heart floorin dressed & tongued & groved ready to lay down 33.18 To 500 hard Bricks C 70G $3.50 To 7 casks lime a $2 $14 17.50 217 To runing the stans of 4 chimney blown down by wind a $15 each 60.00 To taking down one chimney so as to build it to correpond with the others 5.00 To repairing 300 ft of slate broke by the fall of chimney & finding slate & nails for the same @ $17 pr hund ft. 51.00 To repairing plaistering in the old centre building $2 2.00 To repairing plaistering in the wings 14.00 To diging out two culberts & refiling them after laying bricks for the culbert C $5 each 10.00 To 11760 brick in the culberts & laying same @ $10 pr M 117.60 To 3554 bricks in the additional hight of watertable of walls @ $10 35.54 To excavating for two privies @ $5 each 10.00 To 5484 Bricks in the two Privies & laying them @ $10 pr th 54.84 for Carpenters work & timbers & naill & hinges &c of two privies @ $20 each 40.00 To 2 doors under stairs & hinges for same by request Mr. Galt Cal $2 4.00 To additional cost of six Locks by changing them to Lock on each side extra cost of Locks $1.50 each 9.00 To one extra door doorframe Grate & Lock 16.67 To repairing brickwork of one well 3.00 To taking down & repairing part of old yard wall & finding bricks & materials necessary 1680 Bricks at $10 pr th 16.80 $504.74
Dickie Galt Keeper
At a court of Directors for the Lunatic Hospital in the city of Williamsburg, held the 12th day of January 1836 Ordered that Jesse Cole, Treasurer of the Hospital pay to A. G. Chewing the sum of five hundred and four dollars and seventy four cents the amount of the above account.
A copy Teste
Jas. Lee Clk.
Williamsburg 12 January 1836 Recd. of Jesse Cole Treasr. of the L. Hospital Five hundred and four Dollars & 74 Cents in full of the within account.356
Albert G. Chewning
The completed additions to [Buildings C & D] were received by the directors on July 11, 1835.357 On August 31st the directors resolved that the clerk notify "sheriffs and other officers in the different sections of the state below the Blue Ridge, having in their custody insane persons" that the hospital at Williamsburg was ready to receive patients of both sexes.
On July 11, 1835, insurance against fire on the new buildings was ordered by the directors.358 Accordingly Jesse Cole, treasurer of the hospital, took out policy #8320 dated August 12, 1835, in the Mutual Assurance Society.* A plat on the policy shows the layout of [Buildings A, C,& D] with walled yards: 219
[Building A] was not insured under this policy.
[Buildings C & D], insured for $12,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs and 33' x 105'.
Walled yards are shown on the policy with wooden shelters in them to protect patients from sun and rain.359
In the annual report covering the year 1835, the directors pointed out the need for a small house in the yard to be used for living quarters for servants and for "a place to serve up the meals for the patients."360 There is no evidence that this building was erected at this time. A building for servants' accommodations was again requested by the directors in 1841.361220
The directors ordered the keeper to take down the partition walls between the yards of the male department on April 6, 1837.364
The directors reported in the annual report of 1836/7 that the hospital had only a four-acre lot for "the buildings and garden, and a very small broken piece of land, which serves as a burying ground."365
After the enlargement of [Buildings C & D] there was no longer space for the hospital garden. The directors decided to investigate the possibility of purchasing property for this purpose near the hospital.366 In August 1837 the directors purchased a lot of land in Williamsburg by deed from Jesse Cole for $600.367 On August 2, 1837, they planned to enclose the property if an appropriation of $1,000 (for land and enclosure) was made by the legislature.368 On January 25, 1838, the directors ordered the keeper to enclose with plank, seven feet high, six acres of land for a garden purchased by the hospital.369 This property was probably located south of Ireland Street.370221
On January 13, 1838, the directors appointed a committee to ask for an appropriation of $5,000 for the purpose of enclosing the hospital premises with brick.371 The wall was to be 500 yards in length and ten feet high (2 feet in the ground). On April 10th the committee was ordered by the directors to advertise for sealed proposals for erecting the wa11.372 The appropriation of $5,000 was made by the legislature but the directors later decided to dispense with the wall and use the money for the enlargement of the asylum.373
The directors ordered the same committee to advertise until July 1, 1838, in Richmond, Norfolk, and Staunton for proposals to erect an extensive addition [Building A, third floor and Building E] to the hospital.374 The General Assembly passed an act April 3, 1838, appropriating $12,000 for this purpose.375
On July 7, 1838, the directors accepted the proposal of Albert G. Chewning for erecting additions to the hospital.376 By August Chewning had failed to comply with his offer and the directors again advertised for sealed proposals.377 The bid of George Ambrose was accepted by the directors at their October 23, 1838, meeting. Ambrose proposed to raise [Building A] and erect [Building E] for $16,400. If an additional appropriation was forthcoming he was to construct [Building F] for $12,000.378222
The treasurer of the hospital paid Ambrose the first installment of $4,000 February 25, 1839.379
Some of the buildings of the institution were revalued and insured in the Mutual Assurance Society under policy #11,008* dated April 24, 1839:
[Building A], insured for $12,500, is described as brick with a slate roof, and 100' x 38'.
[Building B], insured for $2,000, is described as brick with a slate roof, and 20' x 32'.
[Buildings C & D] are shown on the policy but are not insured under it.223
A kitchen, insured for $2,500, is described as brick with a wooden roof, and 50' x 28'.
A laundry, insured for $500, is described as wooden and 32' x 27'.
A smokehouse, insured for $300, is described as brick with a wooden roof, and 20' x 32'.
A stable, insured for $700, is described as wooden, 30' x 45', and on a separate lot to the south.
A wooden dairy (valued at less than $100) is shown on the policy but not insured.380
On July 30, 1839, the board authorized the keeper to purchase cast iron pipes "to take the place of Sewers to carry off water from the water closets of this Institution."381
In May 1840 George Ambrose was ready to deliver [Building E] and the third story of [Building A]. On May 27 the directors ordered the building committee to examine the work. The committee made its report on June 1, 1840:
[Building E] in its finished state had walls two bricks thick in the basement. The partition walls were one brick thick except those in the basement.
The old cupola of [Building A] was thought to be too small for a three-story building and so Ambrose was to construct a new one.224
The doors for the new rooms were panelled rather than batten.
The interior of [Building E] was not whitewashed.382
The location of a portico constructed by Ambrose was not indicated. However, it probably was located between [Buildings E & D] later called a veranda [G]. The directors stated in the annual report for 1839 that [Building E] would connect [Building A] with [Building D].383 Without the veranda,[Buildings A & E] would not connect with [Building D].
The portico, or veranda, was not to have an ornamental balustrade around the roof and the columns were left unpainted. Also, it had a wooden railing rather than being walled up to the first story as originally designated in the contract.The third story of [Building A] was finished by the contractor to correspond with the second floor. The stairway in the third story had square balusters instead of turned ones as on the lower floors.
[Buildings A & E] had tin gutters and water pipes. Ambrose put the same on the other buildings as well, except [Building C].
The committee considered the water tank provided by Ambrose to be unsound.225
Ambrose performed some extra work consisting of putting up a wall in [Building A] and plastering the lower stories of the same as they were damaged by the weather during the construction of the third story.384 P. H. Roach was paid for painting the two upper stories of [Building A].385
The directors stated in the annual report for the year 1838 that with [Building E] and the extra story on [Building A] 48 additional cells would be available.386 The report for the next year stated that there would be only 39 cells because the size of the new cells would be larger than originally planned and more space was allowed for patients when assembled for meals or amusements.387
With [Building E] and the additional story to [Building A] completed, the directors resolved to put "recent and hopeful" patients in eleven cells on the second floor of [Building E] probably males, and in ten cells on the third floor of [Building A] probably females. No incurable cases would be allowed in the reserved areas.388226
The keeper, Philip J. Barziza, proposed several changes at the asylum in July 1840 which give clues to the locations of certain rooms. The keeper would have the use of rooms in the basement of [Building A]. He may have lived in the rooms, or he may have used them for office space, or both.
Apparently a kitchen formerly was located in one of the rooms in the basement now assigned to the keeper.391 A new kitchen was included in the contract with George Ambrose for [Building E] , and the third story of [Building A].392 Probably this new kitchen was located in the basement of [Building E].
The matron lived in the Galt Cottage. She also had rooms in the basement of [Building A] possibly for office space. She was assigned new rooms in the basement of [Building E] in 1840.393
In June 1840 the board paid John W. Kelly for repairing cupola and roof of [Building D]-noted as being the "mens west wing."394
On July 18, 1840, the directors ordered that the north and south porticoes of [Building A] be rebuilt or repaired.395 The porticoes were old having been constructed in 1828, and they were no doubt damaged in the recent construction of the third floor of [Building A]. However, new porticoes were not added to [Building A] until 1845.227
In the annual report dated January 23, 1841, the directors described the furniture of the hospital as being of the character of that found in poor houses. "There is not, for example, a feather bed or a mattress in the institution."396 In the annual report for 1842, the directors stated that they hoped to provide a table, chair, and bedstead during the next year.397 In 1842 the asylum ordered iron beds from Bushnell & Meeker, a firm in Utica, New York.398 The directors recorded on September 6, 1844: "An acct. of Bushnell and Meeker for iron bedsteads was passed amounting to $510."399
In March 1841 the General Assembly passed an act reorganizing the eastern and western asylums in Virginia. "The Eastern Asylum for the maintenance and cure of insane persons" was now to have a superintendent who must also be a physician.400 on July 1, 1841, the directors spelled out the duties of the superintendent, steward, and matron,and an executive committee of the directors was formed.401228
On December 9, 1841, the directors ordered the steward to advertise for proposals to erect a brick wall to be a brick-and-a-half thick, ten feet from the foundation, and around three sides of the lot on which the hospital buildings stood.404 On September 7, 1842, William Daniel was paid $700 on account for the wall.405 He apparently ran into difficulty and the wall was not ready to be examined by the directors until August 1843.406
The General Assembly in March 1842 appropriated $12,000 for erecting an addition [Building F] to the asylum.407 On April 25, 1842, the directors specified that the building be 90' x 36' with two stories and a basement.408 On July 6, 1842, John K. Shepherdson received the contract with the low bid of $9,750.409
The directors planned to use the Travis House as a residence for the superintendent, Dr. John M. Galt, 11.412 At the meeting of the directors on March 30, 1843, the directors resolved to have the necessary repairs done to the house.413 Elizabeth Galt, sister of John, wrote in April, "after the house which has been purchased for John, is painted and papered, he will move and we shall go too."414 Galt and his sisters, Elizabeth and Sally, were 229 living in the Nelson-Galt House before he was made superintendent of the asylum. Temporary rooms were set up for him in one of the wings at the hospital but the directors evidently wished to provide him with a house near the asylum grounds. Elizabeth and Sally probably moved back to the Nelson-Galt House after John's death in 1862.415
The buildings of the Eastern Asylum were revalued and insured by the Mutual Assurance Society under policy #11,264* dated January 25, 1843. A plat on the policy shows the arrangement of buildings:230
[Building A], insured for $13,500, is described as brick with slate roof, three stories high, and 100' x 40'.
[Building B], insured for $2,000, is described as brick with a slate roof, two stories high, and 18' x 30'.
[Buildings C & D], insured for $12,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs, two stories high, and 100' x 30'.
[Building E], insured for $18,000, is described as brick with slate roof, two stories high, and 130' x 40'.
A smokehouse, insured for $300, is described as brick with a wooden roof and 16' x 16'.
A kitchen, insured for $2,500, is described as brick with a wooden roof and 24' x 50'.
A laundry, insured for $500, is described as entirely of wood and 30' x 20'.
A stable located across Ireland Street, insured for $700, is described as entirely of wood and 24' x 40'.
A wooden corn house is shown across Ireland Street near the stable but is not insured.
A wooden dairy is shown but not insured.416
An improvement proposed by the directors in their annual report dated January 14, 1843, was the substitution of cast iron sashes for the old iron gratings found on the older buildings of 231 the institution. Apparently the new style sashes were installed on [Building E] when it was erected by George Ambrose.417 The annual report dated December 30, 1843, stated that the modern castings were in place, presumably on all buildings.418
On November 22, 1843, Mrs. Ann Shivers, a patient, was taken in as a boarder at the matron's residence "on account of the unfinished condition of the buildings," an indication that [Building F] was still under construction.419
The General Assembly appropriated $5,000 in February 1844 for the purpose of remodeling and repairing the old buildings at the asylum.420 On April 1, 1844, the directors resolved that a committee be appointed to present a plan for three porticoes and a porch to the main building.421 The directors accepted the bid of Donoho, Browne, Sands, and Bassett on July 22, 1844.422 Evidently [Building A] would now have a more elaborate portico on the front* and a porch** above the portico on the south side. [Buildings C & D] would have porticoes also.423 On May 1, 1845, the contract for the porticoes was altered to have the roofs of the porticoes covered with lead instead of slate.424 The porticoes were completed according to contract in July 1845.425232
John M. Galt wrote to T. C. Millington circa 1845 saying that he wanted to have a lithograph made of the asylum now that three porticoes had been added to the front.428
[Building F] was reported complete on July 20, 1844.429 On May 8, 1844, the directors authorized the superintendent to draw three hundred dollars for furnishing [Building F].430 In the annual report for the year 1844 the directors stated that [Building F] was occupied by female patients. The plan of the building was improved
by making the gallery terminate at the extremity next to the centre-building, in a large room: this serves as a pleasant sitting and work-room for the class of patients whose minds are in a more diseased condition than those of the first class. For the latter, comprehending the convalescent, quiet patients, and those paying board particularly, is fitted up the lower story of the new wing. The deviation from the usual gallery on this floor, consists merely in three central arches, in place of the portion of space which would be otherwise occupied by two of the sleeping apartments; the desired alteration in the common plan is thus produced, and a most beautiful central apartment is also formed. This being furnished with a sofa, ottomans, a piano, mirrors, &c., constitutes a very agreeable saloon: and the females in this department either sit here, in the gallery itself, in their rooms-, or in the verandah at the extremity of the gallery; . . . We do not attempt to carry this idea into effect in the male department; nor is it applicable to the inmates of this sex; as few of our male patients 233 are within doors much of the day, and consequently they are not exposed to that monotony of life that necessarily in some degree attaches itself to the females.431
The basement story of [Building F] may have been fitted up for serving meals.432
By 1844 the colored female patients were being housed in [Building B], apparently forming a separate department.433
On December 4, 1844, the directors authorized the superintendent to fit up some strong rooms in the west building [Building D] and to "erect arches in the centre building [Building A] and west wing [Building E] for sitting rooms for patients."434 David S. Cowles was paid "for carpenters work in fitting up strong cells" in the amount of $949.06 on July 15, 1845.435
In January 1845 a committee appointed by the legislature visited the asylum. The committee saw the buildings and rooms for the accommodation of the patients as well as
the medical shop, the library, the rooms appropriated for sitting and sewing, and the shops for weaving, spinning, cabinet-work and shoe-making. They then went into the south yard, and examined the out-houses, consisting of kitchen, servants' houses, stables, the garden and other real estate attached thereto. The real estate consists of a house and lot bought by the Directors as a residence for the Superintendent.
The committee further observed that
the lot upon which the Hospital buildings are erected contains about four acres of land in the city, and the garden about fifteen acres, separated from the former by a narrow street on the south of the Institution. On 234 the south side of this street, and upon the public grounds, is a small but comfortable wooden building for the accommodation of the principal matron.436
On March 25, 1845, the directors took steps to prevent fires at the asylum, or the spreading of fire if one started. Cisterns, pumps, parapet walls, and the purchase of a fire engine were authorized by the directors.437
On July 16, 1845, the directors ordered the superintendent to contract to have the entire front of the asylum stuccoed to correspond with [Building A].438 William Donoho and S. T. Bowman received payment for the work on October 14, 1845. On the same day the directors
Ordered that all the wood work except the porticoes of the front of the Asylum and grating be painted a fresh and all the gutters and conductors of the front be painted slate colour, also that all the lower sashes of the front in rooms occupied by the patients be rendered immovable, and the upper sashes where that is not the case be rendered movable.
Ordered that the steward be permitted to substitute moveable glazed sashes for the venitian blinds in the front of the upper portico in the rear of the building.
Ordered that the parapet walls where visable be stoccoed and all the chimneys of the principal buildings also.439
On September 9, 1845, Thomas Lindsey received $20.00 for engravings.440
In a petition dated November 29, 1845, the directors proposed to the legislature that the laws relating to the asylums be changed: 235
The first change proposed, is to empower the Directors to receive into the asylum slaves who are laboring under insanity, on application of their owners--who will of course pay a reasonable amount of board annually for each slave patient. This provision is so natural & legitimate a following out of the benevolent principles upon which the asylum is established, that it seems unnecessary to say any thing in recommendation of it, except that it need not increase the expences of the institution--for the annual charge paid by the owner of the slave might and would be so graduated as certainly to cover the expence of his maintenance, attendance &c. It may be here mentioned that the Directors of this asylum have always so construed the laws concerning lunatics as to conceive themselves bound to receive free negroes, just as they are bound to receive white pauper lunatics. The asylum has therefore a department fitted for the reception of slaves (for whom the accommodation would be just that of free negroes) and it is rather an anomalous state of things--and one too, the great inconvenience often arising from which, most certainly requires remedy--that benefits should be extended to one class of blacks which is denied to another.
The other measure proposed to be now adopted into the law concerning the Eastern asylum has for its object the empowering of the Directors to receive as borders into the institution, lunatics from other states who may be sent here by their friends.This measure is strongly recommended not only by its obvious humanity, but by its economy.
In the new buildings which have lately been erected at the institution, apartments have been appropriated especially to the accommodation of what are called "pay patients"--that is, such insane persons as are placed in the asylum by their friends under the 11th section of the act of 6 March 1841. These of course pay such an amount of board as is agreed upon with their friends; which amount is sufficient not only to defray the actual expenses of the insane person but to afford a positive revenue to the asylum.441
The General Assembly passed an act in January 1846: 236
An Act concerning the admission of patients into the lunatic asylums of this commonwealth.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That the directors of the Eastern lunatic asylum for the maintenance and cure of insane persons, be and are hereby empowered to receive into the said asylum insane slaves as patients, on application of their owners, or of others having said slaves in charge: Provided, That such application be in every case accompanied by an obligation, with security, to be judged of by the said directors, to pay to the said directors annually such charges as may be agreed upon between the person making the application and the said directors; and provided no insane slave shall be received or retained in said asylum to the exclusion of any insane white person being a resident of the state....[in force from passing]442
The act did not mention the admittance of insane persons from out-of-state into the asylum.
On October 3, 1846, Scervant Jones insured with the Mutual Assurance Society his house
situated between the Main Street on the North a Cross street on the West, and a lot of the Eastern Asylum on the South.444
The buildings of the asylum were revalued and insured by the Mutual Assurance Society under policy #14,389** dated October 27, 1846: 237
[Building A], insured for $18,000, is described as brick with a slate roof and three stories high.
[Building B], insured for $2,000, is described as brick with slate roof and two stories high.
[Buildings C & D], insured for $12,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs and two stories high.
[Buildings E & F] are shown on this policy but are not insured under it.
A smokehouse, insured for $300, is described as brick with wooden roof.
A kitchen, insured for $2,500, is described as brick with 238 wooden roof.
A laundry and stable, insured for $500 each, are described as entirely of wood.
Another smokehouse, not insured, is described as entirely of wood and 20' x 24'.
A wooden office is shown but not insured.445
On the same date the Travis House (superintendent's residence) was insured by the same company under policy #14,390 for $2500. The policy shows the dwelling and five small buildings in the yard.446
At the June 16, 1847, meeting the directors contracted with Johnson Sands for the erection of a brick building, 55' x 30', to be completed by July 1, 1847, for servants' lodgings and other purposes. At the same meeting the directors contracted with Sands for a second building like the first to be completed by July 1, 1848.447 The first building was ready for delivery January 6, 1848.448 The second building appears to have been finished in December 1848.449 One of the buildings was a kitchen-laundry, the other was a kitchen-storehouse.*
Rooms for servants may have been upstairs in the two buildings.450239
The General Assembly passed an act on January 17, 1848, authorizing the enlargement of the lunatic asylums in Virginia, appropriating $25,000 for the hospital in Williamsburg:
An ACT to authorize the enlargement of the lunatic asylums of the commonwealth.
3. Be it further enacted, That the directors of the Eastern asylum for the maintenance and cure of insane persons, shall be and they are hereby empowered to contract for the extension of the buildings of that institution, after having first given at least sixty days notice by advertisement in some public newspaper in each of the Cities of Richmond, Petersburg and Norfolk, that they will receive proposals for the work authorized; and on letting out of said work, they shall take bond with approved security from the contractor or contractors, payable to said directors and their successors in office, in such penalty as they deem sufficient, conditioned for the faithful execution of the contract.
4. Be it further enacted, That a sum not exceeding twenty-five thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for the entire completion of the additional buildings in said last section authorized, to be paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth, upon the order of the court of directors of said Eastern asylum in favour of the treasurer thereof, on the auditor of public accounts, in the following manner: Five thousand dollars on the ratification of the contract and the execution of the bond required; five thousand dollars on the first of July eighteen hundred and forty-eight; five thousand dollars on the first of January eighteen hundred and forty-nine; five thousand dollars on the first of July eighteen hundred and forty-nine, and five thousand dollars on the first of January eighteen hundred and fifty: Provided, That said buildings shall be completed on the day last aforesaid; if not, then upon the completion thereof.
5. This act shall be inforce from its passage.451
At their February 15, 1848, meeting the directors ordered that an advertisement be run in Richmond, Norfolk, and Petersburg for proposals for the erection of two additional buildings [Buildings H & I]
one of them to be 80 feet by 40, three stories high, with a basement, and the other 95 feet by 40 three stories high with a basement.452
On April 28, 1848, the directors contracted with David S. Cowles, Johnson Sands, and Henry M. Bowden for the erection of the two buildings.453 The directors planned to use [Building H] for convalescent and quiet male patients and [Building I] for violent males. Also, a portion of [Building I], probably the basement, was intended for black male patients. There were to be dormitories for patients in [Buildings H & I].454
On April 20, 1848, Philip J. Barziza received $40.00 to pay for Drawing plans for Eastern Asylum."455
On December 10, 1848, the treasurer of the asylum was ordered by the directors to pay Johnson Sands "the sum of Six Hundred Dollars in full for Work done to Houses at the Gate Entrance."456
[Building I] apparently was completed by the contractors in the fall of 1849.457 In September Sherod T. Bowman received payment for building a wall around it.458 The galvanized iron roof of [Building I] was leaking even before the building was completed and the problem persisted for many years.459 The Mutual Assurance 241 Society apparently insured the building in October 1849, but no policy has been located.460
On November 8, 1849, the directors ordered that Dater Miller be paid for views of the asylum.461
Either [Building H or I] had a large room for assemblies.464
Insurance policy #[?] dated August 19, 1850, with the Mutual Assurance Society insured [Building H].* A plat on the policy shows the layout of the buildings at the asylum: 242
[Buildings A, C, D, E & F] are shown on this policy but not insured under it.
[Building H], insured for $20,000, is described as brick with tin roof, three stories and a basement, and 100' x 45'.
A covered way between [Buildings H & D] is described as brick with tin roof and 30' long.465
In the 1850 Annual report the directors stated that they were about to install a system of cast iron pipes to be used in obtaining an adequate supply of water from four springs south of the main building of the asylum. The legislature appropriated 243 money for this purpose in January 1850. The directors reported in 1851 that the apparatus was installed and that the supply of water was plentifu1.466
No major construction was done at the asylum in 1851 and 1852.
On December 22, 1851, the asylum agreed to purchase from William S. Peachy the Six Chimney Lot for the sum of $661.467
In January 1853 the General Assembly appropriated $7000 for repairing outbuildings, remodeling [Building B], and purchasing the Six Chimney Lot:
An ACT appropriating seven thousand dollars for repairing and erecting buildings at the Eastern lunatic asylum.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, that the directors of the Eastern asylum for the maintenance and cure of insane persons, shall be and they are hereby empowered to contract for repairing or rebuilding the granaries, stables and other out-houses of the institution, and for remodeling the building used for colored patients, after having first given at least sixty days' notice by advertisement in some newspaper published in the city of Richmond, and a paper published in the city of Norfolk, that they will receive proposals for the work authorized; and on letting out the said work, they shall take bond with approved security from the contractor or contractors, payable to said directors and their successors in office, in such penalty as they may deem sufficient, conditioned for the faithful execution of the contract.
2. That the sum of seven thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for the completion of the buildings and other work hereby authorized, and for the purchase of the Six-Chimney lot recently made by the directors of the Eastern lunatic asylum; to be paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth, upon the order 244 of the court of directors of said Eastern asylum, in favor of the treasurer thereof, on the first auditor, in the following manner: Six hundred and sixty-one dollars for the purchase of the lot hereinbefore mentioned; eighteen hundred and thirty-nine dollars on the ratification of the contract and the execution of the bond required; two thousand five hundred dollars after the work shall have been half completed, and two thousand dollars on the completion of the contract hereby authorized.
3. This act shall be in force from its passage.468
The directors evidently abandoned the plan to remodel [Building B] and on March 9, 1853, resolved to build a
brick house for Coloured patients [Building J], fifty feet Long & thirty feet wide, two Stories high with a basement Story.
Also, a brick stable with eight stalls and a carriage house were planned by the directors.469 On May 23, 1853, the bid of Johnson Sands for erecting [Building J], stable, and carriage house was accepted by the directors.470
John M. Galt, superintendent, reported in 1853 that he favored removing the kitchen from the main building of the institution to an outbuilding.471
Insurance policy #17,638* in the Mutual Assurance Society was taken out on the Gothic Building [Building I] on September 24, 1853: 245
[Building I], insured for $18,200, is described as brick with iron roof and four stories high with a tower.472
Another Mutual Assurance Society policy #17,639* of the same date insured a number of the buildings of the institution. A plat on the policy shows the layout of the buildings: 246
[Building A], insured for $18,000, is described as brick with slate roof and three stories high.
[Building B], insured for $2,000, is described as brick with slate roof and two stories high.
[Buildings C & D], insured for $12,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs and two stories high.
[Buildings E & F] are shown on the policy but not insured.247
[Building H], not insured under this policy, is described as brick with tin roof and three stories.
[Building I] is shown on this policy but not insured.
[Building J], not insured, is described as being under construction.
A smokehouse, insured for $300, is described as entirely of wood.
A kitchen-storehouse building and a laundry-kitchen building, insured for $5,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs and two stories high. The two buildings are probably the ones erected in 1848 by Johnson Sands.
A stable across Ireland Street, insured for $250, is described as entirely of wood.
Bell House, not insured, is described as being brick with tin roof. There are no other references to Bell House. Its use is unknown.
Also shown on this policy are two other wood stables across Ireland Street, a wood building, a well, and a reservoir.473
The directors paid David S. Cowles $200.00 on April 3, 1854, for building an ice house.474
[Building J] and the stable and carriage house were received by the directors at their May 1, 1854, meeting.475 [Building J] was located between the main building and Ireland 248 Street in the east side on the rear yard. The directors requested the superintendent to have iron gratings put on the basement windows of [Building J].476
On June 9, 1854, the directors ordered the steward to have a wood and coal yard enclosed on the lot [Lot 78 or 79] across from the south side of the asylum and east of the stable and to have a carpenters shop erected near the wood yard.479 October 10, 1854, Sherod T. Bowman was paid $1,028.30 for the wood and coal yard; Bassell and Bowry received $295.00 for the workshop.480
The steward was authorized by the directors on July 3, 1854, to purchase a wrought iron gate for the front yard of the asylum.481 The directors paid J. Barns & Co. $156.75 for the gate on October 10, 1854.482249
On February 14, 1855, the directors ordered the clerk to advertise in Williamsburg, Baltimore, and Richmond for proposals for lighting the institution with gas.484 The year before in March 1854 the General Assembly passed an Act for gas lighting and other purposes at the asylum:
An ACT appropriating seventeen thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars for erecting and repairing buildings and enclosures at the Eastern lunatic asylum; for purchasing a lot of land for the use of the asylum, for improving its grounds, for providing furniture and other conveniences for the same, and for lighting the institution with gas.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, that the sum of eleven thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for erecting and repairing buildings and enclosures at the Eastern lunatic asylum, for purchasing a lot of land for the use of the asylum, for improving its grounds and for providing furniture and other conveniences for the same; which sum shall be paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth upon the order of the court of directors of the said asylum, in favor of the treasurer thereof, on the auditor of public accounts, in the following manner, to wit: three thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars on the first day of July next; four thousand dollars on the first day of January next, and four thousand dollars on the first day of July eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
2. Be it further enacted, that the directors of the said asylum be and they are hereby empowered to contract for the lighting of that institution with gas, after having given at least sixty days notice by advertisement in the Virginia Gazette, in some newspaper published in the city of Richmond, and in one other newspaper, to be selected by them, that they will receive proposals for the construction of the fixtures and works necessary for the purpose. The said directors shall, on letting out the work, take bond with approved security from the contractor or contractors, payable to the said directors and their successors in office, in such penalty 250 as they may deem sufficient, and with the condition that the contract be faithfully executed. For this purpose, the sum of six thousand dollars is hereby appropriated, to be paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth, upon the order of the court of directors of the said asylum, in favor of the treasurer thereof, on the auditor of public accounts, in the following manner, viz: Two thousand dollars on the ratification of the contract and the executing of the bond aforesaid; two thousand dollars when the work shall have been, in the estimation of the said directors, half completed, and two thousand dollars on the completing of the work according to the contract.
3. This act shall be in force from its passage.485
C. M. Guild of New York received the contract for the work on April 25, 1855.486 The gas works were received by the directors on December 11, 1855.487 C. M. Guild also installed water works for which he was paid in December 1855:
Eastern Lunatic Asylum to C. M. Guild Dr.
Medicine Room To 37 feet Pipe ½ in. @ 10-½ 3.89 " 3 Elbows ½" 15 45 " 1 Tee 1-½" 40 " 1 Plug ½" 10 " 1 Coupling ½" 10 " 6 Straps ½" 12 " 1-½ Day Labor 3.50 5.25 Waste Pipe Ladies Dining Room " 1 foot Pipe 1-¼ in. 26 " Tee 1-¼" 55 " 1 Coupling 1-¼" 20 " 1 Plug 1-½" 20 " 1 Locknut 1-¼" 20 " 1 Day Labor 3.50 " 81 feet Pipe 1" 17-½ 14.17 251 Fountain [To] 2 Cocks 1 [in.] 3.33 6.66 " 1 Tee 1 " 40 " 3 Elbows 1 " 30 90 " 4 Nipples 1 " 15 60 " 2-½ Day Labor 3.50 8.75 Bath Tubs " 25 feet Pipe ¾" 1.34 3.25 " 4 Elbows ¾ " 20 80 " Cock ¾ " 2.00 " Plug ¾ " 12 " 2 Day Labor 3.50 7.00 " 33 feet Pipe 1 " 17-½ 5.78 " 1 Cock 1 " 3.33 " 2 Day Labor 3.50 7.00 " 2 If It putting up Pumps 3.50 7.00 " 2 " taking up & putting down C. I. Pipe 7.00 Amt. Fowd 89.98 Amt. Brt. Fowd $89.98 To 2-½ Day Labor on Water Pipe & putting up Fixtures 8.75 " Freight on Sink out and back 1.00 " 1 Gall. Boiled oil 1.50 " 1 Jug for oil 50 " 50 lbs Red Lead 6.25 " 1 Plated bibb Cock 3.50 Dec. 11 " 1 No. 8 Engine Well Pump 14.00 " 18 feet wood Pipe 1.34 2.34 " 57 Fire Brick 6 3.42 " 3 Retorts & Drilling 30 90.00 " ½ Bbl. fire Morter 1.50 " 60 lbs Grate Bars 6 3.60 " 5 Brass Cocks 2.50 12.50 $238.84 Add Tools & fittings left for repairs and labor on Water[Pump?] 97.51 $336.35 Credit by Freight paid by E.L.A. 27.00 $309.35
Philip J. Barziza488
Supt. of Ground & Gas works
Philip J. Barziza stated in his report in the annual report for 1854 and 1855 that he had succeeded in
obtaining a drawing for ornamenting the lots of the asylum, drawn to accurate scales by a United States Surveyor.489
Gabriella Galt, daughter of William T. Galt (former keeper) and Mary A. Galt (recently deceased matron), apparently was in possession of the Galt Cottage and property after her mother's death in 1854. On July 14, 1855, the directors ordered that the asylum purchase William Pettitt's lots [Lots 64-71, on which the Griffin House is located] and give part of that property (including the dwelling house) to Gabriella in exchange for the Galt Cottage and property. Gabriella retained possession of the Galt Graveyard behind the cottage. The asylum retained possession of that part of the Pettitt property to the west of the dwelling house.490 The directors later  sold that portion of the Pettitt property [Lots 64 and 65] to Wilson C. Durfey.491 On December 12, 1855, the night watch at the hospital was to occupy the Galt Cottage as soon as it was vacated by Gabriella Galt and her sister.492
In November 1855 the asylum purchased portions of two streets (Nassau and Ireland) from the City of Williamsburg. The directors paid $3,000 for 253
the street running between the main Asylum lot and the Six chimney lot and the Street running from the South East end of the Six chimney lot to the public road leading to the College landing.493
The directors ordered the superintendent of public grounds to enclose the streets for the asylum.494
Payments for the portions of Nassau and Ireland streets and for the William Pettitt property came due in 1856. In that year the General Assembly made a special appropriation of $7,500 ($4,500 for the lots and house, $3,000 for the streets).495
In 1857 during a legislative investigation of the management of the asylum, Governor Henry A. Wise presented a list of questions to be answered by the directors. Details of some of the asylum buildings were revealed in the information the directors provided the governor:
The matron and her family occupied four rooms in [Building A]. The basement story was for her servants. There were also two public apartments in [Building A].
The steward and his family resided in five rooms in [Building H]; his servants occupied two rooms. There were 31 other rooms for patients including a dormitory for 12 of them.
A ward officer and his family occupied three rooms and a closet in [Building I]. There were 47 rooms for patients two of which were large dormitories.254
A female ward officer occupied two rooms in [Building J) and there were 20 rooms for patients.496
Other ward officers and rooms were mentioned but their exact location was not mentioned.*
On April 9, 1857, William Percival received $395.00 for "Surveying the Grounds of the Asylum drawing maps &c &c."497
[Building J] was used for black female patients from the time of its erection in 1855. However, this situation changed as this statement of John M. Galt in 1857 indicates:
With regard to the females, the handsome and commodious edifice mentioned in previous reports and assigned to insane colored women, is an entirely separate establishment, and before the last month or two was exclusively devoted to them; but the action of the legislature has compelled us to send home insane slaves, and we have not deemed it requisite to leave rooms untenanted, when the white insane were languishing in jails. The general assembly first passes a resolution, very philanthropic to be sure, as though they would provide for the colored insane, whilst still insisting on sending the slaves home, notwithstanding the slight expense involved in their accommodation; and moreover themselves bring on a measure for which we are prepared for them to censure us.498
Galt evidently was referring to the act of 1846 admitting slaves to the asylum which stipulated that "no insane slave shall 255 be received or retained in the said asylum to the exclusion of any insane white person."499
John M. Galt wrote in an 1857 report:
During a period longer than twelve months, there has been no enclosure around the southern yard of the institution, and thus nearly all the male patients have, in point of fact, had no barrier whatever to going wheresoever they pleased during most of the year just passed.500
In the fall of 1858 Galt wrote in a letter, "We have 274 patients, and are gradually reaching our final number of three hundred."501
In a letter dated June 19, 1859, a female patient wrote a letter to a friend or relative describing life at the asylum. She did not mention any of the buildings but her description of food and daily routine at the asylum indicated that she found conditions there acceptable:
I have great reason to be thankful that my health has been restored so far as to enable me walk out on the street this week and purchase a few articles & small articles of which I was in want If I went out of the encloseure at all. At Mistris Hofeners I bought a cheap stone coloured straw bonnet; which after it was trimed looked nice enough; and a tisue vail; not having any here except my old green florrence silk vail. Mrs Hoffeiner is a Jiewess and one of the most friendly and accommodating Ladies in her line I ever met with. She gave me some water from her well near her door which was almost as cold as Ice water. It was a rite warm day and I enjoyed it very much. We use nothing but the hearen (?) water here at the Assylem which is any thing but cool. We have very plain fare here. Bacon is allways on the table And sone times beef and sometimes lamb. I dont 256 recollect ever to have set down to the table at dinner time that there was not something besides bacon some times we have fish of some kind either stergeon or pearch. I supposed in this regeon of Country that fish would have been a standing dish But it has been all the spring And up to this time a rarety on the table. I am very fond of fish of all kinds, except stergeon. I am less fond of that than any other. They dont place any dishes or plates containing food ever at breakfast dinner or supper. But every individuals allowance is placed on his own plate at each meal three times a day. And mine has been ever since I have been here a superabundant supply. Sometimes Mrs. Christian has had placed on my plate as much at breakfast as would have lasted me three mornings, to eat as I generally do two small pones of corn bread and two pretty thick slices of light bread. Neither of which I eat except some times I will taste them to see how I like them. Mrs. Christian has placed on my plate almost every morning a brawd slice of tolerabl thin batter bread buttered nicely And which I find agrees with me as well or better than any kind of bread I eat. Never going out of the asylem and taking but little exercise I find that very little nurishment is all sufficient for me. I do feel very grateful to Mrs. Christian for her attention in relation to my diet. I know that it is essential to my health to eat what agrees with me. I am some few L.B.s thiner than usual But I am very thankful to feel as well as I do this evening. I asked Mrs. Christian a week or ten days ago what was the reason that the inmates of this establishment scearcely ever had any thing at diner but bacon or beef And why on account of econemy if for no other reason they did not have suip hashes and stews And most especially vegetables. She said the Dr. thought the patients were so liable to diorear in this asylem that he did not like them to eat vegetablessuips or any thing that was liable to affect the bowels.502
At the March 5, 1860, meeting of the directors, the steward submitted an inventory of the property of the asylum: 257
Inventory of Furniture in the E. L. Asylum 1st January 1860. Bed Steads 226 Tin Pans 14 Bed Straw 377 Dishes 63 Bed Feathers 11 Plates 347 Matress Hair 33 Tureens 4 Blankets 1272 Butter Bowls 6 Sheets 376 Butter Stands 6 Counterpains plaid 305 Molasses Pitchers 4 Counterpains white 25 Tea Pots 8 Pillows Feathers 43 Soap Stands 43 Do Straw 260 Cups & Saucers 178 Bureaus 100 Salt Stands 43 Wash Stands 101 Knives and Forks 187 Tables (for lodging room) 145 Waiters 14 Basins (Wash) 160 Castor Setts 7 Pitchers 108 Cup tin 196 Pillow Cases 277 Bowls 38 Towels 101 Mugs 140 Curtains 18 Table Cloths 29 Buckets 41 Bells Dinner 6 Chambers 270 Brooms 24 Spittoons 32 Stove Brushes 6 Chairs 474 Table Spoons 146 Candle Sticks 19 Carpets 53 Settees 7 Wash Tubs 30 Sofas 8 Ironing Tables 10 Looking Glasses Suspended from Bureaus 11 Sad Irons 22 Tea Spoons 36 Fenders Fire 10 Dressing Combs 103 Glass Tumblers 96 Hair Brushes 52 Cinder Shovels 7 Feather Bolsters 11 Coal Scuttles 11 Clocks 4 Stoves 15 Safes 4 Benches 40 Piano 1 Coffee Pots 16 Maps 5
Property belonging to the Asylum. Carriage 1 Gas Tongs 6 Pair Buggy 1 Monkey Wrenches 4 Wagon 1 Gas Pipe 230 Feet Spring Do 1 Carpenters Planes 8 Carts 2 Hatchets 2 Set Carriage Harness 1 Broad Axe 1 Cart Do 2 Drawing Knife 1 258 Buggy Do 1 Brace & Bits Sett 1 Bridle & Saddle 1 Chisels 4 Wheelbarrows 12 Augurs 4 Ploughs 3 Screw Driver 1 Cultivator 2 Bevil 1 Drags 2 Guages 2 Hoes 8 Squares 2 Spades 3 Hammer 1 Rakes 4 Saws (Hand) 3 Axes 8 Compass Saw 1 Cross Cut Saw 3 Tinners Shears 1 Manure Forks 3 Large Iron Vice 1 Shovels 3 Small Shears 1 Horses 3 Soldering Irons 2 Cows 3 Hamers 2 Yearling 2 Plyers 1 Fire Engines 2 Plates and Dies (Screw) 2 Reel 1 Hoes 100 Yds Block & Tackle 1 Fire Buckets 11
Inventory of new furniture &c. in H. W. Lees, Ward. Cups 24 Carving Knife & Fork 1 Saucers 24 Set Castors 1 Breakfast Plates 24 Dressing Combs 15 Dinner Do 24 Hair Brushes 15 Soup Do 24 Bed Stead 17 Covered Dishes 4 Hair Matresses 17 Salad Do 1 Staw Beds 8 Tureen 1 Bureaus 17 Butter Boats 2 Chairs 46 Sauce Dishes 2 Washstands 17 Cream Mugs 2 Tables (for loding [Lodging?] rooms) 18 Butter Stand 2 Large Waiter 1 Tumbler Glasses 12 Small Do 1 Goblett 12 Candle Stick & Snuffers 1 Wash Basins 18 Fire Fenders 3 Ewers 18 White Counterpaines 17 Water Pitchers 3 Dog Irons (pair) 1 Coffee Pot 1 Brooms 6 Molasses Mug 1 Feather Pillows 17 Dishes (assorted Sizes) 11 Coal Scuttles 2 Salt Stands 18 Cinder Shovels 2 Tea Pots 1 Carpets 18 259 Soap Stands 18 Cane Chairs 12 Table Spoons 12 Rocking Chairs 2 Tea Do 12 Round Table 1 C. C. Chambers 24 Towels 16 Spittoons 18 Stoves 1 Knives and Forks 24
Old Furniture in H. W. Lees, Ward Bureaus 4 C. C. Chambers 6 Chairs 26 Plates 12 Round Tables 2 Dishes 2 Small Tables 4 Waiters 3 Dining Do 2 Pillow Slips 24 Table Cloths 4 Candle Sticks 3 Sheets 18 Plaid Counterpaines 10 Blankets 40 Stove 1
Inventory of William Connellys Ward. Blankets 98 Table Cloths 6 Sheets 28 Water Buckets 5 Straw Beds 19 Tin Basins 4 Bed Ticks 9 Fire Fenders 3 Pillow Cases 30 Tin Cups 21 " Ticks 21 Ch. Bowls 3 Plaid Counterpaines 23 Tin Plates 24 Bed Steads 13 Table Spoons 15 Chairs 10 Looking Glasses 3 Benches 8 C. C. Chambers 17 Wash Stands 3 Stove 1 Towels 10 Tables 5
James A. Thompsons Ward Bed Steads 45 Clothes Brushes 2 Straw Beds 58 Shoe Brushes 6 Hair Matress 1 Candle Stick 3 Sheets 90 Table Cloths 4 Pillow Straw 80 Salt Stands 4 Blankets 250 Sets Castors 2 Counterpaines 48 C. C. Chambers 59 Towels 24 Coffee Pots 4 Wash Stands 21 Knives 40 Tables in lodging Forks 40 rooms 23 Carving Knife 1 Water Buckets 21 Tin Pans (large) 5 Chairs 20 Tin Ladles 2 Wash Basins 8 Bowls & Mugs 63 260 Tin Pans 11 Plates 67 Pitchers 21 Dishes 2 Looking Glasses 10 Waiter 1 Spittoons 12 Benches 12 Settees 6 Brooms 6 Sofas 1 Bureaus 21 Tables in Dining room 8 Coal Scuttles 4 " Shovels 2 Stoves 5
Leroy Caseys Ward. Beds 91 Coal Scuttles 3 Bed Steads 33 Wash Basins 7 Blankets 434 Towels 23 Pillows Straw 86 Plates 86 Sheets 125 Mugs 77 Counterpaines 178 Tables (dinner) 3 Stoves 3 C. C. Chambers 76 Coffee Pots 3 Spoons 59 Water Buckets 12 Knives & Forks 64 Stoves 2
Miss C. C. Wares Ward. Bed Steads 36 Straw Beds 64 Tables in lodging rooms 27 Feather Do 7 Cane chairs 31 Matresses Cotton & Shocks Wood Do 16 Straw Bolsters 36 Basins 22 Feather Bolsters 4 Pitchers 22 Straw Pillows 28 Corsets 24 Feather Do 9 C. C. Chambers 42 Counterpaines 51 Arm Chairs 23 Pillow Cases 67 Work Tables 3 Blankets 240 Desk 1 Sheets 57 Water Buckets 2 Towels 25 Baskets 3 Bureaus 26 Sad Irons 1 Mirrors 22 Spittoons 2 Wash Stands 30 Chests 1 Stoves 1
Miss Ropers Ward Bed Steads 20 Cane Chairs 10 Feather Beds 2 Wash Stands 10 Straw Do 23 Tables in Lodging Pillows 25 rooms 5 261 Feather Do 2 Basins 9 Sheets 29 Pitchers 10 Counterpanes 30 Water Buckets 4 Blankets 146 Towels 8 Pillow Slips 136 C. C. Chambers 25 Bureaus 10 Wood Chairs 25 Mirrors 6
Miss Mary R. Bowerys Ward Bed Steads 24 Carpets 9 Beds 42 C. C. Chambers 23 Sheets 18 Clothes Press 1 Counterpanes 26 Stove 1 Blankets 168 Benches 3 Pillow Ticks 25 Wash Basins 3 " Slips 25 Pitchers 3 Bureaus 10 Plates 31 Tables in lodging rooms 12 Cans 31 Wash Stands 8 Chairs 30
Mrs Sam Wares Ward Beds Straw 28 Basins 4 Pillows Do 18 Pitchers 4 " Slips 26 Table Spoons 12 Blankets 80 Tin Cups 12 Sheets 8 Benches 3 Counterpanes 18 Ironing Tables 10 Bed Steads 14 Dining Do 1 Bureaus 4 Buckets (Water) 4 Wash Stands 4 C. C. Chambers 22 Tables in boarding rooms 6 Sad Irons 20 Washing Tubs 30 Chairs 5
Furniture &c. in the Apartments newly fitted in the Female Department Lodging Rooms Saloon Furniture Bed Steads 9 Piano 1 Straw Beds 10 Cane Seat Chairs 12 Hair Matresses 6 Rocking Do 1 Straw Bolsters 9 Carpet 1 Feather Pillows 7 Centre Table 1 Pillow Slips 7 Mirrors 2 Sheets 11 Spittoons 2 Bureaus 7 Window Shades 2 262 Tables in lodging rooms 8 Wash Stands 7 Chairs in lodging room 14 Curtains Do 9 Basins & Ewers (each) 7 C. C. Chambers 7 Parlor Dining Room Sofas 2 Tin Safe 1 Cane Seat Chairs 12 Dining Table 1 Rocking (Cane Do) 2 Side Table 1 Centre Table 1 Chairs 12 Mirror 1 Cups 24 Carpet 1 Saucers 24 Rug 1 Breakfast Plates 24 Window Shades 3 Dinner Plates 24 Stove 1 Soup Plates 24 Covered Dishes 4 Salad 1 Setting Room Tureen 1 Cane Seat Chairs 12 Butter Boats 2 Rocking Do 2 Sauce Dishes 2 Centre Table 1 Cream Mugs 2 Carpet 1 Butter Stands 2 Window Shades 3 Tumbler Glasses 12 Tea Pot 1 Goblets 12 Salt Stands 8 Water Pitchers 2 Soap Stands 8 Coffee Pot 1 Table Spoons 12 Knives & Forks 24 Tea Do 12 Carving Knife & Fork 1 Castors Steel 1 Sugar Dishes 1
Female Patients Dining Room Mrs Christians Clock 1 Pitchers 6 Chairs 53 Tin Pans 3 Table (Side) 3 Large Stone Jars 2 Dining Tables 2 Water Buckets 2 Plates 83 Safe 1 Knives and Forks 97 Sugar Buckets 2 Dishes (large) 3 Jelly Strainer 1 Tureen 1 Refrigerator 1 Cups and Saucers 17 Mugs 49 Salt Stands 3
Furniture in the Rooms of Officer['s] Boarding the Asylum Bedsteads 7 Glasses 14 Hair Matresses 7 Clocks Straw Beds 7 Stoves 2 Feather Pillows 7 Feather Bolsters 7 Pillow Slips 14 Sheets 28 Blankets 42 Counterpanes 14 Bureaus 7 Chairs 14 Pitchers 14
Officers Dining Room Safe 1 Knives & Forks 24 Dining Table 1 Dishes Assorted Sizes 12 Side Do 1 Tureens 2 Chairs 14 Covered Dishes 4 Cups and Saucers 34 Clock 1 Dinner Plates 14 Soup Do 7 Tea Do 18
Office of the Night Watch Sofa 1 Pitcher 1 Carpet 1 Basin 1 Chairs 4 Looking Glass 1 Clock 1 Stove 1 Small Table 1
Reported to the Board March 5th 1860.503
Robert P. Taylor
Steward E. L. A.
On March 24, 1860, the General Assembly passed an act concerning the asylum:
An ACT making an Appropriation for the construction and equipment of a Laundry, &c. at the Eastern Lunatic Asylum.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of Virginia, that the sum of seven thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated, for the purpose of building and furnishing a laundry at the Eastern lunatic asylum, as recommended by the superintendent. Also the further sum 264 of five thousand dollars, to be appropriated towards the repairs of the present buildings of the asylum. Also the further sum of five thousand dollars, to be appropriated for the purpose of furnishing an additional supply of water for said asylum. Also the further sum of three thousand dollars, for purchasing an additional quantity of land, not exceeding three hundred acres, for said asylum, as recommended by the superintendent: provided, however, that the money appropriated by this act shall be expended under the direction of the governor; and no part thereof shall be drawn from the treasury except upon his order: and provided further, that the plan of the building, together with the extent of the repairs aforesaid, and also the estimates for the same, shall be first approved by the governor.
2. This act shall be in force from its passage.504
The directors contracted for the laundry, drainage, and water supply. However, the work progressed slowly and new directors appointed at the end of 1860 found the work still not done. They stated at their December 14, 1861, meeting that they hoped the laundry and other improvements would be finished by the end of that year.505
The superintendent's house (Travis House) across the street from the asylum was revalued and insured by the Mutual Assurance Society under policy #21,330 dated December 31, 1860. The plat on the policy shows only the dwelling but states that four wooden buildings are contiguous to it.506
Under Mutual Assurance Society policy #21,329* of the same date, the buildings of the asylum were insured: 265
[Building A], insured for $18,000, is described as brick with slate roof and three stories high.
[Building B] is shown but is described as having been torn down.266
[Buildings C & D], insured for $12,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs and two stories high.
[Buildings E & F] are shown but not insured.
[Building H] is shown but not insured.
[Building J], not insured, is described as being "a new house."
A smokehouse, insured for $300, is described as entirely of wood.
The kitchen-storehouse building and the laundry-kitchen building, insured for $5,000 each, are described as brick with slate roofs.
A stable across Ireland Street is described as having been torn down.
A covered way is shown between [Buildings H & D].507
Still another Mutual Assurance Society policy #21,328* dated December 31, 1860, was taken out by the directors which insured [Building I]. A plat on the policy shows the building: 267
[Building I], insured for $18,200, is described as brick with iron roof and four stories high with a tower.508
Mrs. Victoria Lee described the hospital as it appeared in 1861. She noted that the main building [Building A] was a large brick building and the White House [Building H] was used for offices and for some male patients. [Building I] was also occupied by male patients.509268
John S. Charles, describing the asylum as it appeared in 1861, told of an eight foot high brick wall which enclosed the front yard. He remembered [Building A] as "presenting a very imposing appearance" having large white columns extending to the top story. [Building H] was connected to the other buildings by an attractive colonnade. He stated that the two towers of [Building I] had sleeping rooms in them.510
In March 1861, the General Assembly passed an act changing the names of the asylums in Virginia. The hospital in Williamsburg known as the Eastern Asylum for the maintenance and cure of insane persons became the Eastern Lunatic Asylum.511
The buildings of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum weathered the Civil War with no direct damage during fighting or troop movements in Williamsburg. However, the buildings, grounds,and patients suffered severely during the war years from neglect, lack of money and provisions, and bad management.
Williamsburg experienced troop movements beginning in the early months of the war. The local churches were all converted into hospitals for the wounded.512 Sally M. Galt wrote to a cousin in October 1861 that ministers of all denominations "have to preach in the Chapel at the Asylum."513 Earlier that year Sally Galt wrote to a cousin saying that she had given permits to "about a thousand soldiers to visit the Asylum." The Galts also had Confederate soldiers in their home (Travis House).514
The hospital was described by David Cronin as having over 300 patients in 1862.515
A Confederate soldier recalled the hospital in April 1862 as "a very large and imposing building, but there is nothing beautiful about it." This same soldier saw the statue of Lord Botetourt,usually at the College of William and Mary,in front of [Building A] at the asylum.516 A photograph of the asylum taken 270 during the war shows the statue at the asylum.* It may have been moved to the hospital for safekeeping in anticipation of the battle of Williamsburg. The statue was back at the College by sometime in 1864.517
The directors held their last regular meeting April 3, 1862.518 On May 5th the battle of Williamsburg was fought and the Confederates evacuated the city. On May 10 McClellan left Williamsburg in the hands of the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Colonel David Campbell became the provost marshall (military governor) of Williamsburg.519
Dr. John M. Galt,II, superintendent of the asylum for twenty-one years, died May 18, 1862.520 Dr. John Galt Williamson, assistant physician at the asylum, also died in 1862, thus ending the official Galt association with the hospital.521
In her diary on May 26, 1862, Harriette Cary wrote that "Since Dr. Galt's death a Yankee has been appointed his successor which was but the beginning of a revolution in the Asylum government."522
Judge W. W. Crump arrived in Williamsburg on May 27, 1862, to inspect the asylum for Governor Letcher and the Confederate 271 government in Richmond. Judge Crump's daughter recalled that her father "found the asylum had been taken charge of by Col. Campbell and everything in good condition."523 Soon after Galt's death Campbell appointed Dr. Clinton Thompson superintendent of the asylum.524
Meanwhile at the Unionist state government in wheeling, Governor Francis H. Pierpont appointed Dr. Gillet F. Watson superintendent of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum. Watson wrote to Governor Pierpont on June 5, 1862, that upon arriving at the hospital he dismissed those officers who refused to take an oath of allegiance to the United States government.525 Four days later he wrote that he found the "Physicians and officers extreme Rebels. I made clear discharge of them all." Dr. Watson found that the hospital had no clothing, medicines, or provisions on hand.526
The Federal troops burned the College of William and Mary on September 9, 1862, in retaliation for a raid on the town by Confederate Cavalry under Colonel Shingler of South Carolina. Books saved from the fire as well as philosophical apparatus belonging to the College were taken to the asylum for safekeeping.527
Sommersette Moore was a ward officer of the asylum who was willing to take the oath of allegiance along with Henry M. Bowden, Thomas Bowden, and Henrietta S. Bowden.528 Moore wrote to Governor Pierpont in October 1862 that on August 20 Dr. Watson 272 and other officers of the asylum (Henry M. Bowden among them) fled the town in alarm taking with them supplies purchased by Watson for the patients.529 Dr. Watson left Moore at the asylum with instructions to take the keys to Colonel Campbell who in turn asked Moore to return to the asylum and "take care of whatever was there."530 Campbell also asked the old officers of the asylum (those dismissed by Watson) to return to their jobs without taking the oath of allegiance. Moore apparently had charge of the hospital for only a few days. Dr. P. Wager, a surgeon with the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, was appointed superintendent by Colonel Campbell on August 21, 1862.531
General Henry A. Wise with a force of Confederate soldiers repeatedly attacked the Federal troops at Williamsburg. His maneuvers served no military purpose other than the harassment of the enemy. Wise was successful in retaking Williamsburg for a few days on April 11, 1863.532 Sally M. Galt wrote to a cousin on April 15, 1863, that "almost everybody from this end of the town have taken refuge in the Asylum."533
Evidently Wise had neither the resources nor the inclination to take charge of the asylum during his occupation of the city. Talbot Sweeney, one of the old officers (and a southern sympathizer) asked by Colonel Campbell to return to his post at the asylum, 273 later explained the situation to an investigating committee:
Talbot Sweeney sworn, deposed:
In reference of the institution during the time Gen'l Wise had control of the city, witness would state that about the 11th day of April, 1863, Gen'l Wise, with his forces, drove the Fed'l forces into their fortifications below the city, a distance of about 1-½ miles, leaving the Superintendent who had been app'd by the federal authority and detailed soldiers under that superintendent, together with the officers then remaining who had been appointed by the State authority, in full charge of the Asylum. The record, which witness has, will show that Dr. Wager, the Superintendent, applied to Gen'l Wise at his headquarters by note to be informed as to his true position, whether as a prisoner of war, whether he should retain his position at the asylum, or whether he should be allowed to return to the federal lines. In reply to that note, Gen'l Wise answered to the following effect: That he did not regard him as a prisoner of war, except on parole not to disclose any of his military operations which might by virtue of his opportunities come within his observation; that he did not intend having no authority to do so to take military possession of the institution; and that he would protect him and his officers, meaning the detailed soldiers of the U. S. army, in the discharge of their official functions; and that he would afford protection to any transportation which he might send back and forth containing supplies for the institution, if designated by a yellow or white flag. Subsequent to this, Gen'l Keys ordered Dr. Wager, with his officers and the effects belonging to the U. S. Government, "to retire to his lines, leaving the keys of the asylum with the collector and Law agent, Talbot Sweeney." Witness did take the keys and referred the whole subject to Gen'l Wise, who was then, as witness supposed, in military command of the asylum. He declined to exercise such authority, and requested witness, as the only chief officer in place, to take charge of the institution and manage it as he could.534
Sweeney thus found himself in charge of the hospital for a time from April 15, 1863.535 Sweeney appointed a staff in the name of the absent directors in order to keep the hospital running. Robert Saunders, president of the absent directors, later supported Sweeney's actions.536
General Rufus King of the U. S. Army wrote to General Keyes in Norfolk on April 13 asking "Are we to continue to supply the patients in the insane asylum at Williamsburg?"537 General Keyes noted in a letter dated April 17, 1863, that he had ordered ten days' rations for the asylum to prevent starvation.538 The asylum continued to be "unofficially" provided for by the U. S. Army until February or March 1864 when Dr. Wager was reappointed superintendent by the Federals.539 Talbot Sweeney and his staff apparently ran the hospital until Wager resumed control and they stayed on as his staff.540
Dr. Wager and the U. S. Army remained in control of the asylum until the September 12, 1865, when civilian directors were appointed by Governor Pierpont. The directors had their first meeting October 5, 1865, even though Dr. Wager refused to turn over the asylum to the new directors.541 On October 14 the directors elected officers including Leonard Henley, as physician and superintendent, and Lemuel G. Bowden, president of the board.542275
At the October 28, 1865, meeting the directors read a letter from Dr. Wager who, having received permission from the proper authorities to do so, relinquished the hospital to the new directors.543
The number of patients at the asylum in 1865 was 180 according to Dr. Wager, and 180 patients are listed by name in the annual report for the year 1865.544 This figure is considerably lower than the over 300 patients mentioned by Cronin in 1862 and the 250 mentioned by a Federal general in 1863.545 No doubt many patients died during the war years. Dr. Wager's records of the hospital for those years show that there were few admissions. Some patients probably escaped, especially during those times when supervision at the hospital was almost non-existent, and Dr. Wager discharged some of the inmates as cured.546
The directors wrote in their annual report dated 1865 that
The institution might well be said to be in a debilitated and deranged condition.
The drainage, unfortunately, instead of conducting the water off, deposits it in the basements of the buildings. The gas-house is only standing as a monument to departed worth. The laundry is now only a simple washhouse, all the machinery for supplying it with water and heating for drying being out of repair.
We would respectfully ask that extra appropriations for draining buildings, enclosing premises, furniture, refitting heating apparatus, gas works, sewerage, repairs to the institution and furnishing it with water, to the amount of ($25,000) twenty-five thousand dollars, be made.547
The new directors soon came under investigation by the legislature for corruption and political misdealings. In January 1866 a special committee heard testimony from hospital officers, present and former, including Dr. Wager and Robert Saunders.548
In March 1866 Governor Pierpont appointed new directors as a result of the investigation; W. W. Vest became president and Robert M. Garrett, superintendent and physician.549 These directors served until January 1868 when the governor again removed the directors for corruption. They were replaced by directors under the U. S. Army. Dr. Arthur E. Petticolas became superintendent and physician; Dr. D. R. Brower became superintendent and physician after the death of Dr. Petticolas in January 1869.550
The asylum purchased from the City of Williamsburg certain portions of Ireland and King streets in 1867.551
In 1869 the directors decided to sell the Travis House, old residence of the superintendent.552 On September 29th the directors rented a house owned by Mrs. Kate Maupin for the superintendent.553 The directors evidently decided against selling the Travis House because it was renovated and reoccupied by the superintendent in 1871.554 The Travis House continued to be used by the superintendent as a residence until about 1884.555277
In April 1869 Robert A. Bright donated land to the asylum for a cemetery.556
In July 1869 the Executive Committee recommended that the directors purchase Mr. W. F. B. Milliken's farm adjoining the asylum. The directors approved the recommendation in September.557 The farm contained about 170 acres and was used to produce much that the asylum previously purchased from outside sources.558
Also in July 1869 the Executive Committee authorized the superintendent "to tear down the brick buildings built for Water Closets in the Ward Yards of female department."559
The directors stated in the 1869 annual report:
The next important improvement to which your attention is invited, is the introduction of the "earth closet." All the wards of the female department and one ward of the male department have been fitted up with these closets, and the foul privies that had been used for a number of years removed.560
Various improvements and repairs continued at the asylum in the years after the Civil War even though problems with the directors persisted. On January 14, 1870, a committee appointed by the military board wrote a letter to General Canby, U. S. Army, Commanding in Virginia, stating that the buildings, grounds, and drainage of the asylum had been improved, but that
While the general condition of the Asylum is at the present time good, there are yet serious wants to be supplied. There is no suitable means of warming the 278 buildings. Economy and the comfort of the patients demand the supply of this necessity. In each ward there is a sitting room where in cold weather a fire is kept. The sleeping rooms cannot be warmed however severe the weather. It is at times necessary to confine some of the lunatics to their rooms for days together. When the weather is severe they must and do suffer, and humanity requires that a proper remedy be applied. A steam heating apparatus costing about fourteen thousand dollars would relieve the patients in this respect, and would save to the State every year in fuel more than the interest of the outlay. There is no insane Asylum in the United States of America more unsuitably and imperfectly heated. The gas with which the buildings are lighted is unnecessarily expensive. The fixtures are old and of imperfect pattern. The gasometer is nearly worn out being full of holes stopped temperarily by a toc coating, and is entirely too small. Its insufficient size of itself nearly doubles the expense of manufacturing gas. A sum not exceeding three thousand dollars would pay for new fixtures, which would in the end prove a saving. The grounds devoted to pleasure and exercise of the patients need further improvements.561
On January 16, 1870, J. W. Lewellen, a member of the committee, wrote a private letter to Governor Gilbert C. Walker reiterating many of the points made by the committee. Both the committee report and Lewellen's letter indicate that the directors under the military were almost as susceptible to corruption as their civilian counterparts.562
The asylum again had civilian directors on April 5, 1870, with Sydney Smith president and Dr. Brower remaining as superintendent and physician.563279
In the 1870 annual report the superintendent reported that all the black patients at the asylum were transferred to what was the Freedmans Hospital in Richmond. The General Assembly incorporated the Freedmans Hospital as the Central Lunatic Asylum exclusively for the treatment of the black insane.
In this same annual report the directors reported the fitting up of additional bathrooms "each furnished with bath tub, with hot and cold water, earth closet, slop hopper, and wash basin."564
In 1871 the directors ordered that two of the asylum's water tanks be moved to the tops of the towers of [Building I].565
In March 1871 the General Assembly appropriated $30,000 for the purpose of extending and adding to the buildings of the asylum:
An ACT Appropriating Money for the Extension of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum.
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That the sum of thirty thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of extending and adding to the buildings of the Eastern lunatic asylum, and increasing the accommodations therein for patients, to be drawn for and expended by the board of directors of said institution, in accordance with the laws now in force regulating appropriations to lunatic asylums: provided, however, that no part of said appropriation shall be expended otherwise than in providing additional accommodations for the patients as aforesaid; arid that this appropriation be drawn from the treasury in three equal instalments: the first on the first of April, the second on the first of July, and the third on the first of October, 280 eighteen hundred and seventy-one.
2. This act shall be in force from its passage.566
The superintendent proposed to the directors at their April 4, 1871, meeting that two buildings [Buildings K & L1] be erected behind the main building [A, E & F].567 James H. Calron's bid of $28,786.80 won him the contract for both buildings.568
For the erection of [Building K] the contractor added a story and a wing to a small two.-story brick building already standing to the east behind the main building.569 This small building probably was one of the two outbuildings erected by Johnson Sands in 1848 used as a kitchen and laundry. By the time it was enlarged by Calron the building was in use as a ward for about 25 patients.570 [Building K] when completed provided space for about 21 patients on each floor, some of whom were to be females of the most violent type.571
[Building L1] was erected on the west side behind the main building. It provided room for a new kitchen, bakery, storeroom, chapel, amusement hall, and library. The space occupied by the old amusement hall and chapel in [Building I] and the first ward were remodeled by James H. Calron for rooms for male patients.572
In July 1871 wire guards were installed on windows and transoms of rooms for violent and suicidal patients.573281
On April 29, 1872, the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors examined and received [Buildings K & L1] as completed according to contract.574
James Calron also remodeled [Building A] in 1872:
The first story now contains the administrative offices-a room for the Directory, a Superintendent's office, Reception room, Steward's office, Assistant Physician's room, and Dispensary; the second story, sitting rooms and bed rooms for the officers; and the third story, dormitories for the female patients of the second class. This improvement has involved an expenditure of eleven hundred and forty dollars.575
The directors contracted for the construction of a steam heating and ventilating apparatus in July 1872. The legislature appropriated $20,000 for this purpose.576 In the annual report for 1872 the apparatus was described by the superintendent:
The plan we have adopted consists essentially of eleven upcase ventilating shafts and two ventilating cupolas, of ample dimensions, each containing a steam coil of proper size, for producing the circulation of air, receiving by horizontal air ducts the upright foul air flues passing up or down, as the case may be, from each room. The construction of this apparatus has been attended with considerable difficulty. The upcast ventilating shafts are of themselves heavy work; they have been built of brick, and extend from the basement to some distance above the top of the house, on an average fiftyfive feet high and twenty-four square feet in horizontal section. The horizontal air ducts in the attic have been made of lathe and plaster, and those in the basement of well seasoned flooring plank. The foul air flues, of which there is one for each room, have generally been built of brick, the size varying with the room; the smallest of them are nine by eleven inches. The plan of heating differs somewhat from that in general use. In 282 the ordinary method, the heating is principally done by indirect radiation. In this, except in the wards for the most excited class of patients of each sex, the heating is done by direct radiation.
The radiators (Noson's patent) used for heating the rooms, are placed and securely fastened in front of the windows, this being the coldest part of the room.
The fresh air supply of the rooms is derived from under the windows, and is warmed by passing over the radiator. The radiators, of the same patent, used for heating the corridors, are placed in front of the windows, and as near as possible to the door. The fresh supply of the corridors is derived in small part from the windows as before, and from the opening of the doors, but principally from a large fresh air flue, the air of which is partially warmed by indirect radiation.
The boilers for generating the steam are the return tubular variety, four feet in diameter and fourteen feet long, with forty-nine three-inch tubes. They are to be supplied with all the modern appendages for promoting safety and economy. They are being built by Messrs. Talbott, Ettinger & Edmond, of Richmond.577
In 1872 and again in 1874 the directors expressed interest in purchasing the street north of the asylum wall.578
The asylum purchased a two-acre lot [Lots L and M] west of the Travis House from Mary S. Hurt in August 1873.579
Dormitories for some officers were provided in [Building A] in 1874.582283
The Bright Lot (formerly residence of Jesse Cole and Robert Carter Nicholas) was purchased by the asylum in 1875.585
On January 8, 1876, a fire destroyed [Building L1] at the Eastern Lunatic Asylum. John Clopton, acting superintendent at the time of the fire, submitted the following report to Dr. Black, who assumed charge of the asylum as superintendent the evening of the fire:
Sir--At your request I respectfully submit the following account of the fire which occurred here on Saturday night Jan. 8th 1876.
The alarm of fire was given by the nightwatch a little before half past three O'clock. When I got down stairs, only a few minutes later, the hose was stretched from the plug nearest the 2d Ward, to the Kitchen. The nightwatch, assistant Engineer and one Ward Attendant were at the plug.
As I passed on to the Kitchen the Assistant Engineer and the Nightwatch ran to the end of the hose nearest the fire, & the Nightwatch Knocked out some glass in the window nearest the larger flame, and inserted the end of the hose through the sash. I called out "turn on the Water" which was promptly done by Mr. Sweeney. At this time I reached the window and saw that there was no nozzle on the hose, and that the water was forced only far enough to pass a short distance beyond the window sill. I immediately sent Mr. Tuttle, the Assistant Engineer, for the nozzle.
He returned in about two minutes. The water was then directed to be cut off until the nozzle could be attached, which was done by myself with the assistance of Mr. Tuttle. The water was again turned on by Mr. Sweeney and passed in a few jets about half way across the kitchen, when it ceased to flow, & Mr. Tuttle, who was managing the nozzle at the time, exclaimed, "Dr. there is no water in the tanks", or "the water has given out". 284 Maj. Vaiden had in the mean time come up, and seeing the small stream we were able to get on the fire, remarked, "Dr. you can't do any good with that, we had better try to save what we can, & he immediately started for the Store room.
Seeing the water supply had failed, I directed Mr. Tuttle to go to the Engine house and start his pumps as soon as possible, and I dispatched a messenger for the Engineer, Mr. G. Vaiden. I then went to the Store room door when I found Maj. Vaiden about forcing his way in, & requested him to take charge of the Supplies.
I then went to the 2d & 3d Wards to see if my orders with regard to the Safety of the patients, were being executed, which I found being quietly & properly done. The Nightwatch had in the mean time been sent to the tower building to assist in getting the men down to the lower hall. As I came out of the 2d Ward I met Mr. Wood, who was ward attendant at the Tower who stated he could do nothing with his patients. I sent another attendant, Mr. Sweeney, to his assistance, and then came over to give directions with regard to the female patients. I found the Acting Matron and gave all necessary directions with regard to her patients, and ordered all buckets from the female side, to be brought out immediately. I then ran up Stairs to assure the Matron and one of the female Ward Attendants, who were very ill, that they would be taken care of if the fire should Spread. I then went to my room and got my watch in order to ascertain the time and found it was twenty minutes past 3 O'clock. My watch was twenty minutes slow, and I think about ten minutes had elapsed since I first reached the fire. I now returned to the fire, had the ladder placed at a conveninent point against the main building and put it in charge of Mr. Archie Brooks Sr. I then got all the buckets to the front.
About 5 minutes after this time the Engineer arrived and took charge of the fire department. He went first to the end of the hose nearest the Kitchen, then to the other end which was attached to the fire plug; he then went to the valve which is situated under the bay window of the Tower. Just as he left the latter I joined him, and asked why there was no water in the tanks; he replied there was a plenty of water, I asked why it did not run when turned on, he replied it had been turned on exactly 285 wrong. He then went back to the fire plug to which the hose was attached. He remained there only a few seconds when he turned off and went quite rapidly to the Engine house. In about ten minutes from that time water was being thrown through the hose up to the eaves of the 3d ward [Building E] Veranda, which was continued until the Main building had caught fire in several places, when I think Mr. Southall dropped the hose & commenced work with buckets.
When the main building was considered comparatively Safe and the Tower was being threatened the hose was removed to the plug nearest that building, and then water was thrown to a much greater height than before.
I believe that with the fire apparatus in good working order the fire could have been extinguished in ten minutes after the alarm was given.
When I reached the fire, the northern end of the Kitchen was in flames, which had extended about half way to the range which was located at the opposite end. A large, dry, pine cupboard at the north end had fed the flames more rapidly than elsewhere, and they had mounted up to and penetrated the ceiling under the chapel and were running either into the chapel or between the lathes and the floor, most probably the latter. The two dining rooms north of the Kitchen were also full of flames and the ceiling to the bakery below was also burning. The fire being so low down, it could have been controlled with a sufficient supply of water and good hose.
Had it occurred in the upper part of any of the main buildings, and advanced equally as far, and our present fire apparatus been in the most complete working order, with even a well trained fire corps, I do not believe it could have been checked. And unless it shall hereafter be demonstrated that our Steam pumps are capable of throwing two or more large Streams at once, over any portion of the buildings, I would deem them inadequate to the extinguishing of a fire of any considerable magnitude.586
A report of the fire appeared in the January 11, 1876, issue of the Richmond Dispatch: 286
Information of a fire at the Eastern Lunatic Asylum reached this city yesterday morning, and for a time those having relatives and friends in the institution were greatly alarmed. It, however, soon became known, and much to the relief of many persons, that no lives were lost. The destruction of property was, however, considerable.
The following statement comes from a trustworthy and intelligent gentleman who was present during the conflagration; The fire was discovered about 3:25 A.M. Sunday, and resulted in the complete destruction of a large two-story building about one hundred and twenty feet long by forty feet wide, in which was located the bakery, kitchen, storehouse, chapel, and amusement hall. This building was new, having been erected in 1871-'72 with part of the appropriation made by the Legislature in 1870 for the extension of the asylum. It was situated between the male wards and the tower building, a little southwest of the former. The fire is supposed to have originated in the bakery, which was in the north end of the basement, and is attributed to accident, though some think it might have been done by an incendiary, as the night-watch inspected the bakery at 2 A.M. and found no fire there, nor traces of any. Shortly after this he
SAW A LIGHT
which he thought was the baker come to make up his morning supply of bread, but when this light increased he gave the alarm, and the officers and many citizens were on the spot in a very short time. Every effort was made to save the building, but by this time the fire had gone through the small pantry just over the bakery and into the chapel above. There being no fire engine at the asylum, and the pressure on the water not being enough to force a stream any great height, although the two large watertanks which are situated in the towers far above any of the other buildings were nearly full, a good stream could not be gotten until the force-pumps from the stationary steam-engine were taut in operation. Several times the southwes'ern corner of the male sleeping apartments [Building E], adjoining the main centre building, caught, but were extinguished. The tower building was uninjured. The fire then extended to
THE AMUSEMENT HALL
above, at the southern end, and to the storeroom below 287 it, consuming everything except the stores, which were saved. There happened to be comparatively a small supply of the latter on hand, and all were saved except one barrel of oil. The loss is variously estimated at from $18,000 to $20,000. The building cost $13,000; the cooking fixtures, &c., about $2,500; the chapel fixtures, Fur[ni]ture, melodeon, and organ, were worth at least $1,200; the large magic lantern and pictures lost were worth about $500; besides, the stage fixtures, &c., in the amusement hall, the bakery, storehouse, fixtures, &c. None of this property was insured--an insurance policy once having been taken out but afterwards allowed to expire. The main buildings are insured to the extent of $40,000 in the Mutual Assurance Society of Virginia, but their loss will not exceed $150--to the roof and cupola.
DR. BLACK, the new superintendent, had just arrived the evening before the fire, and consequently, being a stranger, was not in a situation to act as he otherwise could. Yet he did all in his power, and labored to maintain order and direct the efforts of all in the best manner. Dr. Clopton, the assistant physician, rendered very efficient service. There was no panic among the patients. Those occupying rooms in the portions of the building which were in danger were removed to safe compartments, where they remained with their ward attendants aloof from the excitement. All necessary preparations had been made to remove them in the event of the other buildings going, and there was no loss of life to be apprehended even if the entire asylum had been destroyed. Great credit is due to the citizens of the town for their exertion to save the State's property. A strong southwest wind was pouring a perfect stream of sparks all over the main building, which at its nearest point is not over thirty feet from the burnt structure, yet it was but little damaged, so active were the exertions to save it. Where every one did all they could it is hard to select individuals.587
A special committee appointed by the General Assembly to investigate the fire submitted a report quoted in part: 288
Firstly. They are of the opinion that the fire originated in the bakery, and was caused by a defect in the bake-oven flue, which ignited the joist over the oven between the plastering and the kitchen floor above. On reaching the wood partition between the dining rooms and the kitchen, it broke out into a light-blaze, and it was at that point we believe first discovered. At first, there was some doubt as to the cause of the fire, some supposing it an act of an incendiary, but your committee are now unanimously of the opinion that it was purely accidental.
Secondly. The committee are of opinion that there was culpable, not to say criminal neglect in the condition of the apparatus and management of the fire department, and with those either directly or indirectly connected with it. It appears from evidence on all sides, that if the facilities for the extinguishment of fire, as provided for by the state, through the board of directors, had been in proper working condition, with a skilful or experienced manager on hand at the time, that the fire could have been readily extinguished, and perhaps within ten or fifteen minutes after the alarm had been given. But it appears that the means at hand were not and could not be properly utilized.
The fire department, though under the superintendent as general manager, is directly under the control of an engineer and assistant. There are three water-plugs, two in the rear of the main building, and within thirty yards of the building in which the fire occurred, and one in the front yard.
These plugs are directly connected with the engine house, and are also supplied with water from two tanks in a tower building, at an elevation of seventy-five or eighty feet, with a capacity of thirty thousand gallons, which, under the general directions of the asylum, are required always to be filled for the general use of the asylum, and for fire purposes. There are pipes connecting these tanks with plugs placed on every floor of the different buildings, with hose attached, for the purpose of flooding the floors in case a fire should break out within any of the wards.
When the fire broke out, it was found that the hose were in such rotten and worthless condition that 289 they had to be wrapped with blankets before they could be rendered available at all, and then of course very ineffectively. The engineer was allowed to sleep outside of the asylum at his family residence, three-quarters of a mile distant, and it was thirty-five minutes before he arrived on the ground, got up a fire in the engine house, and commenced to use the fire pumps. There is some doubt, at least, as to the supply of water in the tanks, but if filled in the absence of the engineer, neither the assistant engineer nor any other person connected with the institution, know how to utilize it, at least they signally failed. Your committee are further of the opinion, that the supply of hose is inadequate, that there should be a portable steam fire-engine connected with the institution, and that by all means the engineer should be required to sleep within the asylum limits, and his assistant well trained to perform all the duties in his unavoidable absence. Had such been the case, the building would have been saved.588
In March 1876 the General Assembly appropriated $40,000 for enlarging the capacity of the asylum.589 The superintendent, Dr. Black, appointed in January of that year just before the fire, proposed that the money be used to construct [Building L2] on the site of [Building L1] which was destroyed. He proposed that the building be used for male wards. He also suggested that [Building M] for female patients be erected on the front lawn opposite [Building H].590 A building on the front lawn to correspond with [Building H] was suggested first in 1855.591 Construction on the two buildings was delayed because the state was unable to pay any portion of the appropriation for that purpose right away.592 [Building L2] was not completed until the summer of 1881 or later.593 It was heated by 290 indirect radiation from Gould's radiators.594 Two wards of [Building M] were ready for occupancy in January 1883 and the directors noted that the building was ready except for front and rear porches.595 The directors put a high board fence around the front yard of [Building M] in 1883.596
In April 1876 and again in December, the directors noted that the asylum was without water. The springs which the institution depended upon began to fail and two small wells provided the only water in emergencies.597 As a result the steam heating system was useless and stoves had to be placed in several wards to warm the buildings thus greatly increasing the chance of fire.598 The water supply and the storage of water were constant problems for the directors and officers of the institution.599
In July 1876 the directors began to consider purchasing part of Colonel Mumford's meadow near the asylum as an additional source of water.600 In July 1879 the directors approached Judge Coles to see if part of the "Meadow on the estate of the late Col. John D. Mumford" could be purchased by the asylum.601 The directors were able to buy part of the meadow, with water rights, for $1200 in 1879.602
In 1878 the directors erected a bake house, oven, carpenter shop, and a new building for a kitchen and storehouse which had six rooms for quiet patients.603291
A fire occurred at the asylum October 24, 1880, destroying the brick stable, slaughter house, and some supplies.604
An amusement hall [Building N] was in the process of erection during the years 1882-1885.605
In July 1882 the directors had five iron columns placed under the third ward to prevent its falling in. Also, a truss rod was placed across [Building A] to prevent the bulging of the walls.606
Dr. Richard Wise, superintendent and physician, reported in 1882 that he had established an infirmary ward for the better care of those patients who became physically ill at the asylum. It was converted from Ward 5 in [Building L2].607 Evidently this was the first time in the history of the asylum that the sick were separated from the other patients.608 A year later Wise established a second hospital or infirmary ward which was converted from Ward 6--probably in [Building L2] also.609 By 1884 the directors and the superintendent were referring to a hospital building, possibly [Building L2].
In 1882 the superintendent recommended separating the bathrooms and water closets.610
The directors resolved at their August 5, 1884, meeting to accept the bid of the Consolidated Electric Light Company for 292 lighting the asylum with electricity.611 By the January 7, 1885, meeting of the directors, the electric lights were in use at the institution.612
In 1884 the directors authorized the superintendent "to so alter certain portions of the White House [Building H] as will make it comfortable for himself & family."613
A plan was proposed in July 1884 for complete repair and enlargement of [Building I] which had a capacity for 45 patients to be increased to 60 patients.614 The remodeling of the Gothic Building was completed in January 1885. At the same time rooms were fitted up in the connection between [Buildings D & H] and the connection between [Buildings L2 & I].615
On June 7, 1885, the Eastern Lunatic Asylum was severely damaged by fire. [Buildings A, C, D, E, & F] were completely destroyed. [Buildings I, L2, M &N], and presumably other outbuildings in the yard were not damaged. The fate of [Building J] is unknown.
An account of the fire appeared in the June 9, 1885, issue of the Richmond Dispatch:
Time wore on until 10:30 o'clock had been reached, and only a few people were moving about the town, when some one passing by the northern entrance to the asylum grounds saw a big blaze bursting through the windows of the second story of the right wing [Building C] of the female department of what is known as the old-asylum building. The cry was taken up and repeated, and in a little while Doctor Moncure and his assistant superintendents 293 were mounting the stairways leading to the scen of the fire. The employes were aroused, and the first thing they did was to save the inmates, all of whom were females.
A CRY OF FIRE.
The fire was in the hallway, and had not reached the rooms of the inmates. Dr. Moncure rushed through the smoke, reached the room of the inmate nearest the fire, and picking her up in his arms, carried her out to the veranda at the southeast angle of the building and there turned her over to an employe. Quickly returning, he carried back another, and his efforts were seconded by others, so that in a brief space of time there were no inmates left in the immediate neighborhood of the fire.
Seeing the probability that the fire would reach perhaps other buildings, and fearing the consequences of a general conflagration, Dr. Moncure sent the following:
"Chief of the Fire Department: "Come at once and bring engine. Eastern Lunatic Asylum on fire. Will be destroyed if help is not coming soon.
"JAMES D. MONCURE,
TRYING TO STOP THE FIRE.
The town of Williamsburg is not provided with a fire-engine of any sort, and the means of subduing a fire are confined to methods of the most primitive sort. In view of this fact and the possibility of a fire the attention of the Legislature has been from time to time called to the necessity of providing some protection against fire. A quantity of hose was supplied and a couple of towers built upon the roof of the addition that has been recently built. These towers hold a large quantity of water, supplied by a pump from a well that furnishes a bold flow of water. As soon as those whose lives were in immediate danger had been removed the officers of the asylum turned their attention to the fire. Help was freely volunteered from the citizens, and an effort was made to put out the fire by means of the hose and water. It was, however, soon seen that this could not be done, and in order to save the new male wards wet blankets were placed upon the roof, and the frame colonnade that connected it with the burning building was torn down by means of ropes held in the hands of stout men.294
As the fire sped along the right wing it increased in power, and it was seen that the whole building, nearly four sides of a square, would be probably burnt. At the southeastern and southwestern angles of the building the frame-covered connections with other buildings were torn down, and it was determined to try the efficacy of blowing up a portion of the building. Two small kegs of powder were sent for and placed ahead of the flames. The town was now in intense excitement . . . . The inmates in the male department had been turned out, and were straying around or were being cared for as best they could. The females had been all taken to the old College building, and orders were given for everybody to stand aside and keep out of danger . . . . The people waited patiently until the powder exploded and sent flying in every direction the burning fragments of the building. The purpose intended was not accomplished, as the pieces of burning timber set fire to other parts of the building, and it was seen that it was impossible to do more than await the arrival of help from Richmond and look after the safety of the inmates. The doctors and their assistants had their hands full in this matter, as the men had been turned loose mostly to look out for themselves. None of the [inmates] of this asylum are of the [?] kind, but are mostly harmless. The result was that all of the men were found and only two women were missing.
One of these, Miss Smith, of Spotsylvania county, it was feared at one time had been burned to death. It was in fact so reported, but Dr. Moncure said he was positive that he took her and carried her out upon the veranda. "But, sir," said he, "the great trouble was to keep them from going back after they were brought out." Late in the day she was found safe in the house of a kind citizen.
The other missing patient was Mrs. Jane Jeffries, of Halifax. She was an old inmate, and was about sixty years of age. She was seen flying through the streets, and no one knew what had become of her until this morning, when her nude body was found in College creek, more than a mile away from the asylum.295
ORIGIN OF THE FIRE.
There was but one opinion as to the origin--and that was that it was caused by the electric light, but exactly how was not clearly demonstrated. The wires were run through the building in wooden tubes, and from some cause or other must have ignited it. Dr. Moncure thought it possible that it might have been caused by a rat gnawing the insulator. The United [Consolidated] Electric-Light Company within the present year put their light in the building, substituting it for gas. Up to the present time it has given satisfaction and made the grounds and buildings very attractive . . . .
WHAT WAS SAVED.
The houses burnt were the original asylum, with the improvements that were placed on them years ago. None of the modern buildings were injured, and it was said by Dr. Moncure yesterday that he had no doubt but that he could accommodate all the patients by crowding them a little.
Very little of the furniture was saved, but all of the records and papers pertaining to the asylum were in another building, and of course were not hurt. Amusement Hall, the male department, and in fact all the modern buildings are uninjured. The stores and commissaries are also safe . . . .
At 3 o'clock the engine was standing at the Williamsburg depot, horses, men, and machinery all in good plight for work, having made forty-eight miles in one hour and fifteen minutes. Unfortunately not a single preparation had been made to disembark the steamer and horses, and the Richmond boys had to go up in the town, secure timber, and make platforms before they could move toward the fire. It was two hours before they started, but they were soon at work after the trouble of getting off the cars was over. The hot walls and smoking coals of fire were all that was left for them to attend to, but they did this well. Dr. Moncure furnished the boys a good breakfast and treated them very hospitabily. They got back to Richmond late in the evening.616
The June 10, 1885, issue of the Richmond Daily Whig also reported the fire: 296
Last night about 10 o'clock the northeast end of the old portion of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum here caught fire near the roof. This portion was occupied by female patients. The wind was at first very slight and from the southwest. The fire had evidently been burning some time before it was discovered, or any alarm sounded; for, when the cry of fire was raised on the street, the end of the building where it originated was in a full and big blaze. The fire worked back against the wind, and in about six hours consumed all of the main quadrangle, including all the old buildings and the White House. This last building would have been saved but for having been recently connected with the male portion of the old structure. In consequence of this connection having been built, it is stated that the insurance companies lately withdrew a good portion of their insurance. The injury to buildings and furniture will amount to about $200,000, though better buildings could probably be replaced for a much less sum. The management of the fire is said to have been very bad, and the fire apparatus deficient.
Your correspondent will not go into a rehearsal of all the various statements made. Some say the fire originated from the electric light. This is improbable. There has been much complaint here as to the management of the asylum, and several of its employes and some officers are accused of drunkenness. Two female patients are reported killed-- one, name not known, burnt; one, a Mrs. Jeffries, about sixty years old, wandered off and was drowned. In view of all rumors and facts, great neglect, no doubt, was at the bottom of this affair. A searching investigation should be gone into at once, and the conduct of the Board on its various visits should be enquired after and ventilated. If officers have been dissipated, it should be known. If attendants were absent and not on duty to open doors for patients, it should be known. Now let all the facts and nothing else be told. The public will not be satisfied with the suppression of anything connected with this terrible and disastrous misfortune.617
At the July 1, 1885, meeting of the Board of Directors the superintendent, James D. Moncure, made his report of the fire: 297
On Sunday the 7th of June, as you are aware, one half of the Asylum was destroyed by fire of which I beg leave to submit a brief account. A short time before 9:45 P.M. while I was closing my correspondence for the morning mail I noticed that the Electric light suddenly flared up giving an unusually bright flash, which indicated to me that a short circuit had occurred some where, but as this had happened not unfrequently before & never resulted in the melting of the "Cut Out" where the wires had become overheated, it raised no apprehension in my mind of any danger. I retired to my private Appartments at 9:45 P.M. & looked at the clock as I entered the room. A short while after 10:25 my attention was called to the time by the entrance of a patient, who had permission to be out until 10:30 P.M. While communicating upon this patient's punctuallity a scream was heard, proceeding from the direction of the Centre Building, while this is not an uncommon occurance in an Insane Asylum, yet, something about it caused the lady with whom I was conversing to say that it did not seem like a patient. Immediately afterwards I heard the cry of "fire" coming from the street repeated three times in quick succession & as I rose to find out if this the most awful calamity, that can happen to an Asylum, had befallen us, I was met by Mr. McCaw, who had been sitting on the porch facing the building where the fire originated, with the statement that my fears had been realized I went out at once. A glance towards "Ward C" showed me where the fire was although at that time no flame was visible & but little smoke. The impression on looking at the building was that there was an unusual. & unaccountable light beneath the roof. I hastened to the Centre Building entrance & saw one of the night watch passing through the back door, it afterwards turned out that she & the other night watch were on their way to the Engine House to give the alarm of "fire". I ran up the steps to Ward "C", passing through the portion of this ward [Building F] on a line of the Centre Building entered the verandah & from thence passed in to the Wing [Building C] where the fire was. At the extreme end of the Ward, in the right hand corner as you entered there was what appeared to be a ball of glowing embers about six inches in diameter & about two inches from the ceiling. There was no appearance of flame, only a globular mass heated to redness. A feeling 298 of relief came over me as I felt confident that a bucket of water would soon extinguish all perceptible fire. Soon after I entered I met Miss L. McNair, the Attendant on that portion of the Ward, and the lady who first discovered the fire as her scream of alarm preceeded the cry of fire in the street by a short but a sensible period of time. She was of course very much excited but advanced with me towards the ball of fire. On reaching the Center of this Wing I heard the roaring of a flame & glancing upwards through an opening which had been made in the ceiling to let in light through the cupola, which had been constructed through & above the roof by some former Superintendent. I preceived a sheet of fire, running through the ventilating shafts 4 feet high by two & a half feet wide. I knew then that no efforts could save the building, as these ventilating shafts were constructed of laths & extended almost around the Centre Building & Wings. The fire had already extended forty or fifty feet & the fire apparatus at my command almost worthless.
I proceeded to the end of the Ward with Miss McNair, directed her to open the doors so as to save the patients, my first duty. I found the ball of fire to be located where there was an Electric "Cut out" & saw both wires in this fiery mass. I thought until informed otherwise by my Electrician, that it was the "cut out" from which the wires left that building to go to the Amusement Hall, but he informs me that from this "cut out" the wires went to the "New female building" where thirty five lights usually were burning. In going back with Miss McNair I saw Miss Georgie Smith reeling in a helpless manner & in a stupified condition from the effect of the "Epileptic State" in which she was on the day of the fire. I picked her up & carried her to the verandah & delivered her to the night watch, with instructions to carry her out. I then saw Dr. Clopton & hurriedly told him to remove the patients at once & returned myself to set the example going back to the extreme end of the Ward. I knew that the walls were insecure that they had been very much weakened by the efforts of my predecessors to give badly constructed wards all the light & ventilation possible. Nothing butthe plastering separated the flames from the patients & whenever the roof should cave in the floors would crush down upon the patients in the two 299 lower wards, without a sensible interval almost. I again met Miss McNair whose room was at the extreme end of this Wing. She was anxious about her trunk & things. I ordered her to let them alone & to go at once to remove her patients, which she did, losing her clothes & her money worth about ($80) eighty dollars which I would respectfully recommend should be refunded to her.
I then found the two Miss Tamplines, twin sisters, who occupied the room next to where the fire originated & who declined to leave their room to accompany me to the verandah, where I delivered them to the hands of some of the numerous people who had come to my assistance. I returned to the Ward & met the most excitable patient on that ward Miss Hall & carried her out by main force, where she was turned over to some welling helper in this hour of need. I returned to the Ward & went in every room, but found that every patient had been removed to a point of safety. I then went out of the building to make an effort to put out the fire. The yard was full of the citizens of Williamsburg all seeming willing to do what they could to save life & property.
I found that our Engineer, had promptly responded to the call for help, had already sent a fireman to the meadow to pump up the water. The tanks were full & a good supply of water on hand. Some parties were engaged in attaching the hose to a point near the burning building where I had started to have a fire plug made, but the couplings would not fit, so I directed them to attach the hose to the fire plug in the centre of the front yard. In the meanwhile, the new female building [Building M], very near the burning building was threatened & some parties from town & from the Asylum Mess. Gore & Dunnegan, Mr. A. Brooks Jr. & Mr. Garlick, especially climbed out upon the roof & prevented the cornice though scorched from catching by covering with wet blankets. I, at once directed the wooden connection to be knocked down & showed them how to do it. Every one seemed willing to help, but they wanted axes & time could not be spared to obtain them. As soon as the hose was attached I directed that it should be carried up to the roof, as it could not throw, for want of pressure, a stream half way to the roof. I then reentered the building, directing that the connection between the burning buildings & Wards 300 E. F. & G. [Building K] be torn down, I went through Ward B & assured myself that all the patients were removed & when I came out heard that there were no patients in Ward A, I proceeded to Ward "C" & found Mr. Eddeus endeavouring to extinguish the fire by the ward hose attached to the bath tub spiggot. It was too short & I went back to find another hose to attach to it. Finding that all efforts were useless, I telegraphed to Richmond for assistance.
Mr. A. Peachy suggested that we might blow up a part of the building by powder & possibly prevent the fire from spreading. He procured a small keg of powder which I directed to be placed where I knew the walls to be very weak, but before the fuse had set the powder on fire, the flames had swept through the ventilating shafts to the Centre Building & no good had been accomplished. Another Keg was procured, all that could be found in town & was placed beneath the ventilating shaft on the other side of the Centre building but here again the fuse failed to blow up the roof until after the fire had been carried beyond this point by the ventilating shafts. In the meanwhile just before this second explosion, the cry was heard that a patient was in the building, I started to her rescue, but Mr. Gerard, an Attendant, had preceeded me & as I reached the entrance, amid the falling cornice, I heard Mr. Gerard cry out to me, that he had gotten her out safely. She belonged in Ward "D" but had strayed into the Matrons Apartments.
Sometime before I had directed that the connection between the 3rd & 4th [Building E], 5th, 6th & 7th [Building L2] wards be torn down. This was done by the united efforts of the employees not engaged in guarding patients & by a large number of citizens both white & black.
Col. Ewell having offered me use of William & Mary College, I directed Dr. Clopton & the Matron to take the female patients there for their safety & protection. I then proceeded to the White House to make an effort to save that building. Mr. Brooks, the baker soon followed me & with five or six others made a gallant fight to save this building but the wind was blowing directly towards the White House & it became impossible to prevent its catching. I cannot close my report of this night of horrors without expressing my thanks to 301 the officers & employees for their prompt & intelligent assistance, although it was Sunday, when one half of the Attendants are usually off duty, they responded quickly & all were actively engaged in saving life & property, as also to the Citizens of this City for their valuable aid in saving many lives & the buildings that have excaped destruction. With few exceptions the voice of humanity superceeded the bitter feelings of the partisan, a common sympathy drowned the feelings of hatred, all worked for the welfare of the unfortunates, committed to your guardianship. To the credit of the City I wish to record the fact that throughout the fire I did not see one drunken man, until after all efforts to extinguish the fire, when I saw two young men who had taken too much to drink & one of them had worked nobly while it was of any use to work.
Your thanks are especially due to Mess. Logan, Davis, Gore, Owens, Dean, Sweeney, D. R. Jones, Chas. Graves, Galt, Mrs. Lacy, Misses Brooks & Southall from the City, the two Messr Brooks, Garlick, Gerard & the employees generally.
One patient a Mrs. Jeffries, escaped after she was taken out of the building & two others have been missing since the fire though no trace of their remains have as yet been found. I fear that they got back into the building & were crushed by the floors & walls falling upon them.
At your last meeting, a special Committee consisting of Messr. Bright, Booker & I were appointed to erect temporary buildings, but after due deliberation we find that we can accommodate the patients during the summer by flooring the basements & make them quite comfortable, thus avoiding the unnecessary expense of erecting temporary accommodations for them.
By the recent fire we have lost accommodation for 115 males & 99 females patients, I would therefore recommend that we make an effort to rebuild as soon as possible, One new building for males, with a capacity for 100 patients, the-plans of which together with the specifications I hereby submit. That as we have lost our Executive building containing the Offices, the Matrons, Stewards & Night Watch & Supt's apartments, we also erect an Executive Building as soon as practicable. That 302 a building similar to the male building be erected for 100 females. The new male building should be located to correspond with the present new female building. The Executive building should be located on the Asylum lot across the street from the Front Gate & the new female building facing the part at right angles with the present building. I would recommend the resetting of three boilers in the Engine room the old walls being in a defective condition. Also that a vault should be run from the end of the one under the Wards E. F. & G. to the new female building & from thence to the Amusement Hall sufficiently large to enable the Engineers to put in the heating pipes & to work upon them after they are put in position. As we were so unfortunate as to lose the covering for our steam pipes I recommend that a new supply be purchased. These necessary supplies & improvements will cost about $850.
As we lost over 230 bedsteads by the fire I would recommend you to purchase 100 Iron bedsteads, good ones to be used in the new male building; when completed at a cost of $8.50 & seventy eight wooden bedsteads at a cost of $4.50.
I would call your attention to the fact that we are without light. I think that if the Electric Light Apparatus is carefully overhauled it will give us as safe a light as we could have. On theoretic grounds it ought to be the safest light of all. All are attended by more or less danger & are liable to unforeseen accidents.618
The buildings destroyed by fire in 1885 were gradually replaced. In the 1950's a new facility was developed at Dunbar on Ironbound Road in Williamsburg. The last patients were transferred to Dunbar in 1970.
8. Ibid., p. 304-305; Dianne J. McGaan, "The Official Letters of Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, Governor of Virginia, 1768-1770," unpublished M. A. Thesis, College of William and Mary, 1971, copy in Research Department.
37. Ibid., p. 316.
60. Brock Collection, Box XL, Huntington Library. (M-153-2)
201. Journal of the House of Delegates of Virginia, 1853-1854 (Richmond, 1854), document #55.
Dr. The Hospital
|Decr. 1||To Cash pd. for 8 Lotts||112.--.--|
|Jany. 26||To do. pd. Benja. Powell||250.--.--|
|Apr. 24||To do. pd. for a plan of the Hospital||4.6.10|
|May 14||To do. pd. for recording a Deed||15.--|
|Decr. 24||To do. pd. Benja. Powell||400.--.--|
|30||To do. pct Ice. Presidt. Nelson||188.13.9|
|June 23||To do. pd. the Honble. Robt. Carter||90.5.6|
|June 4||To do. pd. for freight of the Steps||1.19.--|
|15th||To do. pd. Mr. Powell||200.--.--|
|Sepr. 15||To do. pd. do. Bal||592.12.11 3/4|
|Decr. 14th||To Norton & Son for the Hospital Steps||15.9.8|
|22||To Benja. Powell in pt. for the Inclosure of the Hospital Lotts||143.17.3 ¼|
|May 21||To James Anderson for Smith's work||14.16.1 ¼|
|Octor. 13||To Jas. Galt, pd. for diging a Well||7.18.6|
|April 17||To do. for Tubs||5.4.--|
|June 2||To B. Powell, bal. his Accot.||130.12. 0 ½|
|Octor. 13||To Jas. Wray for repg. the Windows||1.19.4|
|19||To Hum: Harwood, Work done||25.19. 8|
for Lunaticks Cr.
By the Sum allow'd p. Act of Assembly £2000.0.0338 Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 42, part 1 (1953), reprinted in Historic Philadelphia (1953), pp. 96-128 "Carpenters' Hall" Charles E. Peterson
James City County Petitions, 1777-1861 VSL #5 (M-34)
|Cathn. Harvey||New Kent||Oct. 4th. 1773||Discharged Oct. 21 1774 by Court|
|Zachn. Malory||Hanover||Do. 13th||Died July 4th. 1774|
|Mary Rosario||Jas. City||Do. 26th||Died April 23d 1774|
|Mary Rice||P. Edward||Nov. 3rd||Discharged June 15th 1775|
|Henry Dawson||P. William||Do. 10th||Died Nov. 7th 1776|
|Mary McKenny||Westmoreland||Decr. 17th|
|Sarah Rogers||Cumberland||Janry 20th 1774||Discharged May 3rd 1774 by Court|
|Charty [free black]||Richmond||April 18||Discharged Oct 21 1774 by Court|
|Nathn Fillips||Hanover||Do. 27th||Died August 5th 1775|
|Mary Armstrong||Louisa||Do. 27th|
|Wm. Scott.||Chas. City||June 20th.||Discharged June 15th 1775|
|Ann Bond||Williamsburg||Septr 11th||Discharged Febry 16th 1775|
|John Ealy||Surry||Decr. 3rd||Died Febry 2d 1775|
|Susanna Cleaments||Amelia||Janry 6. 1775|
|Mary A. Hamleton||Pittsylvania||June 13th|
|Thos. Roberts||Henrico||Nov. 11th||Discharged by Given bond Febry 20th 1776|
|Katron McCluer||Augusta||Decr. 4th||Discharged by Given bond Oct 5. 1778|
|Ann Pollard||Hamshire||March 26 1776||Died Janry 11th. 1777|
|David Sullivan||Essex||May 23d||Died Janry 22th 1777|
|Joseph Parish||Chas. City||June 25th||Discharged by Given Bond Nov. 27th 1777|
|Winny Fulks.||Richmond||Septr 8th||Died Nov. 15th. 1776|
|Wm. Thomas||Goochland||Do. 12th|
|Blazard Megruder||Buckingham||Do. 14th||Discharged by given bond Janry 9th 1777|
|Augtn Hargrave||Surry||Nov. 8||Discharged Decr. 13th 1776|
|Saml. Williams||Halifax||Decr. 10th||Discharged Do 13th Not a proper Object|
|Saml. Wills||Isle of White||Febry 1. 1777||Discharged March 6th 1777|
James City County Petitions, 1777-1861 VS L #5 (M-34 )
|Elizth. Cocke||P. Edward||March 16th|
|Sarah Rogers||Cumberland||May 4th|
|John Burn||Williamsburg||July 26th 1777||Discharged by Doctor April 23d 1778|
|H. Christopher||Mecklenburg||Decr. 2. 1777||Died August 17th. 1778|
|Fanny Eads||Amhearst||Do. 20th|
|Patrick Connely||Lancaster||March 1. 1778|
|Susannah Newman||Richmond||April 8|
|John Brown||Augusta||May 5th||Died Do 29th|
|Syria White||York||July 5|
|Martin M. Dormond||Fairfax||August 2nd|
|Ams. Burns||Fairfax||August 2nd|
|Jas. Allaway||Fairfax||August 2nd|
|John Brown||Isle of White||Nov. 8th|
The Commonwealth of Virginia Dr.
|July 7||To 170 bricks 9/6, & 4 Bushs. of lime 6/||15.6|
|To Altering A Chimney 12/ & 1 Days labour 6/||18.-|
|To Whitewashing 3 Rooms & 2 passages a 9/ (for Mad House)||2.5.-|
|March 31||To 400 bricks a 16/6 6 Bushs. of lime a 4/6 & mendg. Kitchg. Chimy 30/ & 1 dy. labr. 12/ (Mad House)||6.15.-|
|July 16||To 1950 bricks a £11.0.0, & 33 bushs. of lime at 6/, & 4 Days labour a 18/||34.19.-|
|To Building an oven £9.0.0 at the Madd House||9.-.-|
|[ £54.12.6 total]|
[Note: At the bottom of this page the total amounts of charges for the Palace, Capitol, Navy, Smith's Shop, Mad House, etc. are given and that for the Mad House corresponds with the total as these charges appear above.]
f. 31 [f. 35]
The Commonwealth of Virginia Dr.
|Decemr. 13||To Whitewashing 2 Rooms in Mad House 120/||£ 6.0.0|
…346 Humphrey Harwood Ledger B (1776-1794) CW photostats f. 95 [f. 100]
The Public for the Hospital of Lunatics Dr.
|August 22||To 2180 Larthes a 1/6 per C & 4250 4d nails a 4/||£ 2.8.6|
|To 152 bushels of lime a 1/. & 6 bushelsof Hair a 2/||8.4.-|
|To carting 5 loads of sand a 2/ & 17 day's labour a 2/6||2.12.6|
|To 43 days work a 6/. Repairing larthing & plastering; turning Trimers, laying Hearths & mending Chimnies|
|To 2334 Bricks a 3/. p C. & 14 bushels of White wash a 2/||4.18.-|
|To White washing 27 Rooms a 5/6||7.8.6|
|To do. passages 60/||3.-.-|
|To cuting through Wall. & working in Door frame||-.12.-|
|To 2 days labour a 2/6 & 30 bushels of lime||1.15.-|
|Sepr. 4||To 2800 Bricks 60/. & 8 bushels of lime 8/||4.12.-|
|To cuting out Cellar door frame. & working in one 5/||-.5.-|
|To do. three window frames a 2/6||-.7.6|
|To Repairing Well 15/. & rebuilding Oven 22/6||1.17.6|
|To do. underpining to smoke House & Stable 5/. & 22 bus. lime a 1;||1.7.-|
|To laying Kitchen floor & Hearth 30/. & repairing passage 3/||1.13.-|
|To larthing & plastering 25 Yards in Dairy & passage a 6 ½ d.||-.16.6|
|To White-washing Kitchen, Dairy & passage 20/||1.-.-|
|To 10 Days labour a 2/6||1.-.|
|October 2||By Cash in full of Joseph Hornsby Esqr.||£56.17.-|
|The Hospital for Lunatics||Dr.|
|Octor. 13||To 4 bushels of lime 4/. & mending plastering 3/6||-.7.6|
|To 1 peck of Hair /6d. & 1 days labour 2/6||-.3.-|
|To mending Back||-.3.-|
|See postea 36 fol: Ledger C||£ 0.13.6|
The Hospital (for Lunatics) Dr. Cr.
|April 28||To amt. brt. from folo. 130 ante Ledr: B||£-.13.6|
|To 1 peck of Whitewash 3 ¾ d.||-.-.3 ¾|
|To whitewashing 1 Room 3/9||-.3.9|
|Augt. 7||To 6 bush. of Whitewash a 1/3||-.7.6|
|To whitewashing 12 Rooms a 3/9||2.5.-|
|To do. 2 passages a 4/ & 2 Clossets a 2/6||-.13.-|
|To do. the stairway 2/||-.2.-|
|To 10 bushels of lime a 9 d. & 160 Bricks a 2/9||-.11.10 ¾|
|To mending plaistering in the Rooms & Brickwork round the Door 7/6||-.7.6|
|To laying an Hearth 2/6||-.2.6|
|Octor. 13||To 8 ½ bushels of lime a 9d.||-.6.42|
|To mending plaistering & working in a door frame &c 7/6||-.7.6|
|By the above, not settled of 13/6 as the acct. had not been audited||13.6|
|By Cash 27th Jan. 1791 of Jo. Hornsby||£ 5.7.4|
|[crossed out]||[charge illegible]|
|To pulling down a large Chimney||-.16.-|
|(see postea folo. 70)|
|The Lunatic Hospital||Dr.||Cr.|
|Octor. 7||To my a/c rendered||£ 19.9.7|
|By Cash of Joseph Hornsby in full||£ 19.9.7|
|£ 19.9.7||£ 19.9.7|
|3rd||To 12 days work of Nat a 4/||£ 2.8.-|
|To 42 bushels of lime a 9 d.||1.11.6|
|To carting a load of sand 1/3 & 2000 Bricks a 12/6||1.6.6|
|To 1000 laths 10/. & 3 days labour a 1/6||-.14.6|
|By cash in full||6.0.6||6.0.6|
|Caried to Folio 4 Ledgr. D|
|Hospital of Lunatics||Dr.|
|20||To mending oven & 2 Bushl. Lime||-.1.6|
|April 23||To ¾ of a days Hire of Nat||-.4.1 ½|
|Carried to Folio (14)|
|Octor. 20||By cash of Mr. Galt||30.-.-|
|The Hospital of Lunatics||Dr.||Cr.|
|£ S D||£ S D|
|Feby. 19||To 1 days Hire of Nat, & 2 Bushls. Lime a 9 d.||0.5.6|
|March 3d.||To whitewashing one Room a 3/. & ½ Busl. Whitewh. a 2/||-.4.-|
|To mending oven & z Bushl. Lime a 9d.||-.1.6|
|April 23||To ¾ of a days Hire of Nat a 4/||-.3.-|
Records of the Public Store, Williamsburg (M-1016-1)
Day Book, June 1, 1778-Nov. 13, 1778 n. p.
Williamsburg Sepbr. 3d 1778
p. order Governour
To 211 Yards Linen @ 3/
1 Bundle Thread 10/
67 2 Yards Brown Linen @ 3/9
2 lb. Brown Thread 7/6
for Shirts Shifts Beads &c for the Lunatics
Recd. by James Galt the above at the Soldiers prices
Wmsburg 25th November 1778
p. order Governor
To Blanketts for 2 @ 73/
To Ditto per 1
Recd. by James Galt
Wmsburg January 7th 1779
|Madhouse p. ord. Gov. deld. Jas. Galt|
|To 74 Yds plains 10/6 16 p. Stocking||@1 15/||50.17.-|
|20 Yds. Oznabrigs @4/ 21 p. Shoes||@ 25/||30.5.-|
|1 lb thread 15/ 6 dble doz. buttons Cal||@ 6/||2.11.-|
|14 yds. Shall. @ 10/9||@ 10/9||7.10.6|
Williamsburg Novembr. 6th 1779
Madhouse ord. Govr. in Council Sundry Clothing furnished for the Lunaticks Vizt.
16 pair Shoes 100 Yds planes @ 20/
19 pair hose @ 15/ 1 lb. thread 18/
15 doz. butts. (vest) @ 2/
7 doz. Coat buttons @ 4/
6 pair Shoes of M. Anderson C 16
p. Mr. Jas. Galt
Williamsburg 18th March 1780
Mad-house form. ord. Executive
|For 55 Yds. Coarse Cloth @ 20/||55.-.-|
|1 lb. Thread||12.6|
|p. Jas. Galt||55.12.6|
Williamsburg, November 24th 1778
Mad House pr. Ord. Governor Dr.
To Blankets for 2 @ 73/ 7.6.0
pr. James Galt
Williamsburg, January 4th 1779
|Mad House pr. ord. Governor||Dr.|
|To 74 Yds. plains @ 10/6 16 pr. hose @ 15/||50.17.-|
|" 20 Yds. Oznabrigs @ 4/ 21 pr. of hose @ 25/||30.5.-|
|" 1 lb. thread 15/ 6 dble. doz. buttons @ 6/||2.11.-|
|" 14 Yds. Shalloon @ 10/9||7.10.6|
Williamsburg, February 22nd 1779
|Mad House, pr. ord. Govr.||Dr.|
|To 10 Gallons Molasses @ 3/||1.10.-|
Williamsburg, November 5th 1779
Mad House pr. Ord. Executive Dr.
|16 pair Shoes C £8||128.-.-|
|100 Yds. planes @ 20/||100.-.-|
|19 pair hose @ 15/||14.5..-|
|1 lb. Thread||18.-|
|15 doz. Vest buttons C 2/||1.10.-|
|7 doz. Coat do. @ 4/||1.8.-|
|6 pr. Shoes of M. A. @ £6||36.-.-|
Williamsburg, 22nd March 1780
|Mad House form. ord. Executive Dr.|
|For 55 Yds Coarse Cloth @ 20/||55.-.-|
|1 lb. Thread||12.6|
|p. Jas. Galt||£ 55.12.6|
[Note: References to the Lunatic Asylum only appear 1841-1850. No figures are recorded for yearly rent or amount of tax.]
|Number of lots||Value of building||Value of lot and building||Explanation of alterations during preceeding year|
|1841||Lunatic Asylum||1||$ 250.||$ 300.||-via Dickie Galt-heretofore charged to the estate of Charles Hansford|
|1842||Lunatic Asylum||1||200||230||-via Dickie Galt-transferred in 1841|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||50||-via Jesse Cole|
|1843||Lunatic Asylum||1||200||230||-via Dickie Galt in 1841|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||50||-via Jesse Cole-transferred in 1842|
|1844||Lunatic Asylum||1||200||330||-via Dickie Galt in 1841|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||50||-via Jesse Cole in 1842|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||1200||1500||-via Scervant Jones|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||200||300||-via " "|
|1845||Lunatic Asylum||1||200||330||-via Dickie Galt in 1841|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||50||-via Jesse Cole in 1842|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||1200||1500||-via Scervant Jones|
|Lunatic Asylum||1||200||300||-via " "|
Note: The dates and names in this list are as accurate as possible but it should be remembered that there are no Directors' Minutes from 1801-1822 and the Annual Reports of the asylum did not begin until 1822. Also the Revolution and the Civil War caused disruption at the institution and therefore in the records. The changes in officers of the asylum are particularly difficult to follow during the Civil War and the years just following. For instance, Henrietta L. Bowden may have served as matron from about June through the middle of August 1862. Moses A. Harrell, appointed by Talbot Sweeney (attorney and collector of the asylum who took charge of the institution for a time in April 1863), may have served as steward for a short time.
|James Galt||Sept. 14, 1773-Dec. 8, 1800|
|William T. Galt||Dec. 16, 1800-July 1826|
|Jesse Cole||Aug. 5, 1826-Nov. 1, 1826|
|Dickie Galt||Nov. 1, 1826-Dec. 4, 1836|
|Henry Edloe||Jan. 14, 1837-June 20, 1837|
|Philip J. Barziza||June 20, 1837-June 1, 1841 (office abolished)|
|Dr. John de Sequeyra||Oct. 12, 1773-Feb. 1795|
|Dr. John M. Galt||Mar. 31, 1795-1808|
|Dr. Philip Barraud||Mar. 31, 1795-Dec. 1799|
|Dr. Alexander D. Galt||Jan. 7, 1800-April 24, 1841|
|Mary E. Galt (1st wife of James Galt)||1773-1778|
|Mary W. Taylor Galt (2nd wife of James Galt)||1786-1813(?)|
|Mary A. Galt (wife of William T. Galt)||1814(?)-1854|
|Henrietta L. Bowden||1854-1859(?)|
|Mrs. S. M. Christian||1859-1863|
|Elizabeth Clowes||October 14, 1865-1866|
|Martha A. Wootten||March 1, 1866-1893|
|Dr. John M. Galt II||June 1, 1841-May 18, 1862|
|Dr. Gillet F. Watson||June 5, 1862-August 1.862|
|Dr. P. Wager||August 1862-October 14, 1865|
|Dr. Leonard Henley||October 14, 1865-Mar. 1, 1866|
|Dr. R. M. Garrett||Mar. 1, 1866-Jan. 21, 1868|
|Dr. Authur E. Petticolas||Jan. 21, 1868-Nov. 1868|
|Dr. D. R. Brower||Jan. 1, 1869-Jan. 1, 1876|
|Dr. H. Black||Jan. 1, 1876-1882|
|Dr. Richard A. Wise||1882-1884|
|Dr. James D. Moncure||1884-Nov. 10, 1898|
|Philip J. Barziza||June 1, 1841-1852|
|Charles C. P. Waller||1852-1858|
|Robert P. Taylor||1859-1860|
|William R. C. Douglas||January 1861-June 1862|
|Henry M. Bowden||June 1862-August 1862|
|William R. C. Douglas||Fall 1862-April, 1863|
|Harrison Jones||April 1863-1865(?)|
|Robert P. Taylor||October 5, 1865-1867|
|R. H. Harrell||1867-1869|
|E. M. Lee||1869-1882|
|Thomas G. Peachy||1882-1884|
|C. P. Armistead||1884-1900|
|Joseph Hornsby||April 3, 1786-October 31, 1794|
|Robert Andrews||November 1, 1794- ?|
|Robert Greenhow||in office by 1804|
|Roscow Cole||in office by 1810-1835|
|Jesse Cole||March 1835-1846|
|W. W. Vest||1846-1852|
|J. H. Barlow||1852-1858|
|Peter T. Powell||1858- ?|
|Charles Hansford||October 14, 1865-1869|
|Charles B. Fry||1869-1870|
|John C. Davis||1870-1871|
|John C. Tilford||1871-1873|
|B. S. Scott||1873-1876(?)|
Note: Duties of the treasurer were turned over to the steward on October 6, 1876, by the Board of Directors.364
Made by the Legislature on account of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum, prepared in compliance with a resolution adopted by the House of Delegates on the 6th January 1854.
|1802, Feb. 1, ch. 2, For the lunatic hospital,||5000 00|
|1803, Jan. 28, ch. 1, For do. - - - -||5500 00|
|1804, Jan. 23, ch. 96, For an addition to the hospital,||1500 00|
|1804, Feb. 3, ch. 2, For the lunatic hospital,||5500 00|
|1805, Jan. 31, ch. 1, For do.||6500 00|
|1806, Feb. 5, ch. 2, For do.||6500 00|
|1807, Jan. 21, ch. 2, For do.||6500 00|
|1808, Feb. 9, ch. 2, For do.||8200 00|
|1809, Feb. 18, ch. 21, For do.||7500 00|
|1810, Feb. 7, ch. 2, For do.||7500 00|
|1811, Jan. 30, ch. 2, For do.||8500 00|
|1812, Feb. 7, ch. 2, For do.||8000 00|
|1813, Feb. 22, ch. 4, For do.||8000 00|
|1814, Feb. 12, ch. 5, For do.||6500 00|
|1815, Jan. 6, ch. 2, For do.||6000 00|
|1816, Feb. 24, ch. 2, For do.||6000 00|
|1817, Feb. 21, ch. 2, For do.||8000 00|
|1818, Feb. 19, ch. 2, For do.||8000 00|
|1819, Mar. 10, ch. 10, For do.||8000 00|
|1820, Feb. 19, ch. 2, For do.||8000 00|
|1820, Feb. 17, ch. 33, For additional building,||4000 00|
|1821, Mar. 5, ch. 2, To the support of the lunatic hospital||10000 00|
|1822, Feb. 23, ch. 2, To do.||10000 00|
|1823, Feb. 21, ch. 5, To do.||10000 00|
|1824, Mar. 9, ch. 2, To do.||10000 00|
|1824, Mar. 5, ch. 90, For the erection of an additional brick building not exceeding||5000 00|
|1825, Feb. 18, ch. 2, To the support of the lunatic hospital||12500 00|
|1826, Mar. 8, ch. 2, To do.||13000 00|
|1827, Mar. 8, ch. 2, To the support of the lunatic hospital||13000 00|
|1828, Feb. 28, ch. 2, To do.||12000 00|
|1829, Feb. 28, ch. 2, To do.||12000 00|
|1830, Feb. 17, ch. 6, Patients to be clothed from the penitentiary, as far as practicable.|
|1830, Feb. 22, ch. 2, For support,||10000 00|
|1831, Apr. 16, ch. 56, For support,||9000 00|
|Mar. 22, ch. 50, Cloth and shoes to be furnished from the penitentiary|
|1832, Mar. 21, ch. 2, For support,||9000 00|
|1833, Mar. 1, ch. 2, For support,||10000 00|
|1833, Mar. 1, ch. 29, For extension of buildings,||6000 00|
|1834, Mar. 11, ch. 2, For support,||9000 00|
|1834, Mar. 12, ch. 19, For extending and enlarging,||9000 00|
|1835, Mar. 5, ch. 2, For support, less amount of clothing furnished from penitentiary,||13000 00|
|1835, Mar. 12, ch. 17, To complete additional building||2660 00|
|1836, Mar. 23, ch. 2, To support, less amount of clothing from the penitentiary,||15000 00|
|1837, Mar. 29, ch. 2, For support, less amount of clothing from the penitentiary||15000 00|
|1837, Mar. 31, ch. 19, For the purchase of land, carriage and horses, and other articles,||1000 00|
|1838, Mar. 27, ch. 2, For support, less amount of clothing from the penitentiary,||16000 00|
|1838, Apr. 6, ch. 23, For deficiency in the appropriation for the past fiscal year,||649 56|
|1838, Apr. 3, ch. 21, For extension of the buildings,||12000 00|
|1838, Apr. 3, ch. 21, For enclosures and other buildings,||5000 00|
|1838, Mar. 8, ch. 22, For deficiency in appropriation for the past fiscal year,||360 07|
|1839, Apr. 5, ch. 3, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||16000 00|
|1840, Mar. 17, ch. 17, For do.||21000 00|
|1841, Mar. 22, ch. 5, For do.||18000 00|
|1842, Mar. 26, ch. 9, For do.||18000 00|
|1842, Mar. 26, ch. 19, For extension of the buildings, not exceeding,||12000 00|
|1843, Mar. 27, ch. 7, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||18000 00|
|1844, Jan. 29, ch. 9, For do.||18000 00|
|1844, Feb. 12, ch. 10, For furnishing the new addition,||4000 00|
|1844, Feb. 14, ch. 11, For repairing and remodeling the body of the old building||5000 00|
|1845, Feb. 17, ch. 3, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||25000 00|
|1846, Feb. 28, ch. 2, For do.||25000 00|
|1847, Feb. 17, ch. 4, For do.||25000 00|
|1848, Apr. 4, ch. 4, For do.||25000 00|
|1848, Jan. 17, ch. 12, For extension of the buildings, not exceeding||25000 00|
|1849, Mar. 15, ch. 2, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||25000 00|
|1849, Jan. 13, ch. 13, For the purchase of furniture for additional building, clothing for additional patients, and excess of price of buildings over the appro priation of 1848,||6266 00|
|1850, Mar. 14, ch. 1, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||30000 00|
|1850, Jan. 22, ch. 17, For arrears on building account, to provide additional accommodations for free colored insane persons,|
|to purchase furniture for new building and to furnish the asylum with a sufficient supply of water,||11500 00|
|1851, Mar. 7, ch. 2, For support, less amount of clothing from penitentiary,||30000 00|
|For conveyance of insane persons thereto,||3000 00|
|1852, Apr. 24, ch. 1, Certain property if exempt from taxation.|
|1852, June 5, ch. 20, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||30000 00|
|For conveyance of insane persons thereto,||2000 00|
|1852, Apr. 14, ch. 426, To Scervant Jones, for corn meal furnished in 1847,||790 00|
|1853, Apr. 8, ch. 9, For support, less am't of clothing from penitentiary,||30000 00|
|For conveyance of insane persons thereto,||2000 00|
|1853, Jan. 21, ch. 144, For repairing or rebuilding the granaries, stables and other out houses, and remodeling the building used for colored patients, and for the purchase of the Six Chimney lot, $ 661,||7000 00|
|$ 821925 62|
|For additional buildings, purchase of land, carriage and horses, furnishing buildings, and procuring a full supply of water,|
|For support,||724999 62|
|$ 821925 62|
The hospital at Williamsburg was in operation during, perhaps before the revolution: the list commences with 1802. Prior to 1819 so much of the appropriations as the wants of the institution required seem to have been paid: since that time they have been paid so far as demandable prior to the 1st October 1853. Prior to the fiscal year 1850-'51 large sums were paid out of the treasury to officers and others for the transportation of patients to the asylums; but as these sums were not appropriated to these institutions, they were not considered as embraced by the resolution of the house of delegates.
Auditor Pub. Accts.
Auditor's Office, Feb. 8, 1854.
NOTE-- Add clothing from the penitentiary, not deducted from the appropriations, with which the asylum was charged, $ 3363 24.
Note: Because of incomplete records the location and amounts of certain land acquired by the hospital cannot be determined.
|Date:||Description:||Page in report:|
|December 1770||Lots 80-87 from Thomas Walker||13|
|1797||Lot 77 (possibly also Lots 76, 78, 79) from Sally Curtis||98|
|August 1837||About 15 acres from Jesse Cole (included 6 acres used for a garden and possibly Lots 88-95 and the Burwell lots in Block 44)||220|
|June 1840||Lots 72 and 73 (house and lot of Charles Hansford)||225|
|December 1842||Lots I and K (Travis House) from Scervant Jones||228|
|December 1851||Lots 1-8 (Six Chimney Lot) from William Peachy||243|
|July 1855||Lots 64-71 (Griffin Lots) from William Pettit; asylum exchanged Lots 68-71 with Gabriella Galt for Lots 74 and 75 (Galt Cottage)||252|
|November 1855||Portions of Nassau and Ireland Streets from the city||252|
|1857||Lots 64 and 65 sold to Wilson C. Durfey||252|
|1867||Portions of Ireland and King Streets from the city||276|
|April 1869||One acre adjoining the city cemetary donated by Robert Bright to be used as an asylum cemetary||277|
|September 1869||One hundred acre farm adjoining asylum from W.F.B. Milliken||277|
|August 1873||Lots L and M from Mary Hurt||282|
|1875||Lots 194-196, 202-204 (Bright Lot)||283|
Department of Architectural Research. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 1974. Plat showing approximate locations of Public Hospital, Galt Cottage, and Galt Graveyard.372
Department of Architectural Research. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 1973. Conjectural North Elevation of the Public Hospital based on Robert Smith's specifications and archaeological evidence.373
Department of Architectural Research. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 1973. Conjectural first floor plan of the Public Hospital based on Robert Smith's specifications and archaeological evidence.374
Walnut Street Jail. Robert Smith. Built 1773-76; demolished Circa 1835. Engraving by John Bower (fl. 1809-1819). Published for Thomas Condie, bookseller. 13-4 x 7-3/8. Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. From George B. Tatum, Penn's Great Town, 250 Years of Philadelphia Architecture Illustrated in Prints and Drawings (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1961), illustration 21. This engraving is included to show the similarity between the Public Hospital in Williamsburg and another public building designed by Robert Smith.
Desandrouins. Carte des Environs de Williamsburg en Virginie ou les Armees Francoise et Americaine ont Campes en Septembre 1781. [By] Desandrouins Armee de Rochambeau, 1782. Enlarged section of map shows Public Hospital with hip roof. one outbuilding is shown in yard and three houses are shown across Ireland Street on properties later purchased by the asylum. Map #61-223 in Research Department. original: Paris, Service du Genie, #47, Fascicule 8, Carte # 29.
Unknown. Frenchman's Map. 1781 . Enlarged section shows Public Hospital with one outbuilding on lot and houses across Ireland Street on property later purchased by the asylum. The outbuilding shown here appears in a different location on the Desandrouins map. Original: College of William and Mary.
Benjamin Bucktrout. Plat of Williamsburg. 1800. Added to 1803. Enlarged section shows cupola on Public Hospital and spring on lot 77 purchased by asylum in 1797. Original: College of William and Mary.
Unknown. Floor and elevation plans for Public Hospital. [1825?] From Wyndham B. Blanton's Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century (Richmond, 1931), opposite p. 293. Shows north ends of [Buildings C & D] and walls connecting them to [Building A]. Part of the walled back yard including first floor plans of kitchen and laundry appears at bottom of drawing. [Building B], completed 1805, is not shown. Possibly the work of Dickie Galt, keeper, who was paid $100 for a plan of the hospital drawn by him in 1829, Location of original is unknown.379
T. C. Millington. North view. Lithograph ordered in 1845 by John M. Galt, II, superintendent. [Building A] is shown with third floor, added in 1840; new cupola, added about 1840; and new portico, added in 1845. [Buildings C & D] are shown with 1835 additions to north ends and porticoes added in 1845, Galt Collection.380
Thomas Wood. Lithograph for hospital circular. About 1846. Galt Collection.381
L. A. Ramm. East view and west view. About 1855. West view shows [Buildings D, H,& I] and hospital wall along Henry Street. East view shows [Buildings C & J] and hospital wall along Nassau Street. To the north of [Building C] the East view also shows the corner of a building which did not exist when this drawing was made. From printed copy on asylum stationery. Galt Collection. Also in Annual Report, 1855-6 & 1856-7.382
L. A. Ramm. North view. About 1855. Large building at left on northern end did not exist when this drawing was made. A building was not erected on that site until 1883 [Building M]. Roof lines of [Buildings I & J] are visible. Wrought iron gate for France Street entrance purchased in 1854. Fountain installed in 1855. From Annual Report, 1855-6 & 1856-7, Galt Collection.383
John Graham (patient at Eastern Lunatic Hospital). Circa 18591862. In this center section of a pencil drawing of Williamsburg, [Building I] is the most visible of the buildings belonging to the asylum. The farm in the foreground later was purchased by the asylum. Original: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.384
Lefevre F. Cranstone. Circa 1860. Watercolor of [Building I] showing wall and outbuildings along Henry Street. Original: Department of Collections, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.385
Photograph taken during the Civil War. Shows statue of Lord Botetourt in front of [Building A]. The statue was moved from the College of William and Mary to the asylum for safekeeping in 1862.. It was returned to the College by 1864. Stereoscopic slide copy in Colonial Williamsburg archives.386
Photograph of south facade [Building A] taken before the fire of 1885. Corner of Galt Cottage is visible at left. Given to Colonial Williamsburg by John Henderson. Original copy in Department of Architectural Research, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.387
Photograph taken Circa 1895-1902. [Building I] shown with 1885 addition to the front. Thurman Building at center of photograph built in 1885 after fire.388
Unknown. Conjectural drawing of Public Hospital as it appeared in 1773. From Annual Report, 1906. Also in Annual Report, 1926.389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399
|A Original Building||Completed 1773|
|Enlarged 1840 (third story added)|
|B Convalescent House||Completed 1805|
|Torn down c. 1854|
|C East Building||Completed 1821|
|Enlarged 1835 (Ca)|
|D West Building||Completed 1825|
|Enlarged 1835 (Da)|
|E West Wing and Veranda (G)||Completed 1840|
|F East Wing and Veranda (G)||Completed 1844|
|H Doric (White) Building||Completed 1850|
|I Gothic (Tower) Building||Completed 1849|
|Enlarged 1885 (Ia)|
|J Jacobean Building||Completed 1854|
|K Laundry (later used for patients)||Completed 1848|
|Enlarged 1872 (Ka)|
|L1 Kitchen-Chapel Building||Completed 1872|
|L2 New Male Wards||Completed c. 1881 (built on site of L1)|
|M Female Building||Completed c. 1883|
|N Amusement Hall||Completed c. 1885|
Research for a house history of the Public Hospital resulted in the accumulation of six volumes of notes which had to be rendered useable to write the report. We prepared a working index as a tool to reach information in the notes about the history, operations, and buildings of the hospital. The index is strictly a subject index and is arranged to facilitate the objectives of the house history as stated in the Introduction:
This report covers the period 1766-1885 but the treatment of the subject is purposely uneven. Considerations of eventual reconstruction and interpretation of the original building, limitations of surviving documentation, and questions raised by the archaeological excavations determined the scope and type of information included in the report. As is generally true in house histories prepared by the Research Department, the period covered begins with the earliest written references to the building or lot. In this case the absence of eighteenth and early nineteenth century James City County court records limits references to the early history of Lots 80-87 until the surviving reference to the purchase of the lots for a hospital in 1770. Surviving records of the hospital, at the Virginia State Library and at Eastern State Hospital, provided important details of the building and operation of the institution. However, a gap in the minutes of the Court of Directors between 1801 and 1822 created a void which is only partially filled by other source material. Because of this gap in the records and the fact that annual reports of the operations of the hospital were not required until 1823, we have written the report to cover in as much detail as the sources permit the establishment, erection, early operations, and expansion of the hospital 1766-1829. The second part of the report 1830-1885 though less detailed continues to describe the expansion of the institution. Though our primary interest was to determine the use and changes made to the original building through the years, it was necessary to keep track of overall ii changes at the hospital to discern how this affected the original building.
Entries are made by the page number of the item in the notes followed by the date of the item shown in parentheses. For example, in the entry "Cooking apparatus, 1235 (1856)", 1235 is the page number of the item and (1856) is the date of the item.
General information about the Public Hospital is listed under "asylum."
Entries such as [Building A] refer to buildings designated by arbitrary code letters in the text of the report. A site plan and key to the code is located inside the front cover of the index.
See individual buildings for entries which have been identified with a particular building. For information on specific parts of buildings see entries under basements, closets, pipes, windows, etc.
Sub-entries are generally chronological.
The notes of extracts from the minutes of the directors were indexed through the year 1890. Although the notes include copies of annual reports through the year 1900, references in the annual reports were included in the index only through the year 1888.
Despite its obvious limitations we feel the index could be sufficiently useful to persons interested in details of the iii erection and furnishing of buildings at the Public Hospital to warrant this typed copy.
Patricia A. Gibbs
Linda H. Rowe