Raleigh Tavern Historical Report, Block 17 Building 6AOriginally entitled: "Raleigh Tavern Refurnishing"

Betty C. Leviner


Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 1637
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library

Williamsburg, Virginia



Written and Compiled by
Betty C. Leviner
Collections Division

On September 16, 1932, the Raleigh Tavern, Colonial Williamsburg's first exhibition building, opened to the public. In the almost sixty years since that date, the tavern has seen architectural and furnishings changes. These changes have resulted from increased knowledge about eighteenth-century material culture as well as the social use of architectural space in a commercial, as opposed to domestic, interior. Despite refinements over the years, individuals from several, different departments still believed that the Raleigh could be brought more in line with the Anthony Hay inventory taken at the Raleigh on February 2, 1771. Consequently, when it was decided to close the tavern for a mechanical overhaul in the fall of 1989, the Collections Divisions proposed that an overhaul of the tavern's furnishings be undertaken as well.

To this end, on October 25, 1989, the curatorial staff met to reexamine the inventory of Anthony Hay's estate taken on February 2, 1771. Prior to this meeting, Jan Gilliam and Betty Leviner talked with both Pat Gibbs and Mark R. Wenger to get their respective departments' current thinking on the Raleigh. In addition, they talked with Robyn Scouse about new ideas for the tavern's furnishings so Collections could avoid any interpretive problems that our furnishings recommendations might cause. Their comments were taken into consideration at our October 25 meeting and have been incorporated into the following report.


When Alexander Craig, James Southall, and Edward Charlton began their court-ordered task of inventorying Anthony Hay's estate, they started on the second floor of the Raleigh. They made their way through what breaks down into 12 separate spaces identifiable as bedrooms (see Appendix A for breakdown of the inventory). These rooms all begin with a listing of bedsteads and, with one exception, end with a table. The one exception concludes with "1 Pine Table 3/9" and "1 Bason stand, Bason and Bottle."

Curiously, at least by modern standards, there are no chairs listed for the second floor. This omission of seating furniture suggests that the bedrooms at the Raleigh were primarily for sleeping and little else. Pat Gibbs confirms this interpretation and takes it one step further. She has observed that no one of note seems to have lodged at the Raleigh. With the possible exception of a one-night stay by Washington early in his Burgess career, she has been unable to document another well known, eighteenth-century Virginian staying at the Raleigh. She theorizes that the noise resulting from several, first-floor rooms set aside for socializing caused possible patrons who knew the tavern to lodge elsewhere, such as Vobe's or Campbell's, while still dining or clubbing at the Raleigh.


In evaluating the types of patrons who might have stayed at the tavern, Kim Funke looked into the possible sorts of lodgers that we might interpret at the Raleigh. After some preliminary research into primary sources and several conversations with Pat, Kim made recommendations that included a newly-elected Burgess from the Back Country lodging at the Raleigh (see Appendix B). This was the suggestion that we decided to implement since it ties in with the interpretive goals, as outlined in Teaching History at Colonial Williamsburg, for the Raleigh, as well as make for a point of contrast with Wetherburn's clientele. Also, as Graham Hood has noted, it gives us an opportunity to discuss the transfer of political power westward within Virginia, a transfer that culminated in the removal of the capital to Richmond in 1780.

Beyond the choices of men who did stay at the tavern, another factor to consider is the choice of sleeping space and the possibly flexible nature of bedrooms in an eighteenth-century tavern. While beds in passages were the least private ones available, the notion of what constituted the best rooms may have varied depending upon the season and an individual traveller's needs. As Liza Gusler and Betty Leviner have pointed out (see Appendix C), a bed with curtains may have been preferable for some patrons during the winter while others would have preferred a room with a low-post bed if that room had a fireplace.


One problem that we have encountered with the second floor of the Raleigh in the past is that only half is open to the public. Liza Gusler, however, made a suggestion that would help us to overcome this obstacle. Liza proposed opening the door at the top of the back stairs which visitors currently use to return to the first floor. While the area could still be used for a break room and offices, groups would be able to see the full extent of the second floor. When the tavern reopened May 13, 1990, we implemented this suggestion as an experiment to see if it would work, given the possible intrusions of ringing telephones and employees in modern dress going in and out of offices. However, according to Kate McBride, the experiment seems to be going well and the intrusions have been minimal.

As for furnishings for the passageway, Ron Hurst has used the back, second-floor passage for the space needed to install "1 Chest 10/. 1 Cloaths press 20/." that is indicated for the upstairs. This would not have been easily done with the space available on the front part of the building. Also, this passage provides us with the space for installing the "11 old prints the Ceasars 12/" that concludes this entry in the inventory. These prints have been varnished and directly nailed to the wall, a hanging technique that we very seldom have a chance to illustrate in the exhibition buildings. Melissa Mullins, an intern in the Collections Division, has done a study of prints in tavern contexts (see Appendix D) that reconciles 5 this treatment with the evaluation assigned the prints by the inventory takers.

By showing the full extent of the second floor, even with only half of it actually furnished, we are able to suggest the full expanse of the tavern's second floor. It is one of several ways in which we can contrast the Raleigh with Wetherburn's more restricted and intimate second floor; it also singles out the Raleigh from its other local competitors just in terms of sheer size.

After finishing with the upstairs, the inventory takers moved onto the first floor as indicated by the entry "1 Glass Lanthern at the stair foot." Following is a long listing of objects relating primarily to food and beverage service. The list then goes on to itemize furnishings for a room. Based on the architectural historians' theories about the building's development and given our breakdown of the Hay inventory, we believe that this room, which also contained the dining and drinking items, referred to above, was the first room to the west of the entrance passage at the Raleigh and served as the establishment's bar. Incidentally, this room and the one directly to the west appear to be the earliest part of the tavern according to the architectural historians' examination of the existing foundations (see Appendix F for Mark R. Wenger's report on the architectural evolution of the Raleigh).


As for a space specifically referred to as a bar, Harwood's ledger (Appendix F) confirms that there was a "barr" during Southall's tenure. There are four references to such a space. The location of the bar in this part of the Raleigh makes sense in terms of what we think were the uses assigned to the rooms immediately to the east and west, i.e., the public dining room and a club room respectively. The bar area, with its punch strainers and ladles, wine glasses, cups and saucers, knives and forks, etc., would have been in a central location where it could have serviced the rooms to either side as well as the Apollo Room to the north. (See Appendix G for Rob Hunter's evaluation of Hay's ceramics.)

Unfortunately, the tavern as reconstructed leaves us little leeway for changing the location of the bar without major alterations in the present club and bar rooms. Consequently, we have left the bar and club room in their current locations; Robyn believed this would not cause any serious problems for interpreters in explaining the building to visitors. However, we have upgraded the rooms' furnishings to bring them more in line with our understanding of tavern interiors for the third quarter of the eighteenth century. For example, the painted Windsors in the Bar, while typical of New England and English taverns, have been replaced with more appropriate leather-bottomed chairs.

After surveying the contents of the two rooms to the 7 west of the front door, Craig, Southall, and Charlton seem to have moved into the public dining room, formerly the Billiard Room. Mark, Pat, and several curators had come to that conclusion some years ago; namely, that the three men had taken this route along the front of the Raleigh, especially since the public dining room made more sense on the front of the tavern while a billiard room, rented out to private groups, seemed more logical in a less accessible part of the first floor. The architectural historians think that this east room and the passage directly to the west of it were the first set of spaces added to the original Raleigh. The public dining room's furnishings include "3 large oval Mahagany [sic] Tables," "1 Mahogany Corner Do.," "12 Chairs," and "2 Looking Glasses." The name of the room has been shortened to "Public Room" since public dining room does not appear during the period. Mark has provided documentation from a Norfolk tavern for the choice of this room name (see Appendix H).

At this point the three men moved into private areas of the tavern, i.e., living spaces for individuals living or working at the Raleigh. We know from a Trebell family letter recently acquired by CW that Anthony Hay moved his family into the tavern after purchasing it (see Appendix I). Unfortunately, this section of the tavern was not rebuilt in a way to accommodate what were probably three chambers, and speculation about what was really there architecturally in the eighteenth century can be 8 only that -- speculative. Mark, as noted above, as well as Pat, believes there was the possibility of a shed addition that ran along the back of the building, something similar to the shed portion of Shield's. An investigation of the foundation walls indicates that this was the next-to-last alteration made to the tavern in the eighteenth century. But, once again, only major architectural alterations would provide us with the appropriate rooms to show the private spaces inhabited by Anthony Hay and his family.

Fortunately, the interpretive thrust of the tavern is political while the appointed task at Wetherburn's is discussion of family and society. Interpreters at the Raleigh can allude to the family living at the tavern while keeping their tours focussed on political topics. One option we do have for showing a glimpse of someone responsible for the smooth operation of the tavern is with the former Innkeeper's Room. One complicating factor with using this room for a 1770 function is that Architectural History now believes that this space was the "new room" referred to in a 1786 entry in Humphrey Harwood's ledger book. However, the Raleigh reinterpretation team decided that the importance of showing at least some daily aspect of the staff needed to run the tavern was more important than being strictly faithful to the architectural evidence.

Collections has isolated a section of the inventory we 9 believe to be the barkeeper's room at the Raleigh. In it were a press bedstead, a 40/ desk, a 40/ bowfat, and more items relating to dining and drinking. We have installed objects representing these entries in the Barkeeper's Room, where they illustrate to a an extent some of the personnel who helped the tavern function as a commercial establishment. Since Architectural Research felt the room was overly embellished architecturally, especially in what would have been a less public space, Ed Chappell recommended that it be painted Spanish brown, a darker color, to help downplay the woodwork. As for what is a Colonial Revival paint scheme in the rest of the tavern, Nicholas Pappas has requested that the Architectural Research Department investigate appropriate period paint colors for eighteenth-century tavern interiors (see Appendix J).

After inventorying another family room at the tavern, the inventory takers proceeded into the Apollo Room and the Daphne, the second addition made to the Raleigh according to the evidence of the foundations. The photographic evidence also indicates that the two rooms were joined to a separate, preexisting outbuilding, previously thought to have been a room added on to the tavern around 1780. The Raleigh's billiard table may have been located in this section of the tavern. Virginia Gazette advertisements of taverns for sale in the eighteenth century not infrequently mention the presence of a billiard house, and it is a strong possibility that this was the case at 10 the Raleigh (see Appendix K). Thus, the separate "billiard house" turned into the "billiard room" with the connecting addition of the Apollo and Daphne.

Unfortunately, from a furnishings standpoint things get somewhat jumbled at this point. The three rooms seem to have been lumped together with a grouping of tables (with the exception of the billiard table) followed several lines later by "33 Chairs, 1 Close stool Do." Other items for the three rooms include "l Pine Press," more dining and beverage equipment, eleven brass sconces, one large old carpet, and two mahogany fire screens. In analyzing what appear at first glance to be unrelated items, we believe that various furnishings can be assigned to the Apollo, Daphne, and Billiard Rooms. Starting with the latter room first, we believe the it served as the billiard room for the tavern, for the privacy factor noted above. Also, the progress of the individuals conducting the inventory supports its location at the first-floor, north end of the building.

The Daphne was the middle of the three rooms and would have served as a private room to be rented out for a variety of uses, such as punch parties, private dinners, or gaming (see Appendix L for a reference to Washington spending an evening in the Daphne). We will be using the room primarily to illustrate private dinners that will change seasonally as part of our dining 11 installations in the Historic Area.

As for the Apollo Room, the Lossing drawing and comments of 1859 (see Appendix M) confirm the appearance and location of the Apollo Room where Jefferson states that he danced. The room, however, would have served not only as a space for balls and assemblies, but also as a room large enough to accommodate banquet-size dinners or lectures given at the tavern.

In preparing the above, I need to credit not only the members of the curatorial staff, but also those who have worked on the Raleigh in particular as well as taverns in general. As mentioned earlier, Pat Gibbs and Mark R. Wenger have been generous with their time and research. Mark and John Davis, Curator of Metals, worked on the problem of grates versus andirons within the tavern and their conclusions are contained in Appendix N. Within Collections, earlier work done by Mary Hoffschwelle, Ron Hurst, Sumpter Priddy, and Margaret Pritchard has been invaluable in leading us to the conclusions outlined above. While the refurnishing proposal encountered some criticism from outside departments, the project as implemented is one of which we can all be proud. The Raleigh Tavern has a coherence that it previously lacked. The large scale of its operations, both in terms of bedrooms available on the second 12 floor and rooms available for entertainment on the first floor, are more obvious thanks to its new furnishings. This, in turn, makes the Raleigh's colonial importance more obvious just in terms of sheer size. Also, the nature of its furnishings has been refined to reflect the types of food and beverage consumption that took place there with an emphasis now on punch, tea, and coffee as well as elegantly laid tables, all accouterments of the genteel establishment that constituted the Raleigh Tavern in the eighteenth century.

B. C. L.
June 1990

RR163701Raleigh Tavern - 1st Floor

RR163702Raleigh Tavern - 2nd Floor

November 2, 1989
To: Betty Leviner
From: Kimberly Funke

Subject: Some Thoughts Regarding the Refurnishing of the Raleigh Tavern, Second Floor

Per your request, I have done some probing into the likely candidates for staying at the Raleigh Tavern and the types of services that would have been available. I have spoken to Pat Gibbs several times, scanned the Charlton account book, looked at numerous tavern scenes, read several secondary sources (including "The History of Salem Tavern" which was filled with primary references), and, as you know, read advertisements in the Virginia Gazette, all of this with the hope of finding some clues to help us. The following is what I have for now. Perhaps with more time, research into personal account books and diaries will expand on these ideas.

Summation of talks with Pat Gibbs

Who stayed at the Raleigh tavern?

Negative evidence suggests that the well-known figures, such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, etc., did not stay over night at the Raleigh Tavern. While there is evidence that they came to the tavern to eat, drink, game or meet, they did not lodge there. Pat suggests that the Raleigh was too loud and busy to allow for a good night's sleep. There is also no evidence that students in the eighteenth century were staying at the Raleigh Tavern (however we do know that they stayed there in the nineteenth century).

She also believes that it is unlikely that merchants, burgesses, or any traveler who regularly frequented the town and was acquainted with the Raleigh (and therefore its noise) would have lodged there.

The people staying at the Raleigh Tavern were probably: 1) not repeat visitors 2) not staying for long periods 3) perhaps foreigners or non-Virginians who had heard about the Raleigh but did not know of its sleeping conditions and/or 4) first timers.

What types of special services were available for these visitors?

Hot water for shaving and bathing.
Clothes sent out to be laundered.
Private meals.


Charlton Account Book

While it is clear from the account book that Charlton was servicing out-of-towners, the account book gives no clues to the possibility of Charlton servicing these clients any place other than his shop.

Tavern Scenes

Graphics illustrating tavern bedchambers are of very little help. Those that were found were either nineteenth century, or suggested rented, long-term lodging rather than short-term lodging for travelers.

"History of Salem Tavern"

This summary of the establishment of a tavern in Salem, North Carolina is of some help. (of course, we must keep in mind the religious nature of this town.)

While special services such as hot water for bathing and shaving must have been available in many taverns, little actual documentation can be found. One reference found here is of interest:

"Day before yesterday two men arrived from Kentucky Settlement, going as Deputies to the Assembly. They spent the night in the Tavern, and yesterday as they were leaving they stole Br. Meyer's spectacles, and also stole a razor from Schober, who had shaved them..."
Records of the Salem Tavern give us insights into the tavern keeper and family's lifestyle:
"Br. Meyer has spoken with Br. Graff and begged earnestly that we should make provision for their two oldest children as they cannot keep them longer without harm to their souls."
Perhaps there is a correlation with the Raleigh Tavern where it made sense, and not just for space reasons, for Mr. and Mrs. Hay to have a nursery for their children in a separate building out back.

It is also interesting to note that the "Instructions for the Host of the Salem Tavern" specify:

"That the Host is allowed to take in traveling pedlars, but he is not allowed to give anyone, be he stranger or acquaintance, a separate room to sell his wares. They must remain in the guest room. If they do not wish to exhibit their wares there, they must go elsewhere..."
Perhaps some Williamsburg taverns provided rooms for such activities. The Bull's Head Room at the Wetherburn's Tavern comes to mind.


Virginia Gazette

It is clear from the advertisements that the Raleigh Tavern was definitely a meeting place for merchants, businessmen, and politicians. It is also evident that "the famous people" did come to the tavern for entertainment. Several advertisements give some indication of the types of people who were lodging at the tavern.

"This is to give notice that the executors of Colonel Charles Carter, deceased, will attend at Mr. Anthony Hay's in Williamsburg, from the 1st until the 6th day of May next, to receive the payments then due...(March 31, 1768)
"...He also stole and carried with him a pair of new leather boots...He has been traced as far as Mr Anthony Hay's in Williamsburg. where he quartered on the Thursday night following...(December 24, 1767)
"The Subscriber, who lodges at Mr. Finnie's in Williamsburg , teaches the Art of Fencing, Dancing, and French Tongue; and is ready to begin as soon as he can get a reasonable Number of Scholars."(March 20, 1752)
"The Subscriber, who has lately entered into the RALEIGH Tavern, begs Leave to solicit the Customers of that House for a Continuance of their Favours, and he hereby acquaints the Gentlemen who lodge there in publick Times that their Rooms will be still kept in Order to receive them ... "(March 7, 1771)
This last advertisement suggests that some of the lodgers were indeed repeat visitors to the Raleigh Tavern.

So what scenarios can be built from this? A Foreign or non-Virginia visitor may be difficult to show with accessories. There are subtle differences that the visitor may not pick up on. But we could try. Here are a few ideas:

Lodgers at the Tavern

  • 1)French visitor, here to teach. Accessories to include a "fussy" silk hat complete with plume and a package very clearly addressed to him.
  • 2)Father and son staying at the tavern while they await the son's entrance into William and Mary. (They could even be from the back country.)
  • 3)Executors of an estate.
  • 4)Painter staying at the Raleigh for a short period while he either arranges an exhibit or tries to sell his work.
  • 5)Newly elected burgess from the back country.
  • 6)Lodgers in Williamsburg for Publick Times.

Services at the Tavern

  • 1)Shaving basin and bottle (listed in inventory) to indicate the extra service of hot water and the possibility that a servant could have been hired to shave you.
  • 2)Clothes brush (listed in inventory) to indicate that laundry could have been sent out to be cleaned or even brushed there on the premises.
  • 3)Private meal in upstairs room.

As you can see, the above notes and ideas are one step in determining how the second floor should be furnished. I would like to also suggest that we show at least one bed unmade to imply that beds were made up as needed.

K. S. F.

RR163703Print - Bedroom at an Inn



(5) That at all times, someone must be at hand to receive the guests and take care of them. Also the Host must look to the proper fencing in of the yard; must look after the different outhouses and such like buildings must prevent association of the guests with the inhabitants of the kitchen and house and seriously to prevent any games of cards or other games from being played in the tavern

(6) That he must adhere to the rate of charges as fixed by the law, and not overcharge, but that he sell the liquors and wines at the low prices that prevail in the settlement when they are fetched by the quart in the town and not drunk in the tavern. The above tavern rate, as well as the license, has been changed from time to time by the court, and the Host must never omit to procure the correct schedule of charges, and as soon as possible, according to law, and display it. Also he must pay the license tax, which has been, or maybe yet, put on liquors, and be punctual and faithful in the payment of it, and in this respect, as in all others, to follow the law of the land.

(7) That he keep correct books of account, in which he names of all debtors and creditors of the tavern are shown and that he is not allowed to write down any debts or drinking bills on the walls, but instead, write them on paper or into the books.

(8) That if by mistake he has collected counterfeit not spend it again, but keep it until he can return it to the one from whom he received it, but if the person in unknown, it must be destroyed and the deficit fall on the tavern.

(9) That he may allow members of the Congregation, who own businesses in the Place, to take a stranger into the tavern, and treat him according to circumstances, with food and drink, but he must not allow a company inhibitants of the place to set themselves together as guests, in order to drink and feast, which is seriously prohibited and the Host is permitted, and even commanded, to admonish and speak seriously to such inhabitants of Salem who come together for gossip, or loafing, or unnecessary acquaintance with strangers, or curiosity, when found around or inside the tavern, and to remind them to go to their business, or if it be Sunday, to go to their respective dwelling houses.

(10) That the Host is allowed to take in traveling pedlers, but he is not allowed to give anyone, be he stranger or acquaintance, a separate room to sell his wares. They must remain in the guest-room, If they do not wish to exhibit their wares there, they must go elsewhere, which anyway would be the wisest course, until once a proper law is fixed according to which one may act.

(11) That in purchasing supplies, fruits, and other current articles, he must not, of his own accord, change the prices fixed by the Board, until they themselves change it.


(12) He is not allowed to engage in any other business besides the keeping of the tavern. He his not allowed to buy any other articles of merchandise to sell it again, except things for the business of the tavern, he may take such things as barter, but he must be very careful from whom he takes such things in barter, which ought not to be done except in cases of necessity in order to avoid the bad appearance of injuring another's business.

(13) He must also in time look after all the repairs inside and outside the house but without undertaking anything new or abolishing anything old, for instance, altering existing arrangements, changing small or large buildings, new undertakings, borrowing or loaning money, fencing in land, haying land, or things of this kind. He must not undertake, without taking councel with those in authority but is in fact, expected to consult with the Warden of the Congregation about his business with open confidence and to let him know his requests in ample time.

(14) The Host is not permitted, without special permission, to receive anybody, be he healthy or sick, as a permanent lodger, but when persons of high rank or standing, to whom one is obliged to show deference come, or if he meets with suspicious persons, he should, in every such case, give notice to the officials of the Congrgation without delay.

Duly signed in the Assembly of the officers of the Salem Congregation January 26, 1775.

Jno. George Wallis
Traugott Bagge
Jno. Casper Heinzman
Jno. Heinrich Herbst
Niels Peterson8

In addition to his regular Tavern duties the keeper frequently served on various boards of the community and held offices of trust. Jacob Meyer, for example, was, for a time, the Curator (business manager) of the Single Sisters Diacony.


The tavernkeeper's job set him apart from the rest of the community in that his family life could be conducted in the usual manner. We find that in 1780:

Br. Meyer has spoken with Br. Graff and begged earnestly that we should make provision for their two oldest children as they cannot keep them longer without harm to their souls.9


This custom eventually became a requirement and the keeper had to place his children in other homes for supervision. When one looks back into the records it is easy to understand why it was necessary to take such precautions:

There is occasional talk about all the disorder that is going on in the Tavern, and it was desired that the untimely visit of Flex would stop for awhile, and that there shall be supervision so that the Single Brothers and Sisters to not have opportunity to be there together.10
Br. Meyer reports that he has suffered great loss when soldiers were stationed last week in the Tavern... It was stated that the Tavern saves our Brethern from being burdened with having the soldiers in their own homes, Therefore, it cannot be expected that the Tavern bear all the (financial) burden by itself... We take our fair share in the calamities of such times and we must never believe that the children of God should be free of such plagues...11
He [Captain Paschke] left a very sick soldier here to be nursed, but it was necessary to move the man from the Tavern into the adjoining smoke-house, as the stench was intolerable.12
Br. Meyer's life was in danger. Several scamps aimed their weapons at him to force him to give them brandy, but the officers interfered and they went on, though they took various things with them on pretense of borrowing them.13
Day before yesterday, two men arrived from Kentucky Settlement, going as Deputies to the Assembly. They spent the night in the tavern, and yesterday as they were leaving they stole Br. Meyer's spectacles, and also stole a razor from Schober, who had shaved them. Schober rode after them and got back his razor, but he did not know of the loss of the spectacles, or he could probably have re-claimed them also.14

These hardships were perhaps too much for the keeper and his wife at times, and we find that they became lax in their management of the Tavern, only to be reprimanded by the leaders of the community.


VIRGINIA GAZETTE, Purdie and Dixon, ed., March 7, 1771, 3:1


WILLIAMSBURG, March 7, 1771.

"THE Subscriber, who has lately entered into the RALEIGH Tavern, begs Leave to solicit the Customers of that House for a Continuance of their Favours, and he hereby acquaints the Gentlemen who lodged there in publick Times that their Rooms will be still kept in Order to receive them. He flatters himself that he will be able to give Satisfaction; As no Pains, not Cost, shall be spared for that End.



VIRGINIA GAZETTE, Purdie and Dixon ed., Mar. 25, 1773, 3:2


BEGS Leave to acquaint the Ladies and Gentlemen of Williamsburg that he has left Norfolk , and is now settled in this City; where he will continue to teach the FRENCH (that polite and agreeable Language so universally courted in the most genteel Companies) in its greatest Purity, attended with its Elegancies of Pronounciation, as well as the greatest Care taken to ground them in the Rudiments of Grammar. Those who will do him the Honour to become his Pupils will please to apply to, or leave a Line with, Mr. Gabriel Maupin , and they shall be punctually answered."

[at Market Sq. Tav. This date]

PAG [This ad: also appears in the April 1 issue.]

RALEIGH TAVERN - Alexander Finnie 1752

VIRGINIA GAZETTE, Hunter ed., March 20, 1752 s, 1:2

"March 20, 1752.

"THE Subscriber, who lodges at Mr. Finnie 's, in Williamsburg , teaches the Art of Fencing, Dancing, and French Tongue; and is ready to begin as soon as he can get a reasonable number of Scholars.
Le Chevalier de Peyronny ."


RALEIGH TAVERN - Alexander Finnie 1752

VIRGINIA GAZETTE, Hunter ed., July 10, 1752, 3:2"ADVERTISMENTS.
"THE Subscriber takes this Opportunity of informing Gentlemen, and Others, That he proposes to teach Military Discipline, according to the new Way of Generals Bland and Bleckny . The best Instructions and Attendance will be given by
Their humble Servant,
Simon Fraser .
N.B. He will teach in either Town or Country, and is to be met with at Mr. Finnie's , in Williamsburg ."


Newspaper - December 12, 1767

May 3, 1990
To: Interpreters at Raleigh and Wetherburn's Taverns
Via: Ms. Robyn Scouse
From: Liza Gusler and Betty Leviner
Subject: Private and Public Sleeping Accommodations

The sleeping accommodations at any tavern had to be flexible to meet the needs of a given night's residents. Tavern keepers were required by law to have some fixed rate sleeping space available to travelers, but, of course, they made more money by renting more luxurious spaces with extra amenities.

What then was considered luxurious? The privacy afforded by a closable door or bed curtains? Or the warmth of a fireplace? A traveler's choice may have depended on whether he knew the occupants of the next room, or on the season. In other words, during the winter one may have preferred a room with a fireplace, albeit strange bedfellows, to a more private, but unheated chamber. It may have depended upon how many requests the tavern keeper had for the cheap public sleeping space as opposed to more expensive quarters.

The three east chambers (over the public dining room) at the Raleigh may have been rented on occasion as a private suite in the same way as the three rooms over the great room (Mr. Page's room, the end room, and the wheat room) at Wetherburn's. When necessary, any of these spaces could have been rented as public sleeping space. The rooms that served as passages were more likely used as public sleeping space on a regular basis.


Copy to: Mr. Graham Hood


^8. William S. Pihol, "The Old Salem Tavern," read to the Wachovia Historical Society, 1908 and published in an unknown local newspaper. Clipping of which is contained in Wachovia Historical Society Scrap Book No. 1, pp. 195-198. The "Instructions for the Host of Salem Tavern" were translated by Mrs. J. Wurreschike.
^9. Salem Elders' Conference Minutes, Jan. 19, 1780, translation by [illegible]
^10. Aufscher Collegium Minutes, Sept. 23, 1780, translated by Erika Huber.
^11. Congregation Council Minutes, July 3, 1780, translated by Erika Huber.
^12. Fries. Op. cit., Salem Diary, Aug. 11, 1780.
^13. Ibid. Mar. 6, 1781.
^14. Fries. Op. cit., Salem Diary, Apr. 6, 1778.
May 17, 1990
To: Margaret B. Pritchard
Betty C. Leviner
From: Melissa A. Mullins
Subject: Methods for Hanging Prints

After extensive research using print sources and period inventories, I have been able to conclude several things about the display of prints in the eighteenth century. Prints were displayed in a variety of ways. They could be framed and put under glass or framed with no glass. They could also be varnished and framed, then hung on the wall, or they could be simply nailed to the wall unframed. These methods apply to maps as well but quite often they were placed on rollers and hung on the wall instead of being framed. Many print sources show frames ranging in style from elaborate gilt ones to simple wooden ones with no ornament. Obviously, the prices of framed prints varied dramatically depending on the elaborateness of the frame and the expense of the materials used.

Glass also added several shillings to the price of a print while varnishing was much less expensive (see memo from Margaret Pritchard to Graham Hood and Wetherburn's Tavern File dated October 29, 1984). In inventories, prints may be referred to as "framed with glass" or "framed and glazed" or simply "glazed." According to The Oxford English Dictionary (1961) the term "glazed" could refer to glass or to a transparent coating applied to the surface of an object, such as a painting. The meaning of "glazed" is not always clear in inventories. The value of each item may or may not be helpful in determining whether glass or varnish was used. Robert and Thomas Kennedy advertised in the Pennsylvania Chronicle in 1768 that they could do "glazed pictures in the present English Taste," also they could "varnish maps of the world at five shillings, and all other pieces in proportion."

A variety of sources show unframed prints nailed directly to the walls of private residences and public buildings--specifically taverns. There is no evidence that elegantly furnished private rooms in taverns--ones like the Great Room at Wetherburn's Tavern--displayed prints in this way, but there is ample evidence that public dining rooms and spaces such as passages utilized a variety of decorating techniques (see Attachment 5).

By examining print catalogs, Sayer and Bennett's Catalogues specifically, a determination of print values can be made. An average print "finely" engraved cost approximately 1s or more or perhaps slightly less when in a set. Smaller prints could cost considerably less, averaging around 6d or more. For large prints the price varied considerably depending on the exact size and detail of the engraving. "Cheap prints" could cost as little as 6d each. Coloring prints could at least double their value. often framing added much more than double the price. As mentioned earlier, glass added at least several shillings to the cost of a print.

In addition to print sources, inventories offer substantial evidence that unframed prints were commonly used. Some inventories specify framed prints and unframed prints while others make no mention of framing at all. Some inventories include the description "framed" for some prints and make no specifications for other prints listed on the same inventory. It is logical to assume that when an inventory has a notation for framed prints and then leaves off any mention of frames for other prints that those with no mention of frames have no frames to note. Attachments 2-4 show situations such as this and give the corresponding values for the prints (entries for 1740 and 1767 in Attachment 2 contains listings for framed and unframed pictures). These lists were compiled from inventories and other accounts dating 1740-78. The items with an asterisk* are those which did not have any description for framed or unframed. By comparing the values for the framed and unframed prints it becomes apparent that many of the prints with no notation for framing were indeed unframed. Many of these values are compatible with the prices for unframed prints in the Sayer and Bennett's Catalogue (see Attachment 1).

Research by Ron Hurst in 1980 ("Prints as a Source for the Re-Creation of Eighteenth-Century Virginia Tavern Interiors") revealed that prints in private rooms in taverns were in every case framed. Public rooms and gaming rooms could have either framed prints or prints nailed directly to the walls. Subsequent research confirms those conclusions (see Attachments 5 and 6), thus providing a rationale for evaluating the print references listed in Wetherburn's Tavern and the Raleigh Tavern inventories. Wetherburn's inventory includes 8 Prints at 0.16.0 (2s each) in the Bull Head Room, 8 Large Pr[ints?] at 0.8.0 (ls each) in the Mid[dle Room], and 14 Small Prints at 3[illeg]O (assuming they are 3.0.0 the value for each would be approximately 4/3) in the Great Room. The Raleigh Tavern inventory lists 11 old prints the Ceasars 12/ (approximately 1/1 each) and 14 Coloured Prints 20/ (approximately 1/5 each).

Comparing these costs with those in Attachments 2-4 confirms that the 14 small prints in the Great Room at Wetherburn's Tavern were more than likely framed and probably had glass as well. The 8 prints in the Bull Head Room may have been framed but they may or may not have been under glass. As for the 8 large prints in the Middle Room, documentary evidence suggests they were unframed and nailed directly to the wall since 1s is a low value for a print specified as "large".

The Raleigh Tavern inventory can be interpreted similarly. The 14 colored prints are valued relatively low for unframed colored prints at 1/5 each (see Attachment 1). Therefore, it is unlikely that they were framed. As for the 11 Caesars, they may or may not have been framed since there is ample evidence to support either conclusion. According to Sayer and Bennett's Catalogue, portraits could be fairly expensive, whereas 1s was a fairly common price for an average uncolored print. This value is also common in inventories. Unless the portraits of the Caesars were in very poor condition, a price of 1/1 each probably would not be substantial enough to include a frame. The listings in Attachments 1-4 contain many examples to support this conclusion. on the other hand, listings for 1741, 1744, 1753, 1761, 1768, and 1775 in Attachment 2 have entries that are of similar value to the Caesars and they were framed, although some of the entries specifically stated that the glass was broken, or that the prints were small or in poor condition.

Size is an important determinant for the value of these prints. Small heads listed in Sayer and Bennett's Catalogues for 1766 & 1775 are on average worth approximately 6d. The average and larger sized portraits are worth much more. The Caesar prints earmarked for installation in the Raleigh Tavern are of an average size and would be appropriate for tavern decoration. There are two additional references to Caesar or Roman Emperor prints in inventories. John Burdett's 1746 inventory lists 12 Roman Emperor prints at 2/6. William Dudley in 1749 had 4 Caesar pictures in "the back room" at 30/0. Sayer & Bennett's Catalogue 1766 also has a listing for Roman Emperors and Empresses on Royal Paper (pages 158-159), although, unfortunately, it does not contain prices for the prints. Royal Paper varied in size from 22 ¼" X 18" to 26" X 20" with the standard size being 25" X 20" and its multiples (Dictionary and Encyclopaedia of Paper and Paper-making). A 1763 advertisement included in Attachment 4 of a Southwest Prospect of the German Lutheran Schoolhouse in the City of Philadelphia gives an idea of price for prints on Royal Paper. The unframed Prospect cost 1/6 which is 5d more than the Caesars in the Raleigh Tavern inventory. This comparison supports the conclusion that the Caesars could have been unframed.

The location of prints within a tavern is of primary importance when evaluating the elegance (or lack of it) of their display. The Great Room at Wetherburn's was used for elegant private functions and the 14 small prints reflect that in their value. The Middle Room, presumably used as a public dining room, contained prints of low value. At the Raleigh Tavern, neither of the two listings for prints show a great deal of expense. The prints also do not appear to have been in private spaces used by the public for special functions. The new interpretation of the Raleigh inventory and its relationship to room locations (see memo from Betty Leviner to Dennis O'Toole dated November 13, 1989), suggests that the 11 Caesars were probably located in a passage upstairs. The 14 colored prints may have been located in a domestic room downstairs that was used by the tavernkeeper or his family (see memo from Margaret Beck to Eleanor Duncan and Anne Gray dated February 12, 1982). The close proximity of the two listings for prints to items indicating bedchambers or sleeping spaces supports these conclusions. Furthermore, while the Raleigh Tavern was supposedly an upscale tavern where important people congregated and socialized, the upstairs appears to have been furnished for sleeping and little else which suggests a setting that was clearly secondary to the downstairs.

Another issue surrounding display styles for prints that needs to be addressed is the pattern of hanging them on the wall. Print sources indicate that prints and paintings were hung, framed or unframed, in more than one way. Often they were hung across the wall singly and were of similar sizes or at least presented a nice pattern of different sizes (see Attachment 6). This way of hanging objects on the walls was common in elegant rooms. Prints and paintings of different sizes were also hung at more than one level, creating patterns on the wall. On the other hand, print sources also indicate that objects were hung on walls randomly. Prints of all sizes could be hung or nailed to the walls interspersed in no clear aesthetic or geometric pattern. One print even showed them overlapping and crooked on the wall. Framed and unframed prints and paintings could be interspersed as well. Sometimes they are shown displayed at eye level, other times hung high on the wall or above doorways. These techniques of display could be utilized in the historic buildings as interpretive devices for the public.

If you have any questions about any of the above I will be glad to discuss them with you at your convenience.



Attachment 1 Sayer & Bennett's Catalogue of Prints containing information from the 1766 and 1775 catalogues.
Attachment 2 Prints/Pictures Listed in Inventories
Attachment 3 Prints/Pictures Listed in Tavern Inventories
Attachment 4 Print References from Sources Other Than Inventories
Attachment 5 Tavern scenes showing framed and unframed prints and notices displayed on the walls. The rooms include public dining rooms, gaming rooms, billiard rooms, and a bedchamber.
Attachment 6 Scenes depicting prints and paintings hung in various ways on the walls. The rooms include club rooms, elegant dining rooms, public dining rooms, private rooms, rooms that can be rented for special occasions such as punch parties (other than elegant private rooms), billiard rooms, and bed-chambers.


Coloured Prints in Sets
16 Views of Stow Gardens 16s. the set; coloured, 1.11.6
12 Landscapes 1.1.0 the set; coloured, 2.2.0
10 Ruins of Palmyra, & Views of Antient Rome0.10.0 the set; coloured 1.4.0
12 Original Sea Pieces and Shipping0.12.0 the set; may be coloured
12 Fruits and Flowers (neatly engraved on twelve copper plates)0.12.0; coloured 1.10.0
12 Collection of Curious Flowers0.12.0; coloured 1.5.0
Prints in Inventories that Correspond to the Catalogue
12 Months of the Year 1s each
(See Attachment 2, 1757 and 1772; Attachment 3, 1761 and 1772; Attachment 4, 1770-71 to compare prices)
12 Months of the Year 6s the set
(See Attachment 2, 1757 and 1772; Attachment 3, 1761 and 1772; Attachment 4, 1770-71 to compare prices)
4 Seasons of the Year 1s each
(See Attachment 2, 1750 and 1753; Attachment 4, 1769 to compare prices)
4 Seasons of the Year 2s the set
(See Attachment 2, 1750 and 1753; Attachment 4, 1769 to compare prices)
4 Prints, the Ages 1s each
(See Attachment 2, 1750 to compare prices)
4 Ages 2s the set
(See Attachment 2, 1750 to compare prices)
6 Arts & Sciences 1s each
(See Attachment 2, 1766 to compare prices)
6 Prints of the Sciences 3s the set
(See Attachment 2, 1766 to compare prices)
7 Cartons at Hampton-Court 7s
(See Attachment 2, 1750; Attachment 4, 1753 to compare prices)
7 Famous Cartons of Raphael Urbin3s the set
(See Attachment 2, 1750; Attachment 4, 1753 to compare prices)
Greenwich Hospital 1s; coloured 2s
(See Attachment 2, 1750 to compare prices)
12 Celebrated Beauties from Sir Godfrey Kneller's paintings at Hampton-Court1s each
(See Attachment 4, 1753 to compare prices)
12 Whole Lengths of the Celebrated Beauties as painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller at the Royal Palace of Hampton-Court1.1.0 the set
(See Attachment 4, 1753 to compare prices)
An Exact Front View of the Temple of Solomon1s
(See Attachment 2, 1757 to compare prices)


Entries grouped by year are from the same inventory or source. Entries for "pictures" could mean prints or paintings since that term was often used to refer to both. If the writers used "picture" to mean painting then the value would be higher than that for a print. Due to the range of prices for prints it is difficult to determine whether "picture" refers to an expensive print or an inexpensive painting. Those entries with an asterisk do not have any references indicating whether or not they were framed.


Inventory of William Dunlop, Prince William Co. Will Book C, 1734-1744, pp. 290-296
11 pictures with glasses (3/2 ea.) 1.14.10
*21 do. (1/11 ea.) 2.0.3
Sr. Wm. Temple & Ld Shaftsbury in frames & glass with gold edges7/0 Str.
(3/6 ea.)
Ld Sommers, Dk Buckingham, Ld Godolphin, Ld Oxford, Bolingbroke, Ld King, Milton, Gay, Howe, & Mr. Howard, in frames & glasses with gold edges (3/ ea.)1.10.0 Str
*5 maps (2/6 ea.) 12/6
6 pictures without frames (1/ ea.) 6/0


Inventory of Majr: Genl: Spotswood, Orange Co. Will Book No. 1, 1735-1743.
20 small prints with glasses 1.4.0
(4 broke) (over ½ ea.)
42 prints with glasses (4 broke) 3.3.0
(1/6 ea.)


Inventory of John Hamilton, York Co. Wills & Inventories 19, 1740-46, pp. 238-39.
4 pictures in frames & 6 do. without frames7/6


Inventory of James Jones, King George York Co. Inventory Book, 1668-1795
28 pictures & frames (3/ ea.) 4.4.0


Inventory of James Geddy, York Co. Wills & Inventories 19
5 pictures in frames (8/ea.) 2.0.0
10 prints in frames (1/ ea.) 10/0


Inventory of Matthew Hubard, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-59
3 pictures in gilt frames & 5 other do. (in the best room)15/0


Appraisal of the estate of Archibald Taylor, Norfolk Co. Deed Book 1, 1736-53, p. 319a.
*25 pictures of Don Quexote (4/ea) 5.0.0


Inventory of John Osheal, Norfolk Co. Wills Inventories 1, 1736-1753
12 prints with frames 1.10.0
(in the hall) (2/6 ea.)


Honorable William Dudley, Esq., Roxbury Suffolk Co., New England Rural Inventories pp. 146-147.
pr. of Fillagre sconces and 6 2.0.0
*old pictures (in hall chamber)
3 pictures in gilt frames 40.0.0
(in the hall) (13.6.8 ea.)
*4 Metzotinto pictures of Indian Kings 2.8.0
(in the hall) (12/ ea.)
*4 Caesar Pictures (in the back room) 1.10.0
(7/6 ea.)
*12 small pictures (in the Red Room Chamber) (1/3 ea.)5/0


Inventory of Edward Smith, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-59
8 prints in frames (3/3 ea.) 1.6.0


Inventory of James Wray, York Co. Wills & Inventories
8 pictures with glasses 1.5.0
(over 3/1 ea.)
*8 cartoons (over 3/1 ea.) 1.5.0
*4 Seasons (6/3 ea.) 1.5.0
*4 Ages (6/3 ea.) 1.5.0
*2 Greenwich Hospitals (5/ ea.) 10/0
*2 maps (5/ ea.) 10/0
*2 Horses (7/6 ea.) 15/0
*A parcel old prints 12/0


Inventory of Major Henry Turner, Hanover Parish Clerk, King George County, House of Burgesses
5 maps in gilt frames (12/ ea.) 3.0.0
69 pictures in gilt frames 6.0.0
(over 1/8 ea.)


Inventory of Samuel Peachey, Richmond Co.
11 small maps with rollers 3.0.0
(over 5/5 ea.)
*the 4 quarters of the world 2.10.0
(12/6 ea.)
*1 map of the world in a sheet 4/0
*7 sheets of prints (1/ ea.) 7/0


Inventory of Susan Collet's, York Co. Wills & Inventories, 1745-59
2 pictures in gilt frames (5/ ea.) 10/0
14 pictures in black frames with gold inside (10/ ea.)7.0.0
*3 pictures (1.0.0 ea.) 3.0.0
A large ruin in gilt frame 10/0
5 pictures in black frames 8/0
(over 1/7 ea.)
6 pictures in gilt frames (10/ ea.) 3.0.0
8 do in plain frames (2/6 ea.) 1.0.0
3 Philosophers in Black [frames?] 10/0
(¾ ea.)


Appraisement of estate of John Walker, Isle of Wight Will Book 6, 1752-60
2 pictures in gilt frames (1/3 ea.) 2/6
*4 Seasons (7 ½d ea.) 2/6
*2 pictures (7 ½d ea.) 1/3
*1 map of the world 5/0
*7 small maps (3d ea.) 1.9


Inventory of Kenneth McKenzie, York Co. Wills & Inventories
*12 fruit pieces (8/4 ea.) 5.0.0
*3 large maps (¾ ea.) 10/0
*5 small maps (4/ ea.) 1.0.0
*12 old pictures (1/ ea.) 12/0


Inventory of Sarah Green, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-59, pp. 512-513.
*12 Pictures of the Seasons 4.16.0
(in the hall) (8/ ea.)
*1 Solomons Temple (in the hall) 1/3
*1 historical picture Rachel & Leah 5/0
(in the hall)
*3 old maps of the world (in the hall) (1/ ea.)3/0


Inventory of James Steptoe, Westmoreland Co. Wills & Deeds 13, 1756-61
*4 maps (2/6 ea.) 10/0


Capt. Ellyson Armestead, York Co.
5 maps with glasses (5/ ea.) 1.5.0
*4 large maps (10/ ea.) 2.0.0
*3 maps with cuts (10/ ea.) 1.10.0


Inventory of Francis Bremar, Charleston Co., South Carolina, Wills, etc., Vol. 85B, 1758-1761, p. 563.
15 prints with glasses over the gilding work (40/0 ea.)30.0.0


Inventory of William Hunter, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-71
1 sea piece in a gilt frame 15/0
(in the parlour)
19 prints with glass in frames 3.0.0
(in the parlour) (over 3/ ea.)
1 landscape in a frame 5/0
(in the chamber)
1 piece the Ruins of Rome in a large gilt frame3.0.0
(in the chamber)
1 small piece in a gilt frame 15/0
(in the chamber)
2 small do with glass and frames 2/0
(in the chamber) (1/ ea.)
7 prints in frames with glasses 7/0
(upstairs) (1/ ea.)
3 pictures in frames with glass 3/0
(upstairs) (1/ ea.)
*24 pictures and maps (at the office) 1.10.0
(1/3 ea.)


Appraisement of Mayr Burnett's Estate
1 picture with gilt frame 1.10.0
(Hamilton . . . )


Inventory of Col. John Tabb
1 doz. prints in frames (1.3.4 ea) 14.0.0
*5 large maps (12/ ea.) 3.0.0
*1 small do. 2/6


Benjamin Prat, Suffolk Co., Mass., Rural Inventories, p. 200
1 picture by Hogarth, coloured & gilt frame1.0.0
(in little parlour)
*1 Douglass Map of the New England Governments 6/8
(in the hall chamber)


Inventory of James Mills, York Co. Wills & Inventories
23 small prints without glass 1.5.0
(over 1/1 ea.)
*22 prints (12/6 ea.) 13.15.0
*11 prints (over 5/5 ea.) 3.0.0
*4 maps (3/9 ea.) 15/0


Inventory of Hugh Orr, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-71
6 views with gilt frames (8/4 ea.) 2.10.0
*9 pictures (over 1/1 ea.) 10/0
*21 large prints & maps 5.0.0
(over 4/9 ea.)


Inventory of Thomas Gordon
18 coloured prints w/gilt frames 23.0.0
(over 1.5.6 ea.)


Inventory of Joseph Royle, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-1771
16 heads in frames double gilt 12.0.0
(15/ ea.)
*6 prints ruins of Rome (5/10 ea.) 1.15.0
*2 do. ints original splendour (6/ ea.) 12/0
*6 do arts and sciences (7/6 ea.) 2.5.0
*1 map of Virginia 7/6
*7 coloured prints (over 4/3 ea.) 1.10.0


Inventory of Simon Whitaker, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-71, pp. 335-338
8 prints gilt and glazed (6/ ea.) 2.8.0


Inventory of George Johnston, Esq., Fairfax Co. Will Book C-1, 1767-76, p. 1.
1 painting & frame, Mr. Johnston Senr. 5.0.0
10 Meto. prints broad sand gilt 4.0.0
(8/ ea.)
26 do. narrow gilt (6/ ea.) 7.16.0
14 colld. gilt framed pictures 7.0.0
(10/ ea.)
16 Matzitinto framed pieces (6/ea) 4.16.0
*6 Hogarth prints (12/6 ea.) 3.15.0
*5 maps the four Qrs. & Globe 2.0.0
*7 maps (6/ ea.) 2.2.0
3 paintings without frames (4.0.0 ea.) 12.0.0


Inventory of Dr. Benjamin Cotton, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-71
4 old pictures in frames (1/3 ea.) 5/0
5 pictures (8/ ea.) 2.0.0


Inventory of John Greenfield, Frederick Co. Will Book #3, 1761-70
3 pictures with broken glasses 7/6
(2/6 ea.)
3 pictures in frames (5/ ea.) 15/0
*2 prints in prospective (3/9 ea.) 7/6
*Map of North America, A Map of Great Britain & Ireland,1.16.0
4 pictures and a land skip


Inventory of William Waters, York Co. wills & Inventories 21, 1760-71
6 coloured prints in frames (4/ ea.) 1.4.0
12 small pictures framed (2/ ea.) 1.4.0
*2 maps (2/6 ea.) 5/0
*2 pictures (10/ ea.) 1.0.0
*5 maps (2/ ea.) 10/0
*2 pictures (3/9 ea.) 7/6


Inventory of Thomas Dudley, Roxbury, Rural Inventories, p. 234.
Sundry pictures in glass &c. 6/0
(southwest room below)
*Sundry family pictures 1.0.0
(south east room)


Appraisment No. 1, Thomas Thompson, Norfolk Co., 1755-83.
2 gilt pictures (6/3 ea.) 12/6
12 double gilt pictures (5/ ea.) 3.0.0
*Esso & Charlotte (1/3 ea.) 2/6
*11 Seasons (2/6 ea.) 1.7.6
*½ doz. small old fashioned pictures 6/0
(1/ ea.)
*7 Scripture pieces (over 7/1 ea.) 2.10.0
*10 large pictures (8/ ea.) 4.0.0
*8 Sea Pieces (7/6 ea.) 3.0.0
*2 small pictures oval (2/6 ea.) 5/0
*5 odd do. (2/ ea.) 10/0


Inventory of Armistead Lightfoot, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
*5 maps (5/ ea.) 1.5.0
*5 pictures (4/ ea.) 1.0.0
*1 large picture 10/0


Inventory of Francis Fauquier, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
8 pictures in gilt frame & 30.0.0
2 small do. in ditto


Inventory of Isaac Lesesne, Daniel's Island
8 prints gilded frames (1.17.6 ea) 15.0.0
4 prints gild frame (2.10.0 ea.) 10.0.0


Inventory of Mary Jones, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
A frame pictures 2/6


Inventory of Rev. Josiah Johnson, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
*5 prints (2/6 ea.) 12/6
*15 prints (4/8 ea.) 3.10.0
*4 old prints (over 7d ea.) 2/6


Inventory of Elizabeth Balsom, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
7 pewter framed prints 2/6
(over 4d ea.)
*12 prints (1/ ea.) 12/0


Inventory of Daniel Baxter, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-83
15 pictures in frames (2/ ea.) 1.10.0


Phillip Ludwell Lee, Westmoreland Co. Records, State of Virginia Inventories & Accounts, Book 6, p. 173
*1 map Carolina and sundry prints 12/8
*5 pieces miscellaneous painting 2.0.0
(8/ ea.)


Inventory of Robert Eden, Esq., Annapolis
28 small pictures framed and glazed @ 5/7.0.0
(No. 1 store room)
Sundry old picture frames 3.0.0
(No. 4 Long Garrett)
8 Small Moco pictures framed and glazed 8.0.0
(No. 9 passage adjoining his Excellency's room) (1.0.0 ea.)
1 carved and gilded picture frame 1.0.0
(no. 27 Servant's Hall)


Entries grouped by year are from the same inventory or source. Entries for "pictures" could mean prints or paintings since that term was often used to refer to both. If the writers used "picture" to mean painting then the value would be higher than that for a print. Due to the range of prices for prints it is difficult to determine whether "picture" refers to an expensive print or an inexpensive painting. Those entries with an asterisk do not have any references indicating whether or not they were framed.


Inventory of Thomas Pattison, Williamsburg, York Co. Wills & Inventories 19, 1740-1746, pp. 177-179.
7 large framed prints (over 5/8 ea.) 2.0.0
10 framed prints (5/ ea.) 2.10.0
*12 pictures (2/6 ea.) 1.10.0


Inventory of John Butterworth, Yorktown, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-1759, pp. 40-41.
*10 pictures (2/6 ea.) 1.5.0
*3 pictures (7 ½d ea.) 22d ½
*11 pictures (over 1/5 ea.) 16/0


Inventory of John Burdett, Williamsburg, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-1759, pp. 46-49.
12 Roman Emperor prints (2 ½d ea.) 2/6
Sir Richard Steels Picture 15/0
Parcel of mapps & prints 1.10.0
2 pictures (5/ ea.) 10/0
30 prints and mapps (1/ ea.) 1.10.0


Inventory of Ishmael Moody, Yorktown, York Co. Wills & Inventories 20, 1745-1759, pp. 134-135.
7 prints in frames & 1 old desk 1.10.0
(in small room in the lower House)
*2 glass pictures & 6 prints (the first room in the back House)1.0.0
*3 prints & 1 pr. hand irons (in the ordinary first room)10/0
*1 Spy glass, 1 table and 4 maps 3.12.0
(in the large room in lower House)


Inventory of Alexander Ross, City of Norfolk, Norfolk Co. Appraisements 1, 1755-1783, f. 53.
*3 pictures & a map (Publick Room) 1.0.0
(5/ ea.)
*1 large picture & 11 small do. (Hall) 1.10.0
(2/6 ea.)
*2 large pictures & Lanthorn 10/0
*1 map, 1 large & 3 small pictures 7/0
(over ¼ ea.)


Inventory of Henry Wetherburn, Williamsburg, York Co. Wills & Inventories 21, 1760-1771.
*8 prints (in the Bull Head Room) 16/0
(2/ ea.)
*8 large pr[ints?] (in the Middle Room)8/0
(1/ ea.)
*14 small prints (in the Great Room) 3.?.0
(at least 4/3 ea.)
*10 [torn]aps (maps?) (in the Great Room)1.0.0
(2/ ea.)


Inventory of Aubray Bevan, Chester Co., Pennsylvania, Collections Department Files.
*6 India pictures (8/4 ea.) 2.10.0
*12 Seasons or pictures (6/8 ea.) 4.0.0
*4 maps (2/6 ea.) 10/0
*6 pictures (1.6.8. ea.) 8.0.0
*Parcel of old pictures 7/6


Inventory of Charles Butler, City of Norfolk, Norfolk Co. Appraisements 1, 1755-1783, ff. 122-123.
*8 pictures (1/3 ea.) 10/0


Inventory of Anthony Hay, Williamsburg, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-1783, pp. 19-24.
*11 old prints the Ceasars 12/0
(over 1/1 ea.)
*14 coloured prints (over 1/5 ea.) 1.0.0


Inventory of James Mitchell, Swan Tavern, Yorktown, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-1783, pp. 104-106.
12 prints of the Seasons glazed & framed 4.10.0
(large room next the street below stairs) (7/6 ea.)
11 prints glazed & framed (room next the Billiard Room)2.0.0
(over 3/7 ea.)
6 prints glassed and framed (in the chamber viz)2.8.0
(8/ ea.)
*1 large map of Virginia (large room next the street below stairs)1.0.0
*8 prints (in the room next the kitchen)1.4.0
(3/ ea.)


Inventory of John Gibbons, Yorktown, York Co. Wills & Inventories 22, 1771-1783, pp. 158-159.
14 pictures glassed (over 2/10 ea.) 2.0.0
*10 pictures glazed (2/ ea.) 1.0.0
*2 pictures K. & Queen (7/6 ea.) 15/0
*1 mapp 2/6
*1 map of New York 10/0


Inventory of Michael Stradleman, Andover Township, Collection Department Files.
*1 looking glass, 7 pictures & a map 1.12.6
*4 pictures (1/3 ea.) 5/0
*3 pictures (¼ ea.) 4/0


Inventory of Benjamin Betterton, Philadelphia, Collection Department Files.
*12 pictures (front chamber first story)3.0.0
(5/ ea.)
*9 pictures, small brasstop. andirons 1.10.0
& shovel & tongs (back parlor)
*8 pictures (front parlor below stairs) 15/0
(over 1/10 ea.)
*4 pictures (back room) (1/10 ½ ea.) 7/6


Entries grouped by year are from the same inventory or source. Entries for "pictures" could mean prints or paintings since that term was often used to refer to both. If the writers used "picture" to mean painting then the value would be higher than that for a print. Due to the range of prices for prints it is difficult to determine whether "picture" refers to an expensive print or an inexpensive painting. Those entries with an asterisk do not have any references indicating whether or not they were framed.


Virginia Gazette Daybook, James Carter
6 prints framed with glass (3/9 ea.) 1.2.6
*Sundry prints 2.10.7
*Blenheim 10/0
*Map of London 10/0


New York
8 prints of the cartons painted on glass, in peartree frames, carved gold edges2.12.0
(6/6 ea.)
12 Beautys of Hampton Court 3.12.0
(painted on glass, in peartree frames, carved gold edges ?)
(6/ ea.)


Advertisement, Pennsylvania Staatsbote
Southwest Prospect of the German 7/6
Lutheran Schoolhouse in the city of Philadelphia, printed on the best Royal Paper, colored with frame and glass Colored without frame1/6


Virginia Gazette Daybook
8 prints in frames double gilt 11.4.8
(1.8.1 ea.)


Account of Goods Sold at Belair (Tasker estate in Maryland)
Benj: Ogle 4 Seasons in Gilt frames 8.5.0
(2.1.3 ea.)

c. 1770

Colonial Grandeur in Philadelphia, N.B. Wainwright, p. 49.
3 doz. prints framed and glazed in gilded, decorated frames71.16.0
(1.19.10 ea.)


Sale of the effects of John Mercer, to G. Waugh, Marlboro.
12 Seasons in canvas and frames 6.0.0
(10/ ea.)


John Norton & Son, Drs. to John Overlove, London
12 large prints of gentlemen's seats in peartree frames; glass 22 X 166.16.6
(over 1¼ ea.)
12 large prints in peartree frames & glasses 24 X 19 11.3.6
(over 18/7 ea.)
6 large fine prints of horses framed in peartree frames & glasses3.3.0
22 X 16 (10/6 ea.)
12 prints neatley colour'd fram'd in peartree frames & glasses3.9.0
(5.9 ea.)
6 landskips in carv'd gilt frames 5.2.0
(17/ ea.)
6 prints of lady's in carv'd gilt frames?
*12 colour'd prints (2/ ea.) 1.4.0


Advertisement, Pennsylvania Gazette
A large exact view of the late Battle of Charlestown, elegantly coloured7/6
Put in a double carved and gilt frame, 20 X 16 with crown glass18/6


Advertisement, New York
Print: neat mezzotinto print of the Hon. John Hancock, Esq.3/9
In double carv'd gilt frames 7/6


New York Packet
A new map of - the state of Connecticut, plain8/0
Coloured 12/0
Folding on cloth for pocket 1.0.0
Framed 16/0
On rollers or in black and gilt frames18/0

RR163707The Drunkard's Progress
C-78-No. 000.8

RR163708The Merrymakers

RR163709Tavern Life - The Boxing Fraternity

RR163710Tavern Scene
from Tavern Scenes folder in Taverns & Clubs file, Dept. of Collections

Phillips, Hugh Mid-Georgian London

RR163711Fig. 361. The parlour of the White Bear, Piccadilly. From the Broadley Collection.

(Continued from page 83)

The Piccadilly Inns

THE WHITE BEAR was the tenth house west of the Haymarket, turning on the south side of Piccadilly. It had a back entrance to Jermyn Street [197] . To-day the Piccadilly Underground RAilway main entrance covers the site of the old inn and stable yard. Pictures of its front, yard and bar parlour are seen in Figs. 98, 361 and 362.

It is mentioned in the St. Martin's rate books in 1685. The proprietress in 1721 was Anne Roker, followed by Andrew Rooker, presumably her son, from 1724-28. William Miller then took over and made the White Bear the starting and arrival point of the coach line to Bath. It seems to have expanded his business considerably for in 1739 he was rated for two houses as well as the stable yard. He died in 1755, but his widow carried on until 1759. In 1760 Mr. Robert Ireland acquired the inn [138] .

The coach line to Bath belonged to William Mullins, proprietor of the Greyhound in that city. He advertises in the 'Daily Post,' in May, July, October and De ember, 1728. Typical announcements read: 'A handsome two-end coach and six able horses will set out from the White Bear in Piccadilly on Thursday next, where passengers may be carried at reasonable rates by me, Henry Mullins.' Mullins also advertises a 'Three-end coach-and-six,' and 'A chariot-and-six.' In addition he sent up bottled medicinal waters from Bath, to be sold by William Miller, proprietor of the White Bear.

Another coach service, starting from the Belle Sauvage in Ludgate Hill in 1740, stopped at the White Bear to pick up passengers for Gosport and Cirencester [198] .

Miller also acted as London agent for county postmasters. In the 'Daily Post' of October, 1742, he advertised:

'This is to acquaint the public that several postmasers on the road between Piccadilly and Bath are ready to furnish gentlemen or others with post chaises, easy and well secured from the weather, with a lamp that gives sufficient light on dark nights, at any time by day or night. Gentlemen who desire to go post are desirr'd to apply to Mr. Miller at the White Bear, Piccadilly.'

At the White Bear occurred the deaths of two noted artists, Luke Sullivan, engraver of Hogarth's 'March to Finchley' (Fig. 305) and Chatelain, who drew Figs. 82 and 339. Chatelain had taken lodgings there the previous night. He was so much reduced in circumstances that his burial in the poor ground of St. James' Workhouse in Poland Street was paid for by Mr. Vivares, the engraver who had employed him in the past and by Mr. Panton, a silversmith in Old Compton Street. McArdell also attended his funeral [38] .

THTE BLACK BEAR was situated on the north side of Piccadilly, almost opposite the White Bear, but slightly west. The fountain in Piccadilly Circus to-day approximately stands on its former stable yard. The front of the house faced what is now the south-eastern quadrant of Regent Circus. It was demolished in order to make room for the north-eastern quadrant (See Fig. 100).

The Black Bear did not run a line of coaches to anywhere, but derived much benefit from the crowds attending the arrival and departure of coaches run by its rival, the White Bear, across the road. This caused some friction, as we shall see. Those to benefit were William Biddell, proprietor in 1748, William Doleman, who followed him and Thomas Read, who took over the business in 1756. Three months later, in July of that year, he advertises:

'Thomas Read, from the White Hart, White-chapel, having taken the above inn [i.e., the Black Bear] humbly hopes for the favour of his friends and customers, who may depend on the best accommodation n every respect and the most courteous usage. He is induced to take this method, as every malicious and unjust contrivance has been made to prejudice him in his business, after he had been at considerable expense to come into the house.
'All the coaches and wagons call as usual to take up goods and passengers, though his enemies have reported to the contrary, to serve their own private ends, but he will continuously endeavor to

RR163712Smithfield Sharpers

RR163713Sportsman's Hall

Print - 1955-124

Print - 1955-122


Print - G1974-638

RR163718Bachelors Hall

from Tavern Scenes folder in Taverns & Clubs file

RR163720The Xmas Academics
A Combination Game at Whist

RR163721Venus turn'd Proctor, anon.
The Rake's Progress at the University




RR163725The Sailors Fleet Wedding Entertainment

RR163726The Dinner

RR163727Plate 93A. Richard Newton, Soulagement en Prison. London c. 1793. Watercolour drawing on paper; H. 14 ½ ins, W. 22 ½ ins (sight) (The Lewis Walpole Library, Farmington, Connecticut)

RR163728Plate 93B. Engraving of single-bow Windsor side chair. From J. C. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture and Furniture, 1833 (Downs Library, Winterhur)

RR163729Sotheby's 24 October, 1984
Old Master Paintings and [illegible]

RR163730Boitard, Louis Phillippe, Artist at Home


RR163732The Free Masons Surpriz'd; or, the Secret Discover'd!
from Tavern Scenes folder in Tavern & Clubs file, Dept. of Collections

RR163733The Country Man in London

RR163734Bacheolors Fare or Bread and Cheese with Kisses

RR163735[illegible] City Meeting

The Construction of Raleigh Tavern
A Brief Report on its Eighteenth-Century Development

Mark R. Wenger
Depart of Architectural Research

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation

December 31, 1989


Acting on a request from the Department of Collections, several members of the Architectural Research staff convened to consider the eighteenth-century construction sequence at Raleigh Tavern. Our deliberations were limited to the main building as it appeared in the eighteenth century, except when exceeding those bounds promised to illuminate earlier events. Preliminary conclusions were afterward relayed verbally to the curatorial staff, anticipating the preparation of a formal report when time permitted. This written report incorporates certain changes in our thinking which have developed since that time. These changes should not materially affect the furnishing scheme previously proposed by the Department of Collections on the basis of our preliminary information.

The Archaeology

The archaeological evidence is of central importance to this discussion, but because no archaeological report was completed for the main building, we were obliged to rely on Rutherford Goodwin's 1936 guidebook, The Raleigh Tavern, for an overview of the archaeology and how it was interpreted at the time of reconstruction (Figure 1). According to Goodwin, the east end of the Raleigh--the present passage and billiard room--was the earliest portion to be built. Second in the sequence was that unit which now encompasses the two front rooms on the west side of the passage. Next, by Goodwin's account, came the Apollo/Daphne Room 2 wing, and last of all came the large room appended to the north end of this wing.1

The actual building sequence may have been somewhat different. We believe that the western portion of the tavern--not the east--constituted the initial phase of construction. The evidence for this conclusion is laid out below.

Period I

The foundation wall which once separated the east and west parts of the building constitutes a critical piece of archaeological evidence, since it once served as an end wall of the period I structure. Was this first-period wall bonded into the east or west portion of the foundation? The archaeological plan is inexplicably silent with regard to this crucial question (Figure 2). Although much of the original brickwork was retained in the reconstructed cellar walls, remaining fragments of the cross wall were dismantled. As a result, our conclusions must be drawn from photographs of the excavations. While the evidence cannot be regarded as conclusive, detailed examination of these photos persuades us that the all-important wall belonged to the west end of the building. The cellar walls were 1-½ bricks thick, laid in English bond. If the corners were built with a ¾ bat backing up the closure, a toothing of about 2" would have resulted on the 3 interior angle of the intersecting walls--precisely the condition visible in the photograph where the cross wall meets the western section of the north foundation wall.2 It follows, then, that this western portion of the tavern constituted the first phase of construction, and that the eastern half of the building was a period II addition.

But even if the photographic evidence is discounted, there is still cause to question Goodwin's explanation of how the Raleigh developed. Since the west section of the building was the deeper of the two components, the east structure could have butted cleanly to it. The west building, on the other hand, makes little sense as an addition, since it would have joined awkwardly to the narrower east building. Again, the west section seems to be the earlier of the two structures.3

The reconstructed interior layout of the Raleigh offers further support for this conclusion. York County records indicate that Henry Bowcock was keeping tavern on this site by 1717. At this early date, the tavern had not yet emerged as a distinct building type. Architecturally speaking, there would have been little to 3 distinguish Bowcock's public house from a dwelling house. Regardless of how it was used, the period I section of the Raleigh was almost certainly domestic in character. In the context of what we know about domestic building in this period, the eastern half of the building--the passage and billiard room unit--makes little sense as a stand-alone element. Though several one-room houses with side passages are now extant in Williamsburg, only two of these date from the eighteenth century. The earliest of these was probably the Benjamin Waller house--the result of an eighteenth century addition. Only the Lewis House appears to have been built as a side-passage, single-room dwelling. It may date from the middle of the eighteenth century.4 Significantly, none of the early 4 eighteenth-century inventories known to us describes a house of this kind. The elongated plan of the billiard room, moreover, deviates considerably from the nearly square proportion observed in the main room of most eighteenth-century Virginia houses. Even the usually long first-period room of the Waller house falls considerably short of the Raleigh's present billiard room in terms of length/width ratio.5 The first phase of the Raleigh must make sense as a discreet building. The eastern portion of the structure fails to meet this test convincingly.

The western end of the building, embracing the two front rooms on the west side of the passage, does meet the test. The westernmost room is roughly square in proportion--the other is a 5 fraction less than square. This accords perfectly the proportioning typically observed in hall/chamber dwellings of the period. As in some earlier houses of this sort, these two rooms were served by a single, centrally-located chimney. Here, archaeological evidence clearly indicated the existence of corner fireplaces in each room. In the context of local house-planning tradition, this unit makes complete sense, being a center-chimney, hall/chamber building, later expanded by the addition of a passage and a large public room--a process of extension similar to that later carried out at the house of Peyton Randolph.6

Period II

If the period I status of the Raleigh's west end is granted, the consequent building sequence accounts in a historically coherent way for the entire street-front portion of the building, stretching a single file of rooms across the entire width of the lot in two successive periods of construction.

The tavern may have reached this period II form in 1733-35 when house carpenter James Wray completed carpentry work valued at more than £47. (That this sum involved a substantial building is clear when we consider that in 1708 Jean Marot paid only £50 for 6 what is now the west end of Shields Tavern). Other work performed by Wray at the Raleigh included 30 squares of shingling and 780 yards of interior painting.7

To cover the interior wall surfaces of the period I and II structures would have required approximately 743 yards of painting--a figure that correlates closely with Wray's account. Assuming a roof slope of 45 degrees, though, only about 17 squares of shingles would have been required to cover both the east and west ends of the building.'8 The remainder might have been used to cover outbuildings or perhaps the northernmost room of the tavern which may have once existed as a detached structure. (See discussion of North Room below). This latter structure would have required about 10 additional squares of shingling, bringing the total to 27 squares--about 3 short of the 30 squares mentioned in the Wray account.

In any event, it is clear that the period I west structure alone cannot account for the work completed by Wray 7 between 1733 and 1735. In all likelihood, this period saw construction of the tavern's east end.

Period III

Next in the sequence came the rear wing which embraced the Apollo room (along with its adjoining passage) and perhaps the space known as the "Daphne room."9 Significantly, the first known reference to the Apollo Room appears in the 1751 diary of John Blair--just prior to the first indications of a "Great Room" at Wetherburn's tavern in 1752.10 It may be that the wing was built shortly after Alexander Finnie's purchase of the property in 1749. Together with construction of the Governor's ballroom wing early in the 1750s, the addition of these public rooms to the town's two largest taverns, marked a mid-century "building boom" which coincided with the decision to rebuild the burned-out Capitol after its destruction by fire in 1747.11


The Problem of the North Room

The large room at the north end of the rear wing poses a special problem in regard to the construction chronology. Archaeological documentation in the form of a clean corner shown on the Knight plan suggests that the north end of this rear wing was built against an existing structure , which was about 8 inches wider than the addition. However, photos of the excavation show only a void in the foundation wall where one would expect to see this corner. It is possible that remaining fragments of this corner were pulled out after being recorded, or that Knight's drawing represents his reconstruction of earlier conditions, based on decayed physical evidence. Because the photographs are inconclusive, it seems best--in the absence of other evidence--to accept Knight's interpretation of the physical remains and all it implies for the construction sequence and interpretation of the building.12


Granting Knight's depiction of the foundation, it is difficult to establish the construction date of this space other than to suggest it was built prior to period III, when the foundations of the rear wing were laid against it. The space may have functioned as a tenement or perhaps as a billiard house.13

Period IIIA

During or soon after construction of the Apollo/Daphne extension, a shed was added across the back of the tavern, adjoining the east wall of the new rear wing. This shed was almost certainly in place by 1770 when appraisers inventoried the contents of Anthony Hay's estate. Although individual rooms were not called out by the appraisers, discreet spaces are implicit in the pattern of listing the building's contents. The curatorial staff suggests that there were at least three rooms in this shed, and that the 10 present porch was, in fact, an enclosed space. Architecturally, this would be more in keeping with the sorts of additions typically made to the rear of early buildings in this region.

Period IV

The chronological relationship of this new shed to the small room situated off the northeast corner of the building is problematic, as the junction of the two foundations was destroyed by construction of the nineteenth-century commercial building that succeeded the Raleigh on this site. Though Mrs. Timberlake appears to have mentioned no shed rooms in her recollections of the building, she did refer to the northeast extension as a "ladies' withdrawing room."14 And though the shed foundation was almost entirely obliterated, the underpinnings for this added room, intruding into the shed space, remained nearly all intact. Moreover, the Frenchman's Map seems to include the northeast room, but not the rear shed, in its depiction of the tavern (Figure 3). In the light of these facts, it would at first appear that the northeast extension post-dated demolition of the shed.

But plats of the property and buildings made in 1796 and 1806 by the Mutual Assurance Society offer some interesting clues 11 of the shed's exact nature and continued existence. (Figures 4 & 5). The Mutual Assurance plats are notorious for their inaccuracy, but in the case of the 1796 document, the agent seems to have measured his building with a remarkable degree of accuracy. The dimensions given for the rear wing of the structure--106 x 24 accord exactly with the actual building, if the depth is measured across the north end of the wing (Figure 6). This exactitude suggests that remaining measurements should accord with the building as well. From the markings of the plat, it is clear that the front portion of the building was measured from the east wall of the rear wing to building's eastern extremity. Significantly, the agent's dimension of 56 ft. makes sense only if the northeast extension is included. The actual measurement is 56 ft. 6 in. Again, the accuracy of the agent's measurements is remarkable. More revealing, though, is the measured depth of this front portion of the building. The agent's dimension of 23 ft. is 4 feet off the mark if measured from the street facade to the rear of the shed. It fits perfectly if the measurement is taken from the back wall of the billiard room to the front face of the nineteenth-century porch piers shown on Knight's archaeological drawing. (The inclusion of this structure in the agent's dimension may indicate that it was at least partly enclosed at the time.)15 The apparent 12 exclusion of the rear shed in this measurement suggests that it was either gone or that it had become, by this time, an open structure.

The latter was probably the case, for the second plat, made in 1806, suggests that the shed did survive in some form. In this instance, the agent's dimension for the length of the rear wing--75 ft.--seems to make sense only if the measurement is taken along the east side of the wing, beginning at the rear shed. (The actual measurement is 78 ft. 6 in.)16

The shed seems to have existed as an enclosed space as late as 1770 when the Hay inventory was made.17 It is likely that the northeast room was erected sometime between that date and 1782 when the room appears on the Frenchman's Map. This may be the "New Room" referred in Humphrey Harwood's 1786 account for work 13 performed at the Raleigh.18 The closed shed evident in the 1770 listing of Anthony Hay's estate, may have been opened up to create a porch at the time this room was added. As a result, the present arrangement seems plausible for the period of the 1780s.

In 1782, the Frenchman's map also depicted a sizable porch running across the front of the tavern. This too was a late eighteenth century addition, predating the enclosed porch later measured by the agent. A second line of square piers, aligning perfectly with the front of the stoop foundation, was probably associated with this earlier structure.

Additional Observations - The Second Floor

As reconstructed, the roof framing of the billiard room and the back porch is an integral unit, spanning from the front 14 facade of the building to the rear plate of the porch. When we consider that the shed (or porch) was probably built about 15 years after the tavern's east end, it becomes clear that the roof over the front portion of the tavern would have constituted an independent unit, with the shed rafters framed against its rear slope in the typical manner. This observation would at first seem to invalidate the reconstructed second-floor plan for the front section of the building. This reconstructed arrangement almost certainly reflects the following considerations:

  • 1)A desire to avoid having the roof of the wider rear wing show awkwardly above that of the front.
  • 2)A desire to eliminate the problematic junction of chimney and roof planes which would otherwise have resulted where the rear wing joins the front of the building.
  • 3)The need for a usable second floor. Owing to the unusually short depth of the building, the original ceilings seem to have been scarcely six feet in height. Such rooms seem incomprehensible, but at Pine Slash, in Hanover County, a person 6 feet or more in height cannot stand up straight in the well-finished second-floor room of c. 1800.

One might defend the current arrangement by suggesting that construction of the Apollo/Daphne wing and the rear shed prompted Finnie to expand the second floor of the tavern as a means of resolving the very difficulties enumerated above. Significantly, the curators, having studied the sequence of the Hay inventory, suggest that nine curtained bedsteads were located on the upper floor--a fact with clear architectural implications. Further 15 analysis of the Lossing view and Humphrey Harwood's accounts for whitewashing the Tavern--exercises which fall outside the scope of this brief paper--might assist in resolving the question.


Summary Chronology

Tentatively, then, we would summarize the eighteenth century construction chronology of Raleigh Tavern as follows:

Period I Construction of hall/chamber unit which now comprises the west end of the Raleigh, possibly after Thomas Jones acquired lot 54 in 1716.
Period II Addition of spaces now referred to as the south passage and billiard room--in 1733-1735. This completed the street-front portion of the building
Period III Construction of the rear wing--the north end of this addition was joined to an existing building-probably a tenement or billiard house erected during period I or II. Construction of the wing may have occurred shortly after Alexander Finnie's appearance on the site in 1749.
Period IIIa Addition of the back shed, adjoining the east wall of the rear wing. (This may have been carried out concurrent with construction of the rear wing in period III).
Period IV Addition of northeast room referred to in the nineteenth century as the "Ladies' Withdrawing Room." This occurred sometime shortly before 1782 when it was depicted on the Frenchman's Map. Indeed, this was probably the "New Room" mentioned in the accounts of Humphrey Harwood in 1786. The rear shed may have opened up to create a rear porch at this time. The long front porch depicted on the Frenchman's Map may have been added during this period as well.


^1 The Raleiqh Tavern, (Colonial Williamsburg Incorporated, Inc., 1936.), pp. 20-21.
^2 See neg. nos. L-102, UN-647.
^3 While the Travis and Nicolson houses both received extensions that were deeper than the original structure, the added space in each case was far larger than the original building. As a result, the difference in depth was substantial enough to warrant the awkward joining of foundations that resulted.
^4 Due to the loss of James City records, little is known concerning the date of Benjamin Waller's house. Waller owned the property by 1749, and though definite evidence is lacking, it seems likely that he was living there by that time-- probably in the easternmost portion of the present house. By 1782, the house had undergone three phases of substantial alteration. The hall/passage dwelling resulted from the first of these renovations, which must have occurred fairly early in Waller's occupancy of the property. See Mary A. Stephenson, The Benjamin Waller House, unpublished research report, CWF, 1950, pp. 1-6; Marcus Whiffen, The Eighteenth-Century Houses of Williamsburg, (Williamsburg; Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1884), pp. 151-154.

The existence of a single chimney, together with the disposition of the original basement windows suggested that the Lewis house had been a single-room, side passage structure, and it has been reconstructed as such. From surviving brickwork it would appear that the house dated from the middle decades of the eighteenth century. Only an eighteenth-century chimney and foundation remained when the building was restored. See James M. Knight, "Lewis House," unpublished archaeological report, CWF, 1943.

Other examples of this plan-form in Williamsburg were created by nineteenth-century alterations. These include the Timson House and the Galt cottage.
^5 It is possible that the space was historically even longer than the present billiard room, since there was no archaeological evidence for the reconstructed chimney. This feature was probably based on Benson Lossing's sketch of the tavern, which was being renovated at the time the drawing was made. Apparently the front had already been substantially altered prior to Lossing's arrival. See Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution, (New York: Caratzas Brothers, 1976), 11, p. 280n.

That such a room could have been unheated is clearly possible--courtrooms and churches were rarely heated during his early period. At Pine Slash, a mid-century, vertical-plank house in Hanover County, the room which seems to have functioned as the hall bears no indication of ever having been heated. See Mary McWilliams, Raleigh Tavern, unpublished research report, CWF, 1941, p. 35.
^6 See Willie Graham, "Building an Image: An Architectural Report on the Peyton Randolph Site," unpublished architectural report, CWF, 1985, pp. 67, 136; Mark R. Wenger, "The Dining Room in Early Virginia," Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, III, (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989), pp. 156-157.
^7 For information on the Wray accounts, now a part of the Jones Papers, see Edwin M. Riley to Audrey Noel Hume, 2 August 1966, CWF Archives, pp. 5-6. This information was kindly provided by Pat Gibbs of Historical Research.
^8 The presence dormers makes no appreciable change in the amount of shingling required to cover a building (a net gain of about 2 sq. ft. per dormer). Hipped and gable roofs require essentially the same areas as well.
^9 It is possible of course that construction of the Apollo/Daphne wing preceded addition of the passage and billiard room. But this seems rather unlikely, given the tiny frontage of the west unit versus the huge scale of the rear wing--a great tail to be wagging such a small dog. Chances are, the Apollo/Daphne complex was appended to the tavern after its extension eastward along Duke of Gloucester Street.
^10 McWilliams, pp. 4-5.
^11 McWilliams, p. 4.
Pat Gibbs was the first to advance the "building boom" hypothesis. As an example of how the rebuilding influenced local decision-making, Pat cites the will of James Shields who directed that provision for his daughters be halved to £50 each in the event the seat of government was removed from Williamsburg.
The proportional relationship of the Apollo room and the adjoining space is highly suggestive, resembling as it does, that of the Ballroom and Supper Room at the Governor's Palace. Perhaps the spaces at the Raleigh functioned on certain occasions like those at the Palace.
^12 Archaeological photos show the void left when the east/west wall separating the wing and the north building was pulled out. And though the actual corner shown on Knight's plan is not apparent, it is clear that the north building foundation was toothed into this cross wall, and that the two walls were of the same depth. Clearly, they were contemporary. It follows, then, that the foundation of the wing was laid against this existing structure. Several courses of what appears to be later brickwork were, at some point, laid across the junction of the wing and the north room. See excavation photos TB-487, 1-99, and L-778.
Until now we have all supposed that this north building corresponded with the "New Room" mentioned in Humphrey Harwood's accounts in 1786. But if Knight's interpretation of the physical evidence is correct, this structure had, by that time, been a part of the tavern for more than thirty years. Thus, while there is no reason to suppose that French soldiers couldn't have been quartered here--indeed, the inventory suggests that the room functioned as a sleeping space--we should refrain from suggesting that the room was built expressly for the quartering of soldiers.
^13 Betty Leviner, "Evidence for Separate Billiard Houses," CWF memorandum, 29 January, 1990.
^14 Efforts to locate any transcript of Timberlake's recollections have been unsuccessful. The only mention I have so far seen appears in a letter of Thomas Waterman outlining the basis for reconstructed design of the tavern. See Thomas T. Waterman to Perry, Shaw and Hepburn, 21 December 1989, CWF Archives, "PSH Historical Data - Raleigh Tavern."
^15 The porch may be the successor to that shown on the Frenchman's Map in 1782. This earlier porch is represented by a second line of smaller piers, located about a foot closer to the front of the building. See Figure 2.
^16 It is possible that the north room had been demolished by 1806, and that the dimension was taken along the tavern's west facade. This would have produced a measurement of 80 feet.
A small but revealing representation of the tavern included in Mary McWilliams report seems to show both the shed and the northeast room in place. Unfortunately, the source and date of this sketch remain a mystery. For the plats see McWilliams, pp. 27, 30; for the sketch see materials that have been appended to McWilliams' report.
^17 I am grateful to Betty Leviner of Collections for her thoughts on the Hay inventory and its architectural implications.
^18 Harwood accounts transcribed in McWilliams, p. 23.
Significantly, Harwood recorded a charge of 6/0 for whitewashing "ye Daphne and New Room." For whitewashing the Apollo Room he charged 7/6--about 1.28 times what he charged for the other two rooms combined. If we are correct in identifying the space north of the Apollo room as "ye Daphne," and the space appended at the northeast corner of the tavern as the "New Room" then their combined floor area would total about 508 sq. ft. The floor area Apollo Room was about 630 sq. ft.--about 1.24 times the that of the two rooms combined. The corresponding ratios of the payments and the floor areas would appear to confirm our assumptions about the locations of the New Room and the Daphne Room.
If the northeast room was, in fact, the "New Room," our portrayal of the tavern should embrace the 1780s--the period during which the room was probably added. Since the furnishings plan recently proposed by the curatorial staff already mentions the quartering of French soldiers during the Revolution, this should require little or no adjustment of that plan.

Appendix I

Roof Areas of Raleigh Tavern by Section
West section 8.3 squares
East section (w/o shed) 9.0 squares
East section (w/ shed) 6.8 squares
Rear Shed 7.0 squares
Apollo/Daphne wing 23.9 squares
North extension 10.0 squares
Kitchen 15.0 squares
Laundry 7.8 squares
Stables 9.0 squares
West + East (w/o) + North 27.3 squares
Wray account 30.0 squares

Appendix II
Approx Areas of Interior Plaster Surface - Periods I and II*

Period I - West
1st Floor 200 sq. yds.
2nd Floor 115 sq. yds
Period II - East
1st floor 250 sq. yds.
2nd floor 135 sq. yds.
TOTAL AREA - PERIODS I & II 700 sq. yds.
Wray account 780 sq. yds.


RR163736[Figure 1]
Archaeological Plan of the Foundations of Raleigh Tavern After excavation of site in 1928

[See Figure 2 in attached envelope (No Digital Image Available)]

RR163737[Figure 3]

RR163738[Figure 4 - Insurance Book, Policy 126, p. 54, April, 1796]

RR163739[Figure 5 - Insurance Book, Policy 666, May 27, 1806, p. 40]

RR163740Figure 6
Dimensions from Mutual Assurance Soc. Plats 1796/1806


RR163742[This drawing has been enlarged.]

James Southall had extensive accounts for repairs with Humphrey Harwood carpenter, between 1778-1794. Unquestionably, much of this repair work was done on the Raleigh:

May 14thTo Dr Brought from Ledger (A) and Folio 151) to the Amt of£233.17. 1 ½
26 To Whitewashin 3 Rooms 22/63/9 , 300 bricks 16/5 & 4 bushs lime 6/ pr Will 2. 5. 0
June 8To 1 bushel of lime (per Jubah) 1/61. 6
16 To Repairg underpinning to Dary, 12/6/0 & 1 Days labour 6/ 2/ 18.
July 10To 2 Bushels of Lime 3/1/6 for Rap3.
Septemr 25To 1000 bricks 55/.27/6 21 bushs of lime a 1/6 4. 6. 6
To building Oven 30/.15/. & 2 #x00BD; days labr a 6/2/. 2.15.
To White washing 4 Rooms, 2 passages, & Barr a 3/9
7/6 2.12. 6
28To 100 bricks 5/6.2/9 & Seting up Grate with A Rubd bricks 30/.15/. & 1 days lar 6/2 2. 1. 6
30To 300 Do 16/6.8/3 6 bushs of lime 9/d & Repairg Kitchg & landry [illegible] & laying harth 3/6 2.10. 6
To Repairing 4 Grates 6/.3/. & 2 days labour 12/4/. £ 18.
January 11To 1 bushel of lime, 3/./9 (pr Jubah)3.
February 6.To 50 bricks 6/.1/5 2 bushels of lime 6/.1/6 & Seting up A Grate 20/.5/. & labr 6/2/ 1.18.
19 To 1 bushel of lime 3/./9 Pr (Jubey) (26)/8 to Mortar & mendg oven 12/3/ 15.
March 20To 1 Do lime 4/6,9 (April 28th) to 6 bushs of lime a 6/.9 & 250 bricks 50/a 3/8 4.10. 6
April 28.To Repairing Kitchen Chimney 36/.6/ & 1 Days labour a 15/2/ 2.11.
June 19To bushs of lime for Soap 12/.1/6 July (9th) to a bushe of lime 6/.g Pr (Rate) 18.
August 10To 4 bushs of lime a 8/./8 & 4 bushs of Whitewash a 16/1/6 4.16.
To mending plastering 42/.6/ & Whitewashg 16 Rooms upstares a 36/3/9 30.18.
To whitewashing the passages upstares £10/.15/6 & 3 do below. & barr a 36/3/9 17. 4.
12 To 1 bush. Lime pr Rate, 8/.9 (Septr 1st) To 2 bushs of lime a 8/1/6 1. 4.
Septemr 13To 1600 bricks a 27/62/9 pr 6[?] & 16 bushs of lime a 8/9 28. 8.
To underpinning Barn & £ 12.0.025/ & Repairg Do to Dary 40/4/ 14. 0.
To 2 Days Labor a 20/2/. 2. 0.
Septemr 30thTo 6 Bushs of lime 48/.4/6 & hair 4/.9d & Mending plastering 60/6/£ 5.12.
To Repairing underpinning 12/.2/6 & 1/6 Whitewasg 4 Rooms in Pub Hosed [?] and 1 in Nursery & 1 Do of West [?] Kitching, 3 do in house & Nessacary 3/9 a 36/ 18.12.
October 2ndTo 90 bricks 27/6,2/8 & 2 Bushs of lime 16/,1/6 & 2 days labour 40/4/ 4. 3. 6
To Repairing pillers to poarch 60/15/ 3. 0
23To 2 ½ bushs of lime (for Soap) a 12/ 1.10.
January 21To 4 Bushels of lime a 30//9 pr your Warwick Cart 6. 0.
March 9To 4 Do a 36/.9 & hair & larthes 24/. & mending larthing & plastering 120/3/ 14. 8
To labours work 40/.1/ (& 12th) to 50 bricks 110/.1/ & Repairg Drane 90/.3/9 & labr 40/2/6 14. 0
May 4To 7 bushs of lime a 48/.9 & hair 40/.9d Repairing plastering (1 day work)458 [illegible] 32. 6.
To 1 Days labour 120/. 3/ & 1 ½ bushel of lime for Soap a 48/1/ 8½ 9.12.
To Whitewashing 17 Rooms a 3/9 & Long passage up Stares 11/3 & 3 do below and the Necessary house a 30 Dollars pr Room 216. 0.
11 To whitewashing New Room & Do Kitchg £18.0.07/6 18. 0.
To Repairing Steps at Chambr door, & Do Corner of the underpinning 152/ 4.10.
May 19To 1 Bus. of lime for Soap 48/g £ 2. 8.
June 27To 2 Do [illegible] pr Betty a 54/ 5. 8.
August 4To 6 o of Do a 54/./9 (15th) to 1 bushel of lime9d 54/ for Soap To 122 feet of plank for Still Tubb a 8/ 67.14.
30 To Whitewashing 2 Rooms a 453/9 dollars, (Septr 1st) To 1 buh lime 54/9 30. 0.
Septemr 19To 6 Bushs of lime for (Warwick) a 60/ 18.
Octobr 14To 28 bushs of lime a 54/g & 350 larthes a 75/. & 1000 4d Nails 280/10/. 111. 2. 6
To hair 75/.1/3 & Repairing larthing & plastering in landry, & Kitchg, 85£25/. 88.15.
To labours work 3 ½ days a 150/. pr day 26. 5.
Decemr 9To 1 bush lime 9d (13th) to 19 bushs of lime a 9d, & 610 bricks 23/ Specie 1.18.
To Repairing Celler wall, & Steps & build pillers under ball Room 55/ 2.15.
To 6 days labour a 2/ .12.
22 To 2 bushs lime 7/6, Mending plastering & putin Step to floor 3/6g To White washing Apollo 7/6 .12. 6
Januy 18thTo 1½ bushels of lime 14½ for soap (March 13th to 1 Do 9d . 2.12
May 23To ½ bushs do 6d (June 9th) to 1 bus Do 1g) . 1. 5
Septr 10To ½ do of do 6d [Octobr 30th] to lime & mendg plasterg 2/ £ 2. 6
Octobr 30To White washing A Room 5/95. 9
Novemr 13To ½ bushel of lime 9d (for Soap)0. 9
April 26To 12 do of do a 1/6 pr bus & Hair 1/6 19. 6
To Repairing Plastering 36/ 1.16.
29To White washing 2 Rooms a 7/6 .15.
To Repairing Stove in Kitchen & Steps to Chamr door 3/9 3. 9
May 6To ½ bushl of lime by your Negro 9d0. 9
August 26To whitewashing a Room 7/67. 6
August 21To 33 bushels of lime a 1/ 1.13.
To Repairing Chimney 30/. & building Oven 10/ 2.00.
26 To underpinning Kitchen 22/. & 8 days labour a 3/. 2. 6.
October 20To 1 bushl of mortar 1/. & Repairing Grate 1/6 2. 6
To whitewashing A Room 4/64. 6
Novemr 3rdTo 14 bushs of Lime a 1/. & Repairg Plastering 18/. & 3 ¼ days labr a 3/ 2. 2. 6
Decemr 6To whitewashing 3 Rooms (in out house) & 1 do in back of Kitchen a 4/6 .18.
To 1 bushel of whitewash 2/2.

Carried to folio 59


Per Contra

May 10By Cash at the time of the Invation[£] 112. 8.

February 28th By 2 hhds Shells, (May 3rd) by 2 Do

Majr James SouthallDr
Dr brought from Folio 17 £
July 7thTo 22 bushels of Lime at 1/. & 5 bushs of whitwash at 2/ 1.12.
To Hair 2/3. To repairing larthing & plastering in Raleigh & co Back Room to Kitchen & Necessary House 20/1. 2. 3
To whitewashing 13 Rooms up Stairs a 4/62.18. 6
To whitewashing the passages up Stairs 22/61. 2. 6
To do 8 rooms below at 4/6. & the passages 13/62. 9. 6
To do ye Room at the back of the Kitchen 4/6 4. 6
August 30To lime for Soap 7d½ . 7½
August 26To 8 bushs of lime a 1/. & 500 bricks a 3/1. 3.
To 2 days labr a 2/6 & mendg Kitchen backs & jambs 6/ .11.
To laying an harth 4/ & repairing Stove 2/ 6.
To repairing Drane, & do 3 Grates 5/ 5.
January 24thTo 2 bushels of lime 2/. & 00 bricks a 3/ 8.
To setting up a grate 6/. & repairing one 3/ 9.
To labours work 2/6 2. 6
[deleted]15To ½ bushel of lime 7 ½ £ . 7½
23To 150 bricks a 3/. & 4 bushels of lime a 1/. 8. 6.
To building a pair of Steps to Mrs Southall Room door 7/6. 7. 6
To labour 2/6. 2. 6
[deleted] 7To 17 bushels of lime a 1/. & 1500 bricks a 3/. 3. 2.
8 To 13 bushels of lime a 1/. & buildg 2 pair of Steps 20/ 1.13.
11To setting up a grate 5/. & repairg 1 do of do 2/6. 7. 6
To repairing Well 6/. & do plasterg in House 7/6 .13. 6
To repairg Stove, sink, & plasterg in Kitchen 5/. . 5.
To do Kitchen floor 8/6, & 5 days labour a 2/6 1. 1.
To 1 Bushel of hair 2/. 2.
[deleted]nuy 11To 10 bushels of lime a 1/. 42 bricks 1/3, & repairing 2 Grates 3/9.15.
To Repairing Oven 2/6 & ditto larthing & plasterg in Kitchg & 67/6.10.
To larthes 9d, 50 ails 4d & 2 days labour a 2/6 6. 1
August 30To 18 Bushels of lime 18/. 1100 bricks 33/. & 3 days labr 7/6 2.18. 6
To bricking up well 15/ & Repairing Kitching floor 3/9.18. 9
[deleted]tor 24To 14 bushels of lime a 1/. & 1 do of Hair 2/.16.
To repairing plastering in 16 Rooms 20/ & 5 bushels of Whitwash 12/ 1.10.
[deleted]tor 24]To labourers work 7/6 & white-washing 11 Rooms up Stairs a 4/6£ 2.17.
To white-washing ye passages up Stairs 22/6 1. 2. 6
To do 4 rooms ye Bar & portch below at 4/6.18.
To do Back Room in ye Kitchen 4/6 & ye Apollo 7/6 .12.
To do ye Daphne & New Room 6/. 6.
To do ye One & ye Four 5/. 5.
To do passage Below 13/6 .13. 6
April 3To 270 bricks a 3 ½ pr 6. 5 bus of lime 5/. & 1 ¼ days labr 3/11.16. 1½
To Repairing Kitchen Chimney & Stove 9/. 9.
To 2 bushels of Egg-shell Wheat a 5/ .10.
Dr Brought Over£
[deleted]tor 14thTo ½ bushel of Morter 6d & Mending plastering 1/6 £ . 2.
To ½ days work 9d . 9
[deleted]vemr 5To ½ bushel of lime pr Betty 6d . 6
[deleted]r 11To 4 bushs of lime 4/. Medr plasterg & 2 Grates 3/. & labr 2/.. 9.
[deleted]nuary 14To 1 bushel of whitewash 2/. And whitewshing 5 Rooms a 4/6 1. 4.
24To whitewashing a passage down stairs 4/6 4. 6
To - do necessary 2/. & do ye Bar 3/9 5. 9
To 2 bushels of lime 2/. 50 bricks 1/6£ 3. 6
To Mending prison walls by your direction 3.
9To whitewash 6d - whitewashing a Room & passage 6/9 6. 9
16 To 16 bushels of lime a 9d mending cellar cap & bricking up ye Well at ye factory 8/ 1.
To labr 2/. 2.

See this within ye Crotchet charged in Ledg. C. fol. 8.

Per ContraCr
By Sundaryes brought forward
[deleted] 23rdBy Cash at York Town 6/ 6.
April 16By ditto 28/ 1. 8.
Colo James SouthallDr
See ante folio 59. Led. B. -
[deleted]r 11To 4 bushels of lime 4/. & mending plastering & 2 Grates 3/. 7.
To labr 2/. 2.
14 To 1 bushel of whitewashing d2/. & whitewashg 5 Rooms a 4/6 1. 4.
24 To - - whitewashing a passage 4/6 & necessary & barr 5/9.10. 3
[deleted] 10To lime 2/. Bricks 1/6 & mending prison Wall by yr direction 3/£ . 6. 6
[deleted] 9To Whitewash 6d whitewashing room & passage 6/9 . 7. 3
16 To 16 bushels of lime a 9d mending Cellar cap & bricking up yr Well at yr Factory 8/. 1.
To labr 2/ . 2.
[deleted]or 29To 8 bushels of lime a 9d taking up yr Cellar Steps rebuilding them, & mending yr Jambs 8/6 .14. 6
April 24To 6 bush. of lime a 9d Mending plaistering in 5 Rooms & passage 7/6 .12.
To whitewash 2/3 - whitewashg 5 Rooms a 3/9 & passage & stairway below 4/6 .16. 6
April 23To 5 bush: of lime a 9d to building pillars under & painting Brick work about the porch 5/ . 8.
[deleted] 30To bush: lime by Wide 9d (May 13) ½ bush. do 4 ½d . 1. 1½
[deleted]y 20To 4 bush: lime a 9d Mending plaistering 2/ . 5.
To whitewashing 2 cielings a 1/6 & 2 bush. whitewash 3/0 . 6. 0
[deleted]r 17To 10 bushels of lime a 9d & mending underpinningto Kitchen &c 15/ 1. 2. 6
[deleted]th To 14 bush. of lime a 9d & mending plaistering & laying 2 Hearths 12/6 1. 3.
Sep: 14th]To whitewash 3/. & whitewashg 5 Rooms, 2 cielings, one side & 2 Closets£ 1. 0. 6
[deleted]ecr 7To 6 bush. lime a 9d & 1½ days Work of Nat a 4/. .10. 6
17 To 2 do Whitewash a 1/6 & 3 ¾ days work of Nat a 4/ .18.
To 6 days work of old Jerry a 4/ 1. 4.
To 10 bush. of lime a 9d . 7. 6
£15. 6. 4½
To fee v. Layd in Warwick 15/ .15.
£16. 1. 4½
Per Contra
April 2dBy Colo Southalls acct rendered 14. 9. -
Colo James Southall
Dr Cr
[deleted]y 25thTo 1 ½ days Hire of Jerry a 4/. & 8 busls Lime a 9d£ .12.
26To ½ days Hire of Nat a 4/ . 2.
28To 2 ¼ days Hire of Nat a 4/ . 9.
To 1 do of Jerry a 4/ . 4.
To 2 Busls Lime a 9d & ½ Bushl Whitewash . 2. 6

[deleted]ood's Ledger]

In a notice in the Virginia Gazette and General Advertiser (Augustine ), Southall offered to lease the Raleigh:

January 17, 1793

The Raleigh Tavern and two lots will be leased for one year. . . the said lots contain an ice house and every other house necessary for the entertainment of man and horse.

Table 1. - Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771

Ceramic Listing by Form
Form Ware Quantity
Bason not listed 2
Bason & Bottle not listed 2
Bowl China 22
Butter Boats China 6
Butter Boats Creamware 4
Butter Pots not listed 16
Butter Saucers China 2
Caster not listed 3
Chamberpot not listed 23
Coffee Cups China 15
Coffee Cups Creamware 9
Corner Dishes Creamware 6
Cups China 29
Cups Stone 38
Dishes China 4
Dishes Creamware 34
Dishes Stone 34
Egg Cups Creamware 8
Fish Strainer Creamware 1
Fruit Baskets Creamware 2
Fruit Dishes Creamware 5
Jar China 1
Large Cups & Saucers China 4
Milk Pot China? 1
Milk Pots Creamware2
Pickle Dish Delft 1
Pickle Shells Stone 5
Plate China 122
Plate Creamware 139
Plate Stone 36
Salad Dish Delft 1
Sauce Boats w/stand Creamware 5
Sauce Ladles Creamware 2
Saucers China 54
Saucers Creamware 10
Saucers Stone 38
Stands China 2
Sugar Dish China 1
Tart Pans Stone 11
Tart Plates China 2
Teapot Creamware 2
Teapot Stone 2
Tureen w/stands Creamware 3

Table 2. - Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771

Ceramic Listing by Quantity from Greatest to Least
Form Ware Quantity
Plate Creamware 139
Plate China 122
Saucer China 54
Cups Stone 38
Saucer Stone 38
Plate Stone 36
Dish Creamware 34
Dish Stone 34
Cups China 29
Chamberpot not listed 23
Bowl China 22
Butter Pots not listed 16
Coffee Cups China 15
Tart Pans Stone 11
Saucers Creamware 10
Coffee Cups Creamware 9
Egg Cups Creamware 8
Butter Boats China 6
Corner Dishes Creamware 6
Sauce Boats w/stand Creamware 5
Fruit Dishes Creamware 5
Pickle Shells Stone 5
Butter Boats Creamware 4
Large Cups & Saucers China4
Dishes China 4
Casters not listed 3
Tart Plates China 3
Tureen w/stands Creamware 3
Bason not listed 2
Bason & Bottle not listed 2
Sauce Ladles Creamware 2
Teapot Stone 2
Teapot Creamware 2
Fruit BasketsCreamware 2
Milk Pots Creamware 2
Tart Plates China 2
Butter Saucers China 2
Stands China 2
Fish Strainer Creamware 1
Pickle Dish Delft 1
Jar China 1
Milk Pot China? 1
Sugar Dish China 1
Salad Dish Delft 1

Table 3. - Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771

Ceramics Grouped by Form Type
Basket 2 Queens China fruit baskets
Bason/Bottles 2 basons
2 basons & bottles
Bowls 22 china bowls
Butter boats, pots, & saucers2 china butter saucers
6 china butter boats
4 Queens china butter boats
16 butter pots
Casters 3 rims & casters
Chamberpots 23 chamber pots
Cups & Saucers 15 china coffee cups
10 china saucers & 8 cups
44 china saucers & 17 cups
4 large china cups & saucers
9 Queens china coffee cups & 10 saucers
38 stone cups & saucers
Dishes 6 Queens china corner dishes (Covered?)
5 Queens china sauceboats & dishes
5 Queens china fruit dishes
34 Queens china dishes
1 china sugar dish
4 china dishes
1 Delft Pickle dish
1 Delft Sallad dish
34 white stone dishes
Jars 1 china jar
Pans 11 stone tart pans
Plates 122 china plates
3 china tart plates
139 Queens china plates
36 (3 doz) white stone plates
Pots 16 butter pots (previously listed)
1 (china?) Milk Pot
2 Queens china milk pots
2 Queens china teapots
2 large coloured stone teapots
Sauce Boats 5 Queens china sauceboats and dishes (previously listed under "Dishes")
2 Spoons (Ladles)
Salts 8 china salts
Stands 2 china stands
Tureens 3 Queens china tureens and dishes

Table 4. Inventory Data versus Cermics Exhibited

Comparsion by Form
Form InventoryFurnishings
Plates 297 134
Saucers 106 19
Dishes 72 30
cups 67 11
Chamberpot 23 0
Coffee Cups 24 10
Bowls 22 13
Butter Pots 16 0
Tart Pans 11 0
Egg Cups 8 0
Corner Dishes 6 0
Fruit Dishes 5 0
Pickle Shells 5 0
Sauce Boats w/stand 5 2
Teapot 4 4
Casters 3 3
Milk Pots 3 1
Tart Plates 3 0
Tureen w/stands 3 1
Bason (Barber's) 2 2
Bason & Bottle 2 2
Butter Saucers 2 1
Fruit Baskets 2 2
Sauce Ladles 2 0
Stands 2 2
Fish Strainer 1 0
Jar 1 1
Pickle Dish 1 1
Salad Dish 1 1
Sugar Dish 1 0

RR163743Ceramic Comparison by Form - Raleigh Tavern Evaluation

Table 5. - Raleigh Tavern Ceramic Collection Evaluation

Ceramic Objects Exhibited Not Represented in Inventory
Brown Stoneware 40+
Rhenish Stoneware 10
White Saltglazed 1
Delft 3
White Saltglazed 1
Rhenish Stoneware 10
Miscellaneous Objects
Figures 15
Water bottle 2
Brandy warmer, white salt-glaze 1
Dish, French Faience 1
Delft Snuff Jar 1
Storage Jars, Iberian 3
Mustard Pot, saltglazed 1
Tea Caddy, saltglazed 1

Table 6. - Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771

Ceramics by Ware Type
Ware Type # of Vessels % of Assemblage
Unknown Wares 46 6%
Chinese Porcelain 265 37%
Creamware 228 33%
Delft 2 <1%
White Saltglazed 164 23%

Table 7. Raleigh Tavern Ceramic Collection

Ceramics by Ware Type
Ware Type # of Vessels % of Assemblage
Porcelain 44 13%
(Chinese & English)
Creamware 86 26%
Delft 9 3%
White Saltglazed 110 33%
Rhenish Stoneware 18 5%
Brown Stoneware 40 12%
Misc. Wares22 7%

RR163744Ceramic Comparison by Ware Type - Raleigh Tavern Evaluation

Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771 Identifiable Ceramic and Glass Listings by Entry Order

Raleigh Tavern Inventory 1771 Value
23 Chamberpots & 2 Basons 25/
1 Bason Stand, Bason and Bottle 0.10.0
1 Bason stand and Bottle 10/
16 China Bowls 14.7.6
18 Wine Glasses 10/
3 Rims and Casters 25/.
4 China Coffee Cups 2/6
1 China Jar,
1 Milk Pot 3/9.
2 China Stands 2/
10 China Saucers and 8 Cups 0.12.6
2 China Butter Saucers 7/6
1 Do. Sugar Dish 0.12.6
44 China Saucers and 17 Cups 20/
11 Do. Coffee Cups 2/6 1.2.6
4 large China Cups and Saucers 8/ 1.2.6
9 Queens China Coffee Cups and 10 Do. Saucers 0. 5.0
2 Do. Milk pots,
2 Do. Tea pots 0.3.0
3 China Bowls 7/6
12 Wine Glasses 7/6
3 China Bowls 10/.
3 Decanters 15/.
15 bottles different sorts 1/3
3 Pots Sweetmeats & Syrups 2. 0.0
412 Pieces of Glass ware for Pyramides15.0.0
122 China Plates at 15/ pr. dozen 7.12.6
4 Do. Dishes 30/
2 do, Tart Plates 5/.
6 Do. Butter Boats 20/ 2.15.0
139 Queen China Plates 57/6.
38 Stone Cups and Saucers 5/ 3. 2.6
5 Stone Pickle shells 3/.
4 Queens China Butter Boats 5/. 0. 8.0
2 Large Coloured Stone Tea Pots 1/3
3 Queens China Turin and Dishes 55/ 2.16.3
8 Do. Egg Cups 2/6
1 Delft Salad Dish 7/l/2/ 0. 3.1 ½
2 Queens China Fruit Baskets 5/.
5 Do. Fruit Dishes 10/ 0.15.0
34 Do. Dishes 60/
6 Do. corner Do. 15/ 3.15.0
3 Doz: white stone plates 10/.
34 Do. Dishes 40/ 2.10.0
10 Buter Pots 12/
11 Stone Tart Pans 1/3
1 Delft Pickle dish 1/3
1 Queens China Fish Strainers 5/.
5 Do. Sauce Boats & Dishes and 2 spoons 15/ 1. 0.0
8 China salts 8/

Ceramic and Glass Objects Currently Displayed Raleigh Tavern by Room Location

Billard Room

  • Stoneware mug-repro

Innkeeper's Room

  • Stoneware mugs-repro 2

Gentlemen's Reception Room

  • Delft Snuff Jar 1932, a-b

Bar Room
Table between Windows

  • Wine Bottles -repro 2
  • Stoneware Mugs-repro 2

Center Table

  • Mug, saltglaze 1952-192
  • Mug, saltglaze 1954-900

Bar Shelf #1

  • Stoneware Mugs - repro
  • R1979 2-5,7,8,14-16,21,23,24,26-28,32,34,36,38,39,46 (20)
  • R1978-42, 13,42,53,57,65,68,70,74,80,83,84,88,93,94,97 (15)
  • Mug, white salt glazed 1957-179

Bar Shelf #2

  • Wine Bottle 1932-48
  • Wine Bottle, green,stamped "WB 1796"
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1952-76
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1952-78
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1952-196
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1952-200
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1953-1045
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1955-225
  • Mug, delft, 1958-505
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1959-344
  • Jug, "Ale" white saltglazed 1959-372
  • Jug, saltglazed, Rhenish 1962-237
  • Tankard (Mug) delft 1966-373
  • Mug, "GRII, Saltglazed, Rhenish 1966-504
  • Mug, "GRII, Saltglazed, Rhenish 1977-382

Bar Shelf #3

  • Wine glasses-repros 5
  • Wine-Bottles 1932-84,85,86
  • Wine Glass 1938-222,6
  • Wine Bottle, green,stamped "WB 1796"
  • Wine Bottle, 1955-271
  • Wine Bottle 1956-204
  • Wine Bottle 1956-207
  • Wine Bottle 1956-392
  • Wine Glass, 1960-609
  • Wine Glass, 1960-610
  • Wine Glass, 1960-620
  • Wine Bottle, 1967-265
  • Wine Bottle, 1971-46
  • Glass teardrop 1971-74
  • Wine Glass, 1971-3333
  • Wine Glass 1972-50
  • Wine Glass, 1972-53
  • Wine Glass 1972-55
  • Wine Glasses, 1973-88,1-6
  • Wine Glass 1973-306
  • Wine Glass 1975-24
  • Wine Glasses, 1975-360, 3 & 4
  • Wine Glasses 1975-378, 1-2
  • Wine Glass, 1979-25
  • Wine Glass, 1979-403
  • Wine Glass 1979-406

Bar Shelf #4

  • Case Bottle 1941-201
  • Case Bottle 1941-202
  • Case Bottle 1941-203
  • Wine Bottle 1947,119
  • Bottle with Stopper 1953-299, A&B
  • Bottle with Stopper 1953-300, A&B
  • Bowl, pearlware, 1954-348
  • Bottle, Case (gin) 1954-755
  • Bowl, punch, Delft, 1954-903
  • Bowl, delft 1961-298
  • Bowl, Punch, Delft, 1970-170
  • Wine Bottle 1971-48
  • Wine Bottle 1971-57
  • Wine Glass 1972-47
  • Wine Glass 1972-51
  • Wine Glass 1975-25
  • Bowl, Creamware 1975-104
  • Bowl, Chinese porcelain 1978-101
  • Bowl, Chinese porcelain 1978-102
  • Bowl, punch, Chinese Porcelain 1981-79


  • Wine Bottle, 1932-36
  • Wine Bottle, 1932-73
  • Wine Bottle, 1947-608 (repro)
  • Wine Bottles, 1935- 88,89,80

Public Dinning Room
Bottom Shelf

  • Mug, saltglazed 1972-444

Ceramics and Glass

  • Wine Bottles 1947-608,113-124 & 138
  • Plate, creamware, royal shape 1950-27
  • Plate, creamware, royal shape 1950-28
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1950-585
  • Mug, saltglazed, 1952-190
  • Wine Bottle 1956-202
  • Mug, saltglazed 1960-411
  • Wine Bottle, 1960-902
  • Dish, saltglazed 1968-626
  • Dish, Creamware 1971-39
  • Dish, Creamware 1971-40 feather-edge
  • Dish, Creamware 1971-42
  • Plates, Creamware,,1972-114, 1-12 #4
  • Plates, creamware, 1972-161, 1-14
  • Plates, saltglazed, 1972-214,1-5
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1972-262
  • Dish, saltglaze 1972-277
  • Platter, saltglazed, 1972-278
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1972-282
  • Plate, saltglazed 1972-283
  • Plate, saltglazed 1972-284
  • Plate, saltglazed 1972-285
  • Dish, saltglazed 1972-288
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1972-289
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1972-290
  • Plate, saltglazed 1972-337
  • Plate, saltglazed 1972-339
  • Mug, saltglazed, 1972-445
  • Plates, saltglazed 1974-682,1
  • Plates, 1976-110, 1-26
  • Plates, 1976-112, 7

East Cupboard

  • Tea Caddy, saltglazed 1956-381
  • Punchpot, saltglazed, 1958-618

Second Shelf

  • Teapot & Cover, Littler's blue, 1954-800, A&B
  • Teapot & Cover, saltglazed, 1959-30
  • Teabowls & Saucers, 1979-112,1-12
  • Wine Bottles, 1947-608,113-124 &138
  • Wine Bottles, stamped "Prentis" 2
  • Bottle preserve? 1932-79
  • Wine Bottles 1932-85
  • Wine Bottle 1951-144
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-145
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-146
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-147
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-148
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-149
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-158
  • Wine Bottle, 1951-159
  • Wine Bottle, 1954-663
  • Wine Bottle, 1955-263
  • Wine Bottle, 1957-7
  • Wine Bottle, 1957-8
  • Wine Bottle, 1958-249
  • Wine Bottle, 1967-268
  • Wine Bottle, 1971-47

Apollo Room

  • Dishes, saltgalzed 1976,1-5

Daphne Room

  • Decanter, repro from 1953-300
  • Figures 1936-629,1-2
  • Glass, sweetmeat, 1952-439
  • Wine Bottle, 1956-205
  • Figure, Squirrel, green 1963269
  • Figure, Woman, autumn 1963-273
  • Figure, Man, Summer 1963-274
  • Figure, Man, yellow, 1963-363
  • Figure, Man, cavalry 1963-485
  • Figure, Man, yellow 1963-533
  • Figure, Lion, yellow 1963-534
  • Figure, Pigeon, yellow 1963-535
  • Figure, Woman, yellow 1963-536
  • Figure, Woman, yellow 1963-543
  • Figure, Swan, yellow 1963-559
  • Figure, Man, The Lost Sheep 1963-581
  • Glasses, Syllabub, 1966-520, 1-12
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1969-20
  • Glass, Wine 1971,1,3, and 4
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1972-260
  • Plates, saltglazed, 1972-263,1-2
  • Stand, glass, 1973-24
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1976, 6
  • Glasses, wine, 1979 1,2,4,5,6
  • Wine Wine 1979-405
  • Stands, set of 3 1983-336
  • Glasses, syllabub, 1986,1-4

Bottom Shelf

  • Plate, delft 1960-302
  • Ewer & Basin, delft, 1961-101,1-2
  • Teapot & cover, Chinese porcelain 1970-158
  • Teabowl & Saucer, Chinese porcelain 1971-36,A&B
  • Teabowl & Saucer, Chinese porcelain 1971-37,A&B
  • Teabowl & Saucer, Chinese porcelain 1971-38,A&B

West Cupboard
Top Shelf

  • Vase, fluted, 1952-450
  • Glass, 1962-201,1
  • Glasses, Jelly (2) 1979-409,1-6, 1979-410,1-6

Middle Shelf

  • Wine glasses 13 - repro
  • Glass, wine 1960-619
  • Glass sweetmeat dish, 1960-864
  • Wine Glass, 1973-304
  • Wine Glass, 1975-359
  • Wine Glass, 1975-360,1-4
  • Wine Glass, 1976-402
  • Wine Glass, 1976-403
  • Wine Glass, 1976-404
  • Wine Glasses, 1979-24,2
  • Wine Glass, 1979-26
  • Wine Glass, 1979-27

Bottom Shelf

  • Wine Rinsers (2) repro
  • Wine Rinser 1936-539
  • Glass, sweetmeat, 1952-443
  • Basket, glass, sweetmeat 1962-165
  • Stand, 15 glasses, 1962-201,1-16
  • Tazza, glass, 1963-24
  • Tazza, glass, 1969-256
  • Patty Pan, Glass 1972-57
  • Patty Pan, glass 1972-58
  • Patty Pan, glass 1972-59
  • Stand, glass, 1972-327,1
  • Patty Pans, glass, 1972-431,1-6
  • Stand, glass 1976-398,2
  • Wine Rinsers, 1979-56,1-6
  • Decanter 1979-200

West Hall - Back

  • Plates, creamware, 6 repro
  • Plates, saltglazed 1936-468,1-3
  • Cups, coffee, Caughley 1937-191,1-10
  • Tea bowls, Caughley, 1937-192,1-8
  • Saucers, Caughley 1937-193,1-10
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1950-321
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1951-71
  • Tureen & Cover, saltglazed, 1952-400
  • Plates, creamware, shell-edge 1953-434,1-2
  • Dish, Wieldon, 1954-490
  • Brandy warmer, saltglazed, 1954-784
  • Dish, French faience, 1958-635
  • Casters, saltglazed, 1960-876, 1-2
  • Dish, cover & stand, saltglazed, 1963-140,a-c
  • Figure, Lion, green, 1963-292
  • Teapot, Chinese Porcelain, 1964-333,A&B
  • Cream Jug & Cover, Chinese Porcelain, 1964-351, A&B
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1965-147
  • Tureen Stand, white saltglazed, 1965-190,c
  • Caster, saltglazed, 1967-711
  • Dish and stand, saltglazed, 1967-722,A&B
  • Plates, Chinese Export 1971,1-7
  • Basket & Stand, pearlware, 1971-665,a&b
  • Gravy boat, saltglazed 1971-3338
  • Plates, creamware, shell-edge, 1972-33,1-4
  • Plates, creamware, 1972-161,1-14
  • Plates, creamware, 1972-162,1-7
  • Platter (dish), creamware, 1972-164
  • Dishes, pair, creamware, 1972-226,1-2
  • Plate, creamware, 1972-239
  • Plates, creamware, 1972-241,1-6
  • Plates, creamware, 1972-242,1-9
  • Plates, saltglazed, 1972-261,1-2
  • Plate, saltglazed,1972-264
  • Plates, saltglazed, 1972,1-2
  • Platter (dish), saltglazed, 1972-266
  • Dish & cover, creamware, 1972-267,A&B
  • Platter (dish), saltglazed, 1972-279
  • Platter (dish), saltglazed, 1972-280
  • Plate, saltglazed, 1972-281
  • Soup Plate, saltglaze, 1972-338
  • Soup Plate, saltglazed,1973-44
  • Dish, saltglazed, 1973-170
  • Butter tub w\cover and stand, saltglazed, 1974,a-c
  • Soup plates, saltglazed, 1975-76,1-6
  • Mustard pot, saltglazed 1975-109
  • Baskets & Stands, (2) 1975-137,1-2,a,b
  • Plates, creamware, Royal Shape,1976-70,1-10
  • Dishes, salt-glaze, 1976-115, 3,5, & 6
  • Dishes, saltglazed, 1976-116, #2&5
  • Salt, saltglazed, 1977-386
  • Sauceboat, saltglazed, stoneware
Norfolk Co. Appraisements
#1, 1755-1783, pp. 53.

By Order of Court held in the County of Norfolk, Octr. 16th, 1760, to us directed we whose names are hereunto subscribed, being first Sworn have appraised the Estate of Alexander Ross deceased

Sundries in the Closet Pewter Measures &c£ ..7.0
Publick Room
4 Quart, 2 Pint, and 3 half pint decanters £ . 7. 0 1. 5. 0
3 pictures and a Map 20/ 1 looking Glass and 2 Sconces 30/ 2.10. 0
12 old Chairs 18/ 4 small Tables and corner Cupboard 30/ 2. 8. 0
3 Backgammon Tables 40/ Tongs Shovel, Hearth Broom & doggs 12/62.12. 6
3 Quart China Bowls 3 half Gallon 1 Gallon do 2.10. 0
Tea Board 4 Waiters and Tea Chest 1. 5. -
1 large Picture and 11 Small do. 30/ 1 looking Glass 50/ 4. -. -
18 Walnut Chairs and 1 smoaking do. 10. -. -
1 Mohagony dining Table 1 Screen do. 70/ 3 small Tables 10/ 4. 0. -
Corner Cupboard 30/ 2 Glass Salvers with some few of the Glasses 7/6. 1.17. 6
84 drinking Glasses 8 Tumblers and Glass Mugg2. 8. -
2 Crewit Stands (one broke) .15. -
8 Small China Bowls 2 China Canisters 3 do. potts cups & Saucers and 2 China Butter boats, broke 1.10. -
Copper Tea Kettle & Lamp 15/ 9 Stone plates, 8 patty pans & Small Basket 10/ 1. 5. -
1 Stone Coffee Pott, 3 ditto Tea Potts, Milk Pott, boat &c .12. -
9 doz. Stone plates & 7 dishes3.10. -
Tongs, Shovel, Hearth broom and doggs -.12. 6
2 large Pictures & Lanthorn 10/ 1 Short 5 leav'dScreen 10/. 1. -. -
A Case of 18 Gallon and half Bottles 2.10. -
2 Cases of 12 Bottles half Gallon near compleat 1. -. -
1 Map 1 large & 3 small pictures 7/. Desk and Book Case £5 5. 7. -
Sundry Books in it 40/ Glass Beufet 25/ Chest drawers 40/ 2.10. -
Ross's Inventory, p. 2.
A pine Book Case 30/ 2 large delft Bowls 20/ 2.10. -
A Crewet Stand 7/6 2 Bread Basketts 2/ -. 9. 6
1 Mohagony and 1 small Table 2.10. -
Surveying Instruments 50/ 2.10. 0
4 Bedsteads, Beds, Bolsters, Pillows and Curtains 25. -. -
1 doz Flag chairs 24/ Pine Table 3/. Dressing Glass 15/ & 1 old Chest 2/ 2. 4. -
1 pair Andirons 4/ 6 Chamberpotts 3/9. -. 7. 9
2 Beds, Bedsteads, Bolsters, Pillows and Curtains 14. 0. 0
1 small Walnut Table and small Glass-. 5. -
1 Bed & 1 small do. £4 1 Mohagony Desk 60/. Small Table 2/67. 2. 6
1 Small Sword Tuck Blade, Silver mounted. 2. -. -
2 doz pair Sheets £12. 8 pr. Blanketts £4.10 16.10. -
8 Quilts £8. 4 nappd Counterpanes £4 2 checker'd do 20/ 13. -. -
25 Table Cloths £6.5. 18 Pillow Cases 20/. Silver Watch & seal £3.10 10.15. -
15 Candlesticks &c 30/ 2 doz: Tables Knives & forks 15/ 16 Breakfast do. 10/ 2.15. -
12 Pewter dishes 40/ 84 do. plates £5.5. 7. 5. -
Carried forward £167.13. 3
Brought forward £167.13. 3
6 Washing Tubbs 6/ 6 Water Pails 6/ -.12. -
1 Copper dutch Oven 40/ Baking Pott 10/ 2.10. -
9 Iron Potts 36/ fish kettle and Plates old 12/6 2. 8. 6
3 Tea Kettles, 2 Coffee Potts 1 Chocalate Pott 2. -. -
2 Grid Irons Chaffing dish Copper Saucepan-.10. -
Sundries in the Kitchen -.10. -
large Copper Kettle and small brass one 2.10. -
old Negro Wench £7.10. 0 Negro Boy £45 52.10. -
Large Copper Sauce pan 15/ Large Carpet 35/. 2.10. -
40 lb. feathers 50/ Chest of Cloaths bot: for Sale £13.10 16. -. -
Bed, Bedstead, furniture and Curtains 6. -. -
60 lb. Bees Wax or thereabouts3.15. -
Sign Saint Andrew 20/ 4 Chests and Sundries 10/1.10. -
2 Benches Candle Moulds 4 doz 3.10. -
10 Stone potts 20/ 10 Tin pans 15/ 3 Stone pans 4/61.19. 6
1½ hhd Vinegar 40/ 5 doz: Claret 60/ 5. -. -
100 Gallons Jamaica Rum 25. -. -
90 Gallons Barbados do 19.10. -
3 Hhds & 1 Cask Vedona Wine 43.15. -
2 Qr Casks Teneriffe 12.10. -
1 Pipe Maderia, 10 Gallons out 44. -. -
10 Gallons Cherry Rum 2.10. -
Ross's Inventory, p. 3.
1 hhd Porter £4 1 Cask Shrub about 40 Galls £1216. -. -
Porter Hhd Rum, about 60 Gallons13. -. -
Butt Rum 100 Galls: 4/4 21.13. 4
ditto some out 75 Galls 4/4 16. 5. -
2 Cows and a heifer £3 A Horse £2 5. -. -
Flatt & Cart 60/ Drum 40/ Pine Table 5/ 5. 5. -
65 ounces of Silver Plate at 6/8 20.17. 1
£516.13. 8

Nicholas Scully
Geo: Chamberlaine
Richd. Scott

April Court 1761. The above Appraismt. returned as P Order Book
/Examd. /
Test Sam Bush C. Cl.

Sarah Trebell to John Galt, January 16, 1767
"Martins Hundred January 16 1767
My Dear Brother

Last night we had the infinite satisfaction of receiving your Letters by Capt Easton, we had also Letters from Jn[?] Miller dated 3d of Novr in which he, Acquaints us that he had not then seen you as you were at that time under Inoculation he says he that day call'd on Mr Willings's & heard that the small Pox had come to a head & had been very favourable, God be praised for it. the first part of his inteligence alarm'd our tender Mother very much but the latter gave her great comfort.

Doctr Pasteur writes to you by this opportunity. he says he shall tell you all the news, but I suppose he will not be so minute in our little concerns as [2 or 3 words torn] you all I can remember; There has been many changes [3 or 4 words torn] time since you left it. I dare say none will surprize you more then our [2 or 3 words torn] Mr Trebell has sold the Raliegh to A. Hay who now lives there & all his little family. he has made a (knurssery?] of Jamies Shop I sincerely wish them success. he gives Mr Trebell £[torn]00 for it & Wall-Hill he takes the store of Liquor & all the Furniture [2 words torn] which I imagine will amount near to £1000 more. Austin continues [1 illeg. word) they have Lydie till after the April court, I cant judg of their management yet as they have been there but a week. we are living at the place Mr Trebell purchased of Mr Lester. our dear good Mother lives with us she (who is ever mindful of the happiness of me & those most dear to me) hopes to make her future days easey. She is at present in good health thank God & seems very happy. Your Letters has added much to her being so. Patrick I beleive will shortly be bound to Dr Pasteur, Lucy [McQhay?] lives with her sister Sally. she went up before the Raliegh was sold. Liddy is at Mr Martins, he poor Man is just at the point of Death, is so low that he lives on breast Milk only, it is said that he has settled his affairs, & that after all his debts are paid his Widow will have 3 or £400 I heartily wish it may be so; J. Pullet is dead he was taken sick in the October Court. he was in such haste to get well that he imploy'd every Doctr in Town one after the other but would not follow the directions of one of them, his wife Lay in with another Girl in the court, it was too much for his impatiant Temper he could not bear up against so many troubles. poor fellow he said a little time before he died that it was a shame & a pity he shou'd die while he was so young he has scarce left sufficent to pay his debts. Simon Whitaker, Doctr Hay & Mrs McKinzie are all dead, Mrs Royll is married to J. Dixon H. Dixon to Miss Garland, Mr. Tazwell to Miss Sally Bolling, sister to Col: R. Bolling junr. Miss Patsey Waller is to be Married in March to W. Taylor that used to write in the Sys office

In September Mr Trebell carried me to Richmond. we had the satisfaction to find our Brother better setled then we could possibly expect for the time he had been there. he has Silver & Gold work sufficient to imploy two hands & as much watch as he can do himself. Im in great hopes he will make a hansom living. his wife keeps him dull she is always sick. she has still the swelling in her legs & Feet [4 or 5 words torn] smart Lad & minds his business.--Sally (3 to 5 words torn]. well married as to worldly matters, Mr Yo.[ 2 or 3 words,... torn] has a vast deal of custom is very careful & industreous, always runing about but will stop sometimes to talk about Morals &cer I hear he makes Lucy rise early & use exercise for her health's sake.--[l word torn]harlton has got the finest smartest child I ever say it is call'd [Nanny?] [torn-1 word]sing dont agree with Sally she's a mere skeleton, both the Mr Charltons are very well, the old gentleman visits Miss Hunter as usual but no appearance of a marriage he has offer'd his House for sale. I suppose you grow impateant to see the word Craig & wonder I have not yet mentioned that good family. they are all in perfect health, Mrs Craig has got another Daughter it's name Sally. Miss Judy grows very fat rather too much so, but looks extremely well, I told her I was going to write to you by Capt Lilly she desired to be remembered to you. I assure you Molly grows hansom as well as taller. all your other acqaintance are well. I should make your excuses to your Brother [Dipes?] when I see them they will be glad hear from you by any means.

Mr Miller receiv'd a Letter from his Mother in which you are kindly mention'd I hope you visit that worthy family when you have time, every good natured young person will profit by keeping the compiny of such sensible people, when you see them pray present Mrs Miller & the young Ladies my most respectful compliments. I shall not write to Jamie by this ship as I imagine he will be gone to the Indies before this gets to London

it gives me great pleasure that you were so kindly receiv'd by Mr Greenall indeed I did not doubt but you would meet with such a reception. for seting aside your ingaging appearance I beleive there's few who have been intamate with Mr Trebell & thoroughly know him but would do the like. some would say (if they saw this) that I was vain. I own I'm proud of such a Husband & such a Brother, May the God of infinite goodness grant that I may never lose such blessings. I beg you to make my best compliments to Mr Greenall as the Friend of My dear Mr Trebell & also to Mrs Greenall. we are greatly indebted to Doctor Pasteur for recomending you to that worthy gentleman Mr Wellings I pray God to bless them both for their kindness to you. I dont know whether Mr Trebell will write to you by this opportunity. if he do's not he will by the next Ship be assurd if he dont write so often as I do it is not owning to want of the highest regard, but really he is not fond of writing & thinks it is just equel if he or I writes. Mamy sends a Thousand loves & blessings to her dear John, Mr Trebell joins in love & best wishes for your health & Safety

I am My Dear Johnie
your Most truely Afft Sister

Sarah Trebell

Jany 18 Since I wrote the above we had the pleasure of seeing Mr Craig & Miss Judie at Martins Hundred the [sic] both express'd great Satisfaction on hearing that you had the small Pox so favourable & desir'd I would remember them in a very perticular manner to you. poor Eady has been here also she cry'd on hearing how kindly you rememberd her, she prays God to bless you. our leaving the [Raliegh?] has almost broke her heart. Says she cant live a week without seeing us she's a most greatful creature--I had forgot to tell you there's a report that R. Charlton is going to keep Southalls House & Mr Southall is going to live in the cuntry, Mr Charlton was here to day I ask'd him about it he told me he believes it it (sic) might be so, from which I judg it to be true. Patrick has not seen your Letters yet as he is a Norfolk. Aron Jeffery has been one voyage to the west Indies but dont seem to like the Sea. however is going to be bound to Capt Cock who will Shortly Sail for London so you will chance to see the little Sailor in England

yours affty

S Trebell

PS when you see Mr Ferlom present him our kindest respects, I have wrote to that sweet little fellow [1 word illeg.] Love"

March 15, 1990
To: Mr. Edward A. Chappell
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Repainting Northeast Room - Raleigh Tavern
Block 17, Building 6A

I have no real problem with changing the color of the woodwork in the small northeast room off the Billiard Room, nor do I feel that retaining the 1930's interior colors is sacred. After all, they were part and parcel of a total furnishing and decorating scheme that no longer exists in the building. They are yet another example of the anachronisms that surround us -- a new generation's philosophy displayed within the confines of a previous one's.

Betty's suggestion about using Spanish Brown is a reasonable one. As the bar keeper's living quarters, it must have been considered an inferior space and may not have been painted at all.

My major concern is that changes such as this are occurring piecemeal. This is not what we should be doing. In the future, color changes in reconstructed exhibition buildings should be done only after thorough research and investigation to find colors that were used on comparible buildings in the Tidewater area of the time period exhibited. This will undoubtedly require paint analysis of original buildings both here and in the area. Needless to say, the entire interpreted interior should be restudied, not just one portion of the building. It is something we should seriously consider and start working on. The Palace and the Capitol as well as the Raleigh Tavern come immediately to mind. Why don't we sit down and talk about it and determine what will be required so that we work up a cost estimate and start now trying to get funding.

N. A. P.

Copy to:
Ms. B. Leviner

January 29, 1990
To: Mr. Graham Hood
Mr. Mark R. Wenger
From: Betty Leviner
Subject: Evidence for Separate Billiard Houses

In a recent re-examination of the photographs relating to archaeological excavations at the Raleigh Tavern, architectural historians noted that the south foundation wall of the room that has been designated the Public Dining Room appear to have been finished off. The conclusion that they arrived at from this observation was that the room had been a separate, preexisting structure prior to the addition of the Apollo and Daphne rooms at the Raleigh. When I mentioned this to John Sands, he called to my attention that there had been a separate billiard house at the Smithfield Tavern during the eighteenth century. This, in turn, prompted me to take a look at billiard table locations in general within tavern contexts.

While it is hard to discern where billiard rooms are located (either inside or outside of taverns) from the inventory evidence (see attached inventories), newspaper advertisements are another matter. Jan Gilliam examined copies of the Virginia Gazette and found four references to billiard houses (see attached). While we cannot determine how long a billiard table had been at the Raleigh when Hay's inventory was taken, there is certainly evidence for a separate building set aside for billiards in other taverns. By having three, first-floor rooms in the north wing of the tavern, all the furnishings isolated for this part of the Raleigh would certainly fit much better. Please let me know when you have had a chance to cogitate on this matter so we can set up a meeting to discuss how we want to proceed.



[Marot Inventory] 1717

1 Coach£ 14. -. -
1 New Saddle & bridle2.10. -
1 Saddle Pistoll & Sword1. 5. -
1 Warming pan-.10. -
1 Table-. 7. 6
2 Stills 21.11. -
1 Trevett-.10. -
Lumber-. 5. -
1 Iron Pott-.13. 4
13 Bushells of Salt 20d1. 1. 8
2 Brass Kettles2.10. -
To Sundrys in the Milk House3. 9. -
Lumber in the yard-.10. -
To Sundry Goods in the Billard Room3. -. -
1 New Brass Kettle5.11. 8
100 1 of old Pewter 8d3. 6. 8
8 doz of plates4.16. -
192 1 of new Pewter 10d8. -. -
1 Jack1. -. -
3 Skillets2. 2. 6
3 Do brass1. 5. -
3 Copper potts-.10. -
1 brass Sauce pan-. 4. -
109 1 of new brass5. 9. -
41 of old Do1. -. 6
1 Tea Kettle & Trevett-.12. 6
1 pestle mortar & Chafing dish1. -. -
8 1 Brass-. 8. -
1 marble Mortar1. -. -
2 Grid Irons & other Irons-. 8. -
3 pr Candlesticks & snuffers1. 2. 6
4 pr old Candlesticks-.10. -
2 Doz knives & forks1.10. -
1 doz small patty pans-. 3. -
3 brass candlesticks-. 2. 6
5 spitts-.17. 6
The iron-work in the kitchen chimney3. -. -
2 pr pott hooks-. 4. -
2 Iron Potts with C C 1 ½-. 8. 3
3 ladles & scewers-. 8. -
1 Iron kettle 21 l-. 7. -
1 Turn Dish & Turn Plate-. 7. 6
1 Choppin Knife-. 4. -
3 frying pans-. 3. -
To Sundry Goods Kitchen Shed1. 8. -
To Do1. 7. 6
Knives & forks Old-. 3. -
Su & her four children 85. -. -
Mary 25. -. -
Jenny 35. -. -
Billy 15. -. -
Nan5. -. 6
Tom Brumfield6. -. -
Joseph Wattle3. -. -
Total£ 903. 6. 1
3 Hoggs in Town1. 5. -
£ 904.11. 1
York County Wills and Inventories 20, 1745-1759, pp. 40-41

IN OBEDIENCE to an order of York Couty Court Dated February 1745 We whose Names are underwritten being first duly sworn did Appriase the Estate of John Butterworth decd. Vizt.

12 Leather Chairs at 5/ a ps. is £3. & 2 Arm Chairs at 10/ is 20/£ 4. 0. 0
1 small oval Table 10/. & 2 Larger Do 35/. & 1 larger Do. 30/.3.15. 0
1 square Table 10/ & 1 old Tea Table 2/60.12. 6
2 large Corner Cupboards £5 & 2 Looking Glasses with Sconces 75/8.15. 0
10 Pictures 25/. & 1 Crewet frame with 4 glasses 4/.1. 9. 0
70 ounces Silver spoons tankard &c at 7/6 26. 5. 0
1 Silver Punch Ladle0.13. 0
2 China Dishes & 6 Plates 17/6. & 5 China Bowls 42/.2.19. 6
1 China Mug 2 Tea Pots 6 Cups and Saucers & 6 Coffee Cups1. 8. 0
4 half Pint, 2 Pint, & 4 Quart Decanters0.18. 0
11 Wine Glasses, 3 slider Glasses & 1 large Tumbler Glass0.11.10½
1 pr. Dogs &1 pr. Tongs 2/6. & 1 pr Backgammon Tables 13/.0.15. 6
1 Billiard Table 2 pr. Balls & 8 Tin Sconcers 25. 0. 0
4 old chairs an old Corner Cupboard an old Table & a Speaking Trumpet0.15. 9
1 Bedstead Curtains Iron Rods a pair blankets a Quilt &c.8. 0. 0
1 Bed with low Bedstead a pr. Sheets a Quilt and a pair blankets7. 0. 0
a Table & 5 Chairs 62/6. a Leather Couch 45/. A Chest 3/6.5.11. 0
A Field bed a pair of Sheets Curtains a Quilt a pair blankets &c.3. 0. 0
A Trussel & 2 pair blankets 40/. 6 Chairs 18/. & a Chest 5/.3. 3. 0
1 Looking Glass 7/6. an old Desk 12/61. 0. 0
1 Chest of Drawers 20/. An old Screen 5/.1. 5. 0
1 Chest with a Dantsick Lock 5/. And a Parcel of Books 30/. 1.15. 0
5 beds 2 Rugs a quilt 2 pair Sheets and 2 Bedsteads 10.10. 0
large Table 20/. A small Table 5/. & 2 chairs 3/61. 8. 6
1 large Table 10/. A Pine Table 3/6 a Chest Drawers 20/. 4 Chairs 5/. 1.18. 6
3 Pictures 22d ½ a Glass Lantern 4/. & a Clock 40/.2. 5.10½

John Burdett - 3

1 Meal Trough 2/6. 1 large Oval Table 26/.1. 8. 6
1 small oval Table 10/. 1 Do. 7/6.0.17. 6
1 Chimney Flower Pot 10/. 1 Passage Bench 1/.0.11. 0
Loval Oak Table 10/. 1 large Do. 20/.1.10. 0
2 pair Backgammon Tables1. 0. 0
1 pair Tongs 2/6 9 old Glass Windows 10/.0.12. 6
1 Billiard Table with Sticks Balls &c 12. 0. 0
1 Case of Bottles with Brandy and Gin Drams2. 0. 0
4 Benches 10/. 1 Trussell & Bed 12/61. 2. 6
1 Iron Pot Damaged 1/. 1 Jarr with Tamarines 1/60. 2. 6
1 gauging Rod 2/. 1 Urine Glass 1/.0. 3. 0
1 Glass 2/6 1 feather Bed 2 Blankets, Bolster 1 Set field Curtains 1 Counterpain Besdstead and Cord5. 0. 0
1 Field feather Bed two Blankets, 1 Bolster, 1 Counterpain &c5. 0. 0
1 Bed, 2 Blankets, Bolster, two pillows, Counter pain Bedstead Hide & Cord3. 0. 0
1 Bed, Bolster, 2 Pillows, 1 blanket, Bedstead Hide and Cord2. 0. 0
1 Bed, Bolster, 2 Pillows, 1 Blanket Bedstead & Cord1.15. 0
1 Bed, 1 Blanket 1 Bedstead and Cord1.15. 0
1 Bed, Bolster, 1 Rugg, 2 Pillows, Bedstead & Cord1.15. 0
1 small Bed and Quilt1. 0. 0
12 China Cups0. 3. 0
2 pair fine Holland Sheets6. 0. 0
1 pair Sheets 20/. 1 pr. Do. 12/. 1 pair Do. 12/.2. 4. 0
1 pair Do. 12/. 1 pr. Do. 20/. 1 pair Do. 7/61.19. 6
2 pair Do. 24/. 1 pair Do 5/.1 pair Do. 12/. 1 pr Do. 7/62. 8. 6
1 Counterpain 35/. 1 Do. 20/.2.15. 0
5 Breakfast Cloths 15/. 3 Damask Table Cloths 20/.1.15. 0
1 Desk 50/. 7 Diaper Cloths 50/.5. 0. 0
12 Damask Napkins 20/. A Parcel of old Curtains1.10. 0
4 Bound Magazines 4/. A Parcel Books 10/.0.14. 0

Ishmael Moody cont. p.2

One Room up Stairs
2 Beds 2 Bolsters 4 Pillows 1 Blanket 1 Bedstead hide & Cord5..0..0
8 Old Chairs & a Chest1..0..0
Second Room
1 Bed Bolster 1 pr. Sheets 4 Rugs Bedstead Hide & Cord4..10..0
12 old Chairs0..12..0
Third Room
2 old Chairs & a Chest0..10..0
10 Loaves dble refined Sugar wt. 70 lbs. At 2/3 d7..17..6
In the Barr Room
5 3 Qt China Bowles £3 2 Gallon Do. 26/ 1 Qt. Do. 10/4..16..0
1 large Case with 16 two Gallon Bottles2..12..0
1 Less Do. With 9 Gallon Bottles filled with Arrack6..0..0
2 smaller Do. With 16 two Qt. Bottles1..0..0
10 earthern Bowels & 2 old waiters0..12..6
2 Bottles Sliders Candle Box and Tobo. Box0..7..6
1 pr. Large Money Scales 2 old tables 1 Powder Horn Shotbag
1 Tobo. Sive 2 Pewter Inkstands1..0..0
In the Billiards Room.
A Billiard Table, 1 Stick 2 Ques 7 old Balls 2 Benches 12 Candlesticks to the Billiard Table15..0..0
In the Billiard Room Loft
8 collars 2 Traces and Reins 1 Parbuckle Rope2..15..0
1 bear Skin0..5..0
In the Meat House
9 Panes Sash Glass at 1/32..18..3
Do. Smaller at 9d.1..8..6

Marot's or The English Coffee House [Shields Inv.] 2 1755


  • 2 Beds and furniture 2 tables 1 Brass Candlestick 1 old Trunk
  • 1 Pair Dogs 2 Quart Decanters 7 pair Snuffers 5 Glass Salts 1 Wine Glass
  • 1 pair old Money Scales 1 pair large brass Scales 1 Chafing Dish 4 Chairs
  • 3 Earthen Bowles 2 Coffee Pots 1 Chocolate Pot 1 Pewter Bason 1 Turene
  • 1 Tin dish Cover 24 Pewter Dishes 1 dozen Deep Plates 4½ dozen flat Do
  • 3 Earthen Dishes 1 Tea Kettle 1 Trivet 2 Box Irons &c 1 Grater
  • 1 Silver Punch Strainer 1 Silver Punch Spoon 2 Sugar Boxes 1 Tea Board
  • a Parcel China 5 Silver tea Spoons
  • 1 Marble Mortar &c 1 Bell Metal Mortar & Dutch Oven
  • 2 Dozen Candle Moulds 2 Stewpans and Stoppers 3 Iron Pots
  • 1 Bell Metal Skillet 1 large Copper - 1 Brass Kettle
  • 1 Jack 1 Coffee Mill 1 Silver Watch 2 Iron Spits 1 pair Dogs
  • 4 Pails 4 Tubs 2 large Butter pots 2 frying Pans 1 fish Kettle
  • 3 Potracks 1 Grid Iron 1 Dripping Pan 2 old Pewter Dishes
  • 7 old Ivory handle Knives &c 1 Warming Pan 2 old Square Tables
  • 3 Butter pots


  • 6 Beds and furniture 1 square Table 1 Looking Glass
  • 1 Chair 2 Rush Chairs 1 Elbow Chair 2 Trunks and 1 Screen


  • 1 old Cupboard 1 large Jugg 1 pair Lime Squeezers
  • 1 pint 1 ½ pint and 1 Gill Pot
  • 1 Gallon Pot 2 pair New Shoes 1 Chair 8 Potting Pots 1 beer Cask
  • 1 Brass Cock


  • 41 Rennish 6 Brass Cocks 1 Powdering Tub 2 old Pewter Dishes
  • 11 Table Cloths 32 Napkins 2 dozen Towels 11 pair Sheets 12 Pillowbeers
  • 3 pr Window Curtains
  • 4 Milk Pans
  • 1 Billiard Table and balls 1 New Cloth for Do
  • 3 half pint Decanters & 1 pint Do
  • 69 Wine Glasses 82 Jelly Do 6 Sweet meat Do 29 Sullibub Do
  • 17 Earthen Dishes 3 China Do 3 China Butter Plates 22 Pye moulds
  • 1 Wood Tea Board 11 Quizes Paper
  • Parcel old brass 1 Box Pipes 6 Glass Servers
  • 2 new Narrow Hoes 1 New Spade
  • 10 Groce Quart Bottles 3 jars 1 Waggon 1 Cart 2 Chairs 1 Wheel Barrow
  • And 8 Horses


  • 45 Heads of old Cattle 13 Yearlings and 5 calves
  • 10 Heads of Hogs
  • A Parcel of Carpenters tools
  • 1 Bed & furniture 6 Dishes 1 Iron Pot
  • 2 Mares and 2 Colts 1 Whip Saw 1 Cross cut Do 1 Gun 1 Wheat Sifter
  • 5 Milk Pans 1 Grindstone a parcel of Copper Tools
  • 1 Case & 11 Bottles for Do
  • 25 Negros
  • A Parcel of Corn Tobacco and Pease


Returned into York County Court the 21st day of January 1750[/51] and [deleted]

James Mitchell cont. p. 2 1772

12 leather Bottom Chairs6..0..0
1 large Oval Walnut Table4..0..0
2 Mahogany Tables (Oval)6..0..0
1 other Mahogany oval Table2.10..0
1 Walnut Corner Table1..0..0
1 Mahogany Table for Cards lined4..0..0
1 Iron Grate with Brass Front2.10..0
1 large looking Glass3..0..0
12 Prints of the Seasons Glazed & framed4.10..0
1 large Map of Virginia1..0..034.10..0
in the Billiard Room Viz.
1 Billiard Table 45..0..0
4 pr. Billiard Balls1..5..0
6 Green Silk Pockets 15/ 2 pine Forms 20/1.15..0
6 Tin Sconces1..0..049..0..0
in the Room next the Billiard Room Viz
12 Leather Bottom Chairs7.10..0
1 Small Square Walnut Table .12..6
1 Small Round Walnut Table .15..0
2 Pr. Backgammon Tables2..0..0
1 Chess Board and 2 Setts of Chess Men1..0..0
11 Prints Glazed and framed2..0..0
1 Iron Grate2.10..016..7..6

John Gibbons cont. p. 5

1 Bed bedstead &c 60/ 1 oval Table 5/ 1 Sqr: ditto 5/
1 Billiard Table & Balls £1518.10..0
5 ½ doz pewter plates 90/ 22 dishes 100/ 1 doz water plates 35/ 1 Safe 15/12.--.--
1 pewter Tureen 10/. 1 Copper Stew pan 30/ 1 Mortar & Pestle 10/2.10..0
1 sifting tray 5/ Sundry Earthen ware 10/ 1 large Coffee Pott 20/1.15..0
17 Candle Moulds 30/ 3 Saddles 15/ old Iron & lumber 40/4..5..0
26 Table Cloths £13- 1 doz Ivory Handle Knives and forks 20/ 14..0..0
1 ½ doz Towells 20/ 1 doz Knives and forks 10/ 3 Carboys 18/2..8..0
a parcel of old Casks & 3 Case Bottles 40/ 2 Soap Jarrs 20/3..0..0
1 large Copper Kettle £6 1 Small w ditto 60/ 1 fish Kettle 40/ 11..0..0
1 Copper Stew pan 15/ 1 Bell Skillet 25/ 1 Tea Kettle 7/6
1 Grid Iron 5/2.12..6
1 Copper Cullender 15/ 5 Iron Pots 50/ 2 Spits 10/ 2 frying & 1 dripping pan 12/64..7..6
Virginia Gazette (Hunter) August 1, 1751To be SOLD, at Auction, on Thursday the 26th Day of September next, in the Town of Port-Royal, on Rappahanock River,
Two lots, with convenient Houses, one built for a Taver, 46 feet long, by 28, and large cellars under it; one other House, fit for a merchant, a Billiard Room and Table, Kitchen, Stable, and a large Garden. Six months Credit will be allow'd, the Purchaser giving Bond and Security, as usual to
John Micou,
N.B. If the Purchaser has a Mind to pay any Part of the Money down, the Interest shall be discounted.
Virginia Gazette (Rind) December 25, 1766

To be SOLD at private SALE, TWO LOTS in the Town of Rapahannock River, on which stands a genteel Two Story House, four rooms on each Floor, and seven Fireplaces, a good Stable for thirty horses, a Billiard House and Table, and all other convenient Houses. Two or three years Credit will be given, if the Purchaser or Purchasers give Bond and Security

N.B. A Stock of choice Liquors, and ever Kind of Furniture necessary, may be had with the House, if agreed for.

Virginia Gazette (Puride & Dixon) March 23, 1769[As part of a lottery in Portsmouth the following item was mentioned with value listed as £60]
"A lot or parcel of land at the Great Bridge, with a good billiard house upon it, opposite the Three Tun tavern."
Virginia Gazette (Purdie & Dixon) July 9, 1772

To be SOLD by the Subscriber, in HALIFAX Town, NORTH CAROLINA, Two lots in the said Town, adjoining the Courthouse and Jail, well situated for Tavern Keeping. There is one House forty four Feet long and twenty Feet wide, with three large Lodging Rooms up Stairs, and four Closets to the House, a Piazza the Length of the House ten Feet wide, with a large Bar Room at one End, and a Cellar underneath; also a Dwellinghouse adjoining, thirty two Feet long and sixteen Feet wide, with three Rooms below and two above and a Piazza on the Front side with Glass Windows above and below, well finished off; also a Billiard House twenty eight Feet long and eighteen Feet wide, with two good Lodging Rooms above, and a good Billiard Table; likewise a Kitchen sixteen Feet square, and a good Smokehouse, Stable, House Lots, &c. a large Garden in good Order, wherein are many Fruits and Herbs all well paled in, Any Person inclinable to purchase may know the Terms by applying to the Subscriber, now on the Premises

N.B. All the Houses have good Brick Chimnies, and are well plaistered and whitewashed.

Photocopy - Newspaper

Photocopy - Newspaper

James Shields cont. p. 3

In the Closet.
1 old Cupboard 1 large Jugg 1 pair Lime Squeezers, 1 pint 1 ½ pint & 1 gill Pot 1 Gallon Pot, 2 pair New Shoes, 1 Chair 8 Potting Pots 1 beer Cask 1 Brass Cock
In the Cellar &c.
41 Rennish 6 Brass Cocks 1 Powdering Tub 2 old Pewter Dishes 11 Table Cloths 32 napkins 2 dozen Towells 1 pair Sheets 12 Pillow beers 3 pr. Window Curtains 4 Milk Pans 1 Billiard Table and Balls 1 New Cloth for Do. 3 half pint Decanters & 1 pint Do. 69 Wine Glasses 82 Jelly Do. 6 Sweet Meat Do. 29 Sullibub Do. 17 Earthen Dishes 3 China Do. 3 China Butter Plates 22 Pye Moulds 1 Wood Tea Board 11 Quire Paper Parcel old Brass 1 Box Pipes 6 Glass Servers 2 new Narrow Hoes 1 New Spade 10 Groce Quart Bottles 3 Jars 1 Waggon 1 Cart 2 Chairs 1 Wheel Barrow and 8 horses
At the Quarter.
45 head of old Cattle 13 Yearlings and 5 Calves 10 Head of Hogs A Parcel of Carpenters tools 1 bed & Furniture 6 Dishes 1 Iron Pot 2 Mares and 2 Colts 1 Whip Saw 1 Cross cut Do. 1 Gun 1 Wheat Sifter 5 Milk Pans 1 Grindstone a Parcel of Coopers Tools 1 Case & 11 Bottles for Do. 25 Negros a Parcel of Corn Tobacco and Pease.

Ann Shields Exx.

Returned into York County Court the 21st day of January 1750 and Ordered to be recorded

Examd. Teste
Thos. Everard Cl. Cur.

March 7, 1989
To: Betty Leviner
From: Jan Gilliam
Subject: Evidence of Supper at the Raleigh Tavern

When the members of the House of Burgesses were in Williamsburg, many of them stayed in the local taverns. Often they ate at either the homes of local residents or at the taverns (although not necessarily the ones they lodged at). George Washington, when in Williamsburg, notes in this diary where he stayed and dined. He most often lodged at Christiana Campbell's, and, although he did eat there at times, he also frequented other establishments. In the years between 1768 and 1770, Anthony Hay was proprietor of the Raleigh Tavern. Washington noted several times when he "supped at Hays," "spent the Evening at Hay's," or "supped at the Raleigh." The entry of May 3, 1769 reads, "Went into Williamsburg and dined with the Council & spent the Evening in the Daphne." While in town he enjoyed playing cards, and on the same day he was in the Daphne Washington notes, in his ledger book, winning £4.17.6 (probably from cards played while at the Raleigh).

It is reasonable to assume that many evenings at the taverns were spent with friends and other members of the House playing cards and eating. At the beginning of the century, William Byrd, in his diary, often mentions having gone with a few friends to the local coffeehouse in town and playing at cards or dice. Byrd, unlike Washington, rarely mentions having supper at the tavern although in several instances he did spend the whole evening there. Most likely his companions, if not himself, had something to eat and most certainly to drink.

While in Philadelphia William Black described an evening at the tavern where a "Select Number of Gentlemen" meet as a club every night at the tavern, "where they pass away a few Hours in the Pleasures of Conversation and a Cheerful Glass; about 9 of the clock, we had a very Genteel Supper, and afterwards several sorts of Wine and fine Lemon Punch set out the Table, of which every one might take of what he best lik'd, and what Quantity he Pleas'd, between the hours of 10 and 11,..." George Washington while in Williamsburg also mentions being a part of the Club and convening at a tavern, although he does not specifically detail the event (it was probably very similar to this).

J. K. G.

Photocopy of Pictorial Field-Book, page 280[Photocopy of Pictorial Field-Book, page 280]

Photocopy of Pictorial Field-Book, page 278[Photocopy of Pictorial Field-Book, page 278]

RR163749The Old Raleigh Tavern

September 12, 1990
To: Betty Leviner
From: John Davis
Subject: Heating at the Raleigh Tavern

This memorandum results from a discussion on heating at the Raleigh Tavern held at the Department of Collections on March 29 and including Mark Wenger, Betty Leviner, John Davis, Jan Gilliam, and Martha Katz-Hyman.

Upon examination of the documentation for the Raleigh Tavern, we felt that the building, with the exception of a single fireplace, was heated with grates.

Only one pair of andirons are listed in the Anthony Hay inventory of 1771. These are the "2 Brass headed fire Dogs 12/6" grouped with the furnishings for the three northerly rooms on the first floor. It was decided that these would most appropriately represented in the Apollo Room.

All of the other nine fireplaces acknowledged by the inventory in the main building are described simply as having a fender. Four of these also have a poker, and two have a "blower" or bellows.

Our reasons for presuming that these fireplaces were fitted with grates are largely conjectural:

  • 1.That grates that were built or closely fitted into fireplace openings would not necessarily be recorded in the inventory.
    This is analagous to the Botetourt inventory of 1770, in which presumably movable grates are listed with fenders and tools in four of the Palace's principal rooms, while five other principal rooms are simply credited with a fender and tools. This we interpreted as indicating the use of built-in grates.
  • 2.That the consistent use of pokers as the only fire tool would tend to indicate the use of coal and not wood. Fenders also appear more consistently with grates in written documentation than with andirons.
  • 3.That the "2 Copper Coal Skuttles l0/." listed with the kitchen equipment would tend to indicate the substantial use of coal on the property.
  • 4.That Anthony Hay is known to have dealt in coal.
    Hay wrote in an undated letter to Neil Jamieson, the Norfolk merchant: "Agreeable to your Request on Selling your Coal I Assisted and Sold more than was sent. If you Could send a Small Vessel up to the Landing, with five or six hundred Bushels you would oblige Many that wants Coal My Lord tooke five hundred Bushells more then he agreed for but when he See them he wanted the whole Load. I Dare say such a Load would sell at the same price, The Revend Mr Horrocks had two hundd Bushells he told me it weas not Convenient for him to pay for them till October Court when you may depend upon your Money I did not Chuse to press him for it. I hope you will Excuse me for the Liberty I have taken in giving him till that time."(Neil Jamieson Papers, Vol. 23, No. 5282-5, Library of Congress)
  • 5.That the Humphrey Harwood ledgers reveal the extensive use of grates at the Raleigh Tavern during the late 70s and 80s with the reasonable interpretation of probable earlier grate use in the building. The Harwood ledgers unfortunately do not begin until 1776, six years after Hay's death, but James Southall, Hay's successor, had Harwood do considerable work at the Raleigh Tavern between 1778 and 1794 with conspicuous attention to grates.
    [9/78] To 100 bricks 5/6.2/9 & Seting up Grate with A Rubd bricks 30/.15/. & 1 days lar 6/ 2. 1. 6
    [9/78] To Repairing 4 Grates 6/.3/. & 2 days labour 12/4/. 18.
    [2/79]To 50 bricks 6/.1/5 2 bushels of lime 6/.1/6 & Seting up A Grate 20/.5/. & labr 6/2/ 1.18.
    [8/83] To 1 bushl of mortar 1/. & Repairing Grate 1/6 2. 6
    [11/84] To repairing Drane, & do 3 Grates 5/5.
    [1/85] To setting up a grate 6/. & repairing one 3/ 9.
    [11/85] To setting up a Grate 5/. & repairg 1 do of do 2/67. 6
    [1/86] To 10 bushels of lime a 1/. 42 bricks 1/3. & Repairing 2 Grates 3/9.15.
    [12/88] To 4 bushs of lime 4/. Mendg plasterg & 2 Grates 3/. & labr 2/. 9.
  • 6.

    That the accounts with Southall are with just one of close to sixty clients Harwood serviced in regard to grates between 1776 and 1788. The ledgers reveal the widespread use of grates in both public and domestic spaces, including other taverns, in Williamsburg and its environs and that this widespread use was well established by the time the ledgers begin. There are specific mentions of grates on second floors and of the occasional supply of grates for installation and their weights.

    The numerous references to "taking down" grates so that the plasterwork could be repaired may indicate that many of the grates were made integral with the interior fabric of the fireplaces or, at least, closely fitted. This may further support the lack of the consistent inclusion of grates in inventories. I have not checked the Harwood client list against existing inventories.

  • 7.That Elizabeth Hay, Anthony's widow, had Harwood repair a grate in 1775 and set up others in 1782 and 86, perhaps reflecting an earlier familiarity with grates.
  • 8.That other Virginia taverns are known to have used grates at a comparable date. The most notable of these is the Swan Tavern in Yorktown. The 1772 inventory of James Mitchell, its proprietor, lists grates in its four principal rooms with fireplaces: "1 Iron Grate with Brass Front 2.10.0" ("In the large room next the Street below stairs [after an upstairs section]"); "1 Iron Grate 2.10.0" ("in the Room next the Billiard Room Viz"); "1 Grate with Brass Knots & fender" ("In the Room next the Kitchen Viz"); and "1 Grate fender poker Shovel & Tongs £5" ("In the Chamber Viz").

I hope that we can further explore with Ed Chappell and his staff this question of how the Raleigh Tavern was heated and have their needed expertise in implementing the proper "setting up" of grates. This will be an important corrective in our interpretation of this significant aspect of the building and its use in the eighteenth century. The heating of other sites in the historic area also need reevaluation, notably the Peyton Randolph House.



  • 1.Building name: Raleigh Tavern
  • 2.Location: Duke of Gloucester Street - north side, Block 17, Lot 54
  • 3.Eighteenth-century use: tavern
  • 4.Period to which structure restored/reconstructed:
  • 5.If exhibition building, period interpreted: second half of eighteenth century --probably fourth quarter (H. Harwood's reference to northern room as "the new room" in 1780s.)
  • 6.
    Owners: Occupiers: Occupations:
    by 1717 Thomas Jones Henry Bowcock (d.1730) tavern keeper
    1730-1731 Thomas Jones Mary, widow of Henry Bowcock tavern keeper
    1731-1735 Thomas Jones Henry Wetherburn tavern keeper
    1735-1742 ? Henry Wetherburn tavern keeper
    1742-1749 John Blair to John Dixon, David Meade, Patrick Barclay, Alexander McKenzie, James Murray Henry Wetherburn (to 1742) tavern keeper
    1749-1752 Alexander Finnie Alexander Finnie tavern keeper
    1752-1756 John Chiswell & Dr. George GilmerAlexander Finnie tavern keeper
    1757-1763 John Chiswell & Dr. George Gilmer ? tavern keeper
    1763-1767 William Trebell William Trebell tavern keeper
    1767-1770 Anthony Hay Anthony Hay tavern keeper
    (continued on page 2)
  • 7.Comments on lifestyle of owner s/occupiers: middling
  • 8.Recommended name change: no change
(Page 2)


  • 1.Building name: Raleigh Tavern
  • 2.Location: Duke of Gloucester Street - north side- Block 17, Lot 54
  • 6.
    Owners: Occupiers: Occupations:
    1771-c.1793 James B. Southall (d.1800) James B. Southall tavern keeper
    1797 James B. Southall Gabriel Maupin tavern keeper
    1798 James B. Southall Louis Pagand tavern keeper
    by 1803 Philip Moody Philip Moody tavern keeper

RR163750Detail of Frenchman's Map

Photocopy - Advertisement

Will of Anthony Hay YCR WI 21, p. 529-30

In the Name of God Amen I Anthony Hay of the City of Williamsburgh, being Weak in Body, but of sound and Perfect Mind and Memory (blessed be God) do this twentieth day of January one Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy, make and Publish this My last Will and Testament in Manner and form following viz! - First I Desire that my Body may be buried in a Plain black Pine Coffin that my funeral be attended with no Expence, and that none of my Family put on Mourning, unless my Dearly beloved Wife should insist upon it as to herself --
Secondly Whereas my Eldest Son Thomas Hay is more amply provided for by the Will of his Grandfather Thomas Penman late of this City, than I can Provide for any of the rest of my Children, I do give unto my said Son Thomas, the sum of Ten Pounds, as a Pledge of my Paternal Affection for him Assuring him [ ] that tho' he receives no further part of my Estate, he shares my Affections equallly with the rest of all my Children - Thirdly I do give unto my Executros (hereafter to be named) all my Estate both real and Personal of every kind for the sole purpose of paying my [ ] debts and trust they will Discharge those in the most Effectual Manner for the benefit of [my] Estate, and the Interest of my Children --
Fourthly I do give unto my Affectionate and beloved Wife Elizabeth Hay, the whole of my Estate of every kind (after the payment of my Debts) for her life to use and Dispose of as she shall think most Prudent for the sole purposes of [ ] support and the maintaining and Educating the Children I have by [her] and after her Death I direct that my whole Estate be divided between the Children I have by her Share and Share Alike, I have given the whole of my Estate to my Wife, for her Life in trust and Confidence, that she will never Marry again but employ her time and her Estate so left her wholly in bringing up her Child[ren] and Maintaining and Educating them in the best Ma[nn]er [about three words missing] the Circumstances of my Estate. If she should Mar[ry] [about four words missing] Estate to be Divided [be]tween [about four words missing] by Equally. [About eight words missing or illegible] and worthy friends John Greenhow, Matthew Davenport, William Trebell and Robert Nicholson Executors of this my last Will and Testament hoping that they jointly with my Wife will and or [ ]ke the Execution of it and aid and Assist her with their best advice and most friendly endeavours. In Testimony whereof I have subscribed my hand and Affixed my seal the day and year above Mentioned. --

Anthony Hay

Signed sealed and published in presence of
Fred Bryan
Tho. Skinner
James Hubard

At a Court held for York County the 17th day of December 1770 This will was proved according to Law by the Oaths of Frederick Bryan and James Hubard witnesses thereto and [ ] to be recorded and at a Court held for the said County the 21st day of January 1771. William Trebell and Robert Nicholoson two of the Executors in the said Will Named took the Oath of Executors and together with Peyton Randolph Esq. and Benjamin Powell their Securities entered into an Acknowledged Bond to the Law and Certificate was granted the said Executors Obtaining in due form Liberty being reserved for the other [Exectors] to Join in the Probat when they shall think fit

Thos. Everard Co. Cur.

James Southall Receipt Book 1771-1776

30 June 1771 [paid £2.12.6 for 6 P Billiard Balls.]
[J T] Woodford

23 July 1771 red from Mr James Southall the sum of Ten pounds for Joseph Kidd's order on you
Jacob Allan

6 Nov 1771 Recd the 6th of Mr James Southall one Hundd: & one pounds in full for a Negro Fellow purchased at the Sales of Anto Hay Deceased
Wm. Trebell

Decr. 31st 1771 Recd of Mr James Southall ten pounds Currt Money in part of his Debt to Dinner & Club on 21 Instt

-. 5.-
£l0. 0.0
Anthy Walke

Jany 15 1772 Recd of Mr Jas. Southall Seven Pounds for a Chair bought at the Sale at Colo. Burwell's
Will Spratley

Received Feby 21 1772 of Mr James Southall the sum of four pounds for the Hire of a Negro Winch Fillis till Christmass last [sic]
Jno Earnshaw

8 April 1772 [paid £3.15.0 for "a Bagg of Conks & 3 Cheeses"]

May 14th 1772 Received of Mr James Southall Six Pounds Seven Shillings & 4d: in full for a large Chimney Back bought of Mr Anth Hay's Estate
Jos Pennell

18 May 1772 [£8.14.9 ½ for nails etc for repairs of his house in Richmond; paid to James McDowall

Recvd May 19 1772 of James Southall seven pounds Fifteen shilling in part for a se[at?] of Black Smith T[crossed out]ls [tools?] which Mr Peter Powell Bought of the Honbl Phillip Ludwells Estate
Gary Wilkinson

Recvd May 22 1772 of James Southall Sixteen pounds Two Shillings in full for the yous of the play Hous
Pr D.B. Roberts

Recvd Novr 26 1772 of James Southall Nine pounds Seven Shillings and three pence for Candles and Cranberys in full to this Day
Philip Carbery

May 10th 1773 Received of Mr James Southall Sixty six pounds Virginia Currency in full for a negroe man, nam'd Juba, sold at publick sale for Maurice Langhorne of Cumberland County: I am [toall] that Mr Langhorne gives a bill of sale for sd. negroe
Robert Burton for Alexr Banks

Reced May 13th: 1773 of James Southall -- Eighty Pounds Current Money for Mr: John Earnshaw, for his Negro Woman -- Phyllis sold him by Mr: Earnshaw's order
Ben: Waller

Aug 18th -73, Recd of Mr James Southall four Pounds, being the Balance for the Rent of the Hose lately occupied by him in the back Street, and which was the Property of my Wife Peachy
A Purdie

Recd. Decr. 8th [17731 two pounds. nine shilligs for 10 dozen Wine Glasses
Wm Page

May 1774 Recd of Mr James Southall the Sum of Eight pounds for two Pinch Back Watches
P. E. Curtis

Bought by Mr. John [Russell)

Recd. Feby 6th 1775 of Mr Southall Forty Shillings for a Licence for his Billiard Table begining fm. Decr. 31st last
John Carter C.C.W.

Recd. July 2nd 1775 of Mr Jas Southall five pounds for Two ps. Negrs Cotton
Wm Goodson

Recvd Novr 3 1775 of James Southall Two pounds for one Muskit
William Lively

Revd Jany 1 1776 of James Southall thirty Five shillings in full for a gun bought of me
Thos. Pearman

[Throughout the book are numerous receipts for purchases of lemons, limes, bread, beef, pork, butter, arrack, gin, rum, beer, wine, tea, oats, corn, flour, veal, mutton, and sweetmeats.)

May 6, 1976
TO: Peter Brown
FROM: Patricia Gibbs
RE:/ Changing the name from "taproom" to "barroom" at the Raleigh Tavern

Ever since the reconstruction of the Raleigh the room containing the bar has been called the taproom. "Taproom" is a nineteenth-century English term which I hope we can drop in our efforts to more accurately interpret eighteenth-century Williamsburg. Pages from the Oxford English Dictionary which define "barroom" and "taproom" are attached.

There was a barroom, billiard room, and two other rooms downstairs - as well as three rooms upstairs- at Ishmael Moody's tavern in Yorktown in 1748. Since we do not have any information which gives a specific name to the room at the Raleigh where drinks were served, I recommend that we call it the "barroom" - as the bar is located in the room. Except for the "Apollo," assigning names to specific rooms at the Raleigh is conjectural. References to names for rooms at the tavern were included in the attached "Information Regarding Rooms at the Raleigh Tavern" which was part of a long memo I sent to Carol Burk on June 3, 1974, RE: Answers to Questions about the Taverns Raised by Hosts and Hostesses.

I feel that now is a good time to change the name from taproom to barroom since the pamphlets on the exhibition buildings prepared by Stephen Rowe are about to be published for use this summer. Dr. Riley also agrees with this change. Therefore I have recommended this change in the text of the pamphlet on the Raleigh and hope it will be approved.


CC: Mr. Short

13 October 1981
To: Escorts and Hosts/Hostesses
From: Pat Gibbs, Research Assistant
Subject: Raleigh Tavern: reconstruction, intended use, and opening as first Colonial Williamsburg exhibition building

Excavation of the site began in 1928 and reconstruction of the Raleigh Tavern began in 1929. Though intended as a dining facility with lodging rooms on the second floor and several ground-floor rooms on the front used for exhibition purposes, the original purpose was not carried out.

After the reconstruction was completed in February 1932 but before all of the equipment needed for serving meals was installed, the building was occasionally exhibited to special groups. Visitor interest to view the interior prompted Colonial Williamsburg to open the tavern as an experiment while awaiting the arrival of final items for cooking and serving meals. Thus, interpretation of Colonial Williamsburg's first exhibition building began, not as a planned occurrence, but as an interim measure taken somewhat reluctantly to satisfy visitor demand. Favorable reception of the experimental opening on 16 September 1932 and continued visitation caused abandonment of the original intention to serve meals and lodge visitors at the Raleigh.

Late in 1950 the modern kitchen built onto the north end of the tavern was removed, moved to Goodwin Street, and converted to a residence. The reconstructed exhibition kitchen was completed in 1953.

Names assigned to rooms at the newly reconstructed tavern were based on reminiscences (late 1850's) by Mrs. Missouri Timberlake whose father, Robert Blassingham, was keeper when the tavern burned in December 1859. Room names then and now follow:

After ReconstructionPresent
Taproom Barroom
Reception Room (The One and the Four) Club Room (or Gentlemen's Room)
Parlour Billiard Room
Ladies Withdrawing Room Tavernkeepers Room
Apollo Apollo
Daphne (Minerva) Daphne
Public Dining RoomNew Room*

Note: Except for the Apollo, assigning names to specific rooms at the Raleigh is conjectural. See also my May 1974 memo, "Information Regarding Rooms at the Raleigh Tavern," located in the NEW TAVERN INFORMATION folders.

Guests and some townspeople remember eating at and attending parties at the Raleigh. Through the years and occasionally today special parties are held at the tavern. And until recent years, persons occasionally lodged in 2 the bedrooms off the back hall upstairs. But most visitors who remember dining at the Raleigh probably ate at the Travis House which served meals between 1930 and 1951 when it was located on the present site of the Greenhow house and store. Or if they are really old-timers, they may remember eating at the Raleigh Hotel, a hostelry located across from the Colonial Inn on Market Square from around 1900 until about 1930.

P. G.

November 6, 1981.

To: Mr. Graham Hood
From: Margaret Beck
Sumpter Priddy

Subject: Raleigh Tavern

Relying heavily upon the Anthony Hay inventory of the Raleigh Tavern and what we have pieced together concerning available 18th, 19th and 20th century documentation relating to the Raleigh Tavern, we have attempted to once again update the surviving evidence into a new interpretive scheme. We believe that many of the points raised in this study, more effectively explain the sequence of the Hay inventory.

Two important facts must be considered initially. The most essential to understanding the inventory is that the Public Dining Room in the rear of the tavern was added after the inventory. It was a separate building that was moved to that location and added to the building during the time of the Southall occupancy.1 The second is the fact that among the liberties that the architects took in reconstruction, was the center staircase between the bar area and the Apollo Room. As stated in May Hoffschwelle's memo (September 20, 1979) only two of the staircases were indicated by the foundations, but the third was added for circulation convenience. Further documentation for this is found in the archival material, the archaeological map, and it is indicated from the Harewood/Southall accounts that there are only two staircases. Mary was misled in her statement however, that "The archaeological excavation on this site uncovered foundations for all the rooms on the first floor as reconstructed with the exception of the hostess room at the porch door." See archaeological plan of the foundation, attached.2 The room presently used by the hostesses was actually one of the few surviving walls uncovered by archaeology.

According to Pat Gibbs, the original building was altered three or four times. The original structure (C ) consisted of what is currently the bar and gentleman's room.3 A second addition was what is currently the hall and billiards room.4 The Apollo and Daphne were later additions (probably under the time of Alexander Finnie in the 1950's) and it is possible through uncertain whether the Innkeepers Room (off of the "Billiards Room") was also added at this time. Finally the "Public Dining Room" or "New Room" was added after the inventory of Anthony Hay. These alterations would seem to account for the unsymmetrical appearance of the Raleigh, not inaccurate information supplied to Benson Lossing as Walter Macomber assumed.

"The design of Raleigh Tavern exterior was controlled by a crude sketch made in 1848 by Benson J. Lossing to illustrate his "Pictorial Field Book of the American Revolution." The building had partially been destroyed when he __________ Williamsburg, and the west front only was standing when he drew it, consequently the south elevation in his sketch was based on the description furnished him by the men who were at work altering the building, who in round terms staled the south front was identical with the west side. This accounts for the unsymmetrical arrangements of windows in the sketch, and the entrance door being off center."6

Not pertaining to this study but of general interest concerning alterations to the Raleigh Tavern was the addition of a gallery in the Apollo Room by 1859.7 Another interesting 19th century addition to this building was a bowling alley.8

Before we discuss the breakdown of rooms as we see them, there are a few points concerning tavern functions which are essential to our conceptions of this building. The idea of an office and tavern accounting is underdeveloped as we interpret the tavern today. As we learn more about 18th century accounting and specifically the needs for certain records relating to tavern functions, it was definitely a most integral aspect of tavern life. There are two desks listed in the downstairs of the Anthony Hay inventory. In a 1766 Virginia Gazette, tavernkeeper tavernkeeper James Southall advertises for a barkeeper who knows something of accounts.9 In our interpretation of the inventory, one of the desks is located in the barkeepers room, and one in the tavernkeepers room. "Those who advertised often specified that the keeper be 'a sober person, of good capacity;' that he be 'well qualified for keeping a good ordinary' and 'recommended as such by persons' who can be depended on; and that he 'can write a good hand'."10

Pat Gibbs has stated that at taverns drinks were purchased separately as well as with meals. We see this in a few surviving accounts of tavernkeepers with guests. They are charged separately for rooms, meals, stable help, and drinks. This accumulates into a vast quantity of paperwork considering the size of the Raleigh Tavern. Not only did they have to keep good accounts but they had to maintain good sources and inventories of food supplies and liquor.

Bearing these activities in mind, the logical location for the barkeepers quarters is within close proximity to the bar where he could watch the cash flow. We suspect that such was also the case at Wetherburn's Tavern in that the barkeepers or innkeepers room was located where the hostess room is now, lending him complete access to the bar.

Finally, we feel that it is reasonable to assume that public rooms were located at the front of the building and private rooms were located away from the front and the cashier. Therefore, we feel that it is logical to assume that since billiards was considered a private game, the billiards table would not have been located at the front of the building. This was most likely a public dining area. It makes more sense to have the bar located where it is more accessible to public dining areas than have to walk through more private areas to get from one to another.

Three downstairs bed chambers are clearly indicated in the Hay inventory. This is further substantiated by James Southall accounts with Humphrey Harewood where the presence of several downstairs chambers is also indicated. Harewood charges Southall on May 11, 1780 "To repairing steps at Chamr door, and do corner of the underpining 152/... 4... 10."11 Two years later he charges Southall again (April 29, 1782) "To repairing stove in kitching and steps to Chamr door 3/9... 3.9"12 On April 23, 1785 the Harewood/Southall account reads "To building a pair of steps to Mrs Southall Room door 7/6".13

The apparent presence of Mrs. Southall in the Raleigh Tavern brings up the aspect of women in the tavern life, Pat Gibbs states in her tavern report that "besides the duties of running her house and raising a family she was often responsible for supervising the cooks and other tavern servants. In an advertisement for his small tavern in Williamsburg, Christopher Ayscough noted that "Mrs. Ayscough very well understands the COOKERY part."11 He could justly praise his wife's cooking since Anne Ayscough had been Governor Fauquier's cook at the Palace."14

Many of these points are confirmed by the Raleigh inventory. It is obvious that the inventory takers began on the second floor. There appear to be 12 bedrooms with two closets, one with chamberpots and one with linens. Only two of these bedchambers have fireplace equipment but considering the fact that there is evidence for eight fireplaces downstairs it is possible that there were grates. There are numerous references to setting up and repairing grates in the Harewood/Southall accounts.[15]

The entry "1 Glass lanthern at the stair foot" clearly indicates that the inventory takers had begun with the downstairs rooms. We have divided these into eight rooms with eight fireplaces. Immediately the inventory takers began listing the bar equipment indicating that they came down the front staircase since the only other staircase was the one between the Apollo and Daphne Rooms. Logically the bar was in the general vicinity of the front entrance in the general area of where the "Gentlemen's Room" is now. There was no archaeological evidence for the bar being where it is currently located. It is rumored that the reason for placing the bar in the Southwest corner of the building was because it was felt that for convenience the bar was located over the cellar. The cellar however extended at least as far as under the "Gentleman's Room" and under the Apollo.16

This location for the bar makes more sense for several reasons. As we will suggest later, the barkeeper would have access to the bar as well as his own private quarters. It would enable him to monitor the front entrance and gives the bar the greatest accessibility to all the various rooms in the tavern. Immediately following the bar equipment is furniture suitable to a bar area.

Two separate groups of dining related furniture follow the bar and gaming furniture. The smaller group we believe was located in what is now the Tap Room and the larger group would likely have been located in what is now the Billiard Room. Not only does this make sense in conjunction with the inventory sequence, but it also makes sense when one considers each room as a functional unit in relation to the entrance and, bar area. Upon entering the tavern, the public dining area would appear to have been to the right, located conveniently next to the bar. The smaller dining room was probably slightly more private in nature and shares the same close proximity to the bar. This arrangement seems to be more practical than having to walk through one dining area to get to another. As previously mentioned, we feel that more public rooms were towards the front and entrance to taverns. Billiards was more of a private game and most likely found in the rear of the tavern. It is interesting to note that this is the only room in which cloak pins are mentioned.

Proceeding through the inventory the next room is a downstairs bed chamber. Judging from the quality and nature of the furnishings, this was probably the innkeepers room. The furniture was elaborate for what one would expect to find in a tavern, the bed valued at £16 (coincidentally there is the reference to Dickenson repairing Mrs. Hay's pulley bed after the death of her husband.17) We expect that this room was located off the public dining area (currently Billiards Room). After mealtime, this area of the tavern would not be frequented by guests making it a more private area. The innkeepers would have had to have a desk and bookcase, in addition, this is the only room which has the more personal entry of a gun lock.

The next group of furniture appears to be that associated with the barkeeper, and the next available space in the layout of the building is where the hostess room is currently located. As previously mentioned, the foundations under this room date to the 18th century. The press bedstead and large Scale Box, Scales and Weights one would expect to find in an area designated for the barkeeper. From this location he would have easy access to the outbuildings. In many instances, we presume that the barkeeper acted as somewhat of a butler. There is a _________ listed with this group in which items relating to the bar are evidenced in addition to numerous brass candlesticks. It is logical to assume that the barkeeper was responsible for checking in and out candlesticks. Some of these items were probably stored in a closet since the entry of a Fender generally concludes a particular listing.

Of one thing is certain, Anthony Hay was too ill during the last part of his life to conduct business at the Raleigh Tavern without the assistance of a reliable barkeeper. Due to his financial situation, he most likely spent as much time as possible at the tavern. In summarizing the Raleigh furnishings, Ron Hurst gives a good indication of the vast quantities of equipment available for use. Much of this would likely have been supervised by the barkeeper.

"Hay's food and beverage equipment denoted an operation of enormous proportions. Included in the £37 worth of silver he possessed were six punch ladles, twenty-two tablespoons, and twenty-eight teaspoons. The kitchen was well equipped with several dozen kettles, pots, and pans, and in addition to the normal accoutrements, there were ten brass chafing dishes, two Dutch ovens, and a number of other specialized pieces.

In the dining rooms, Hay's utensils were not only numerous, but expensive as well. Among other things, the appraisers listed 139 "Queens China" plates, 122 other china plates, and an incredible "412 Pieces of Glass ware for Pyramids &c." In all Hay owned £173 worth of food and beverage equipment, including silver. Table linen was equally extensive. Hay's thirty-seven tablecloths and twenty-six napkins were valued at £53.18

The next group of objects indicated by the inventory is another downstairs chamber. There is a nice walnut bedstead with curtains and we suspect a trundle bed. It is entirely possible that Mrs. Hay used this room as her own at the time when her husband owned the Raleigh. We know from the Harewood/Southall accounts that there were definitely two sets of exterior stairs leading to chambers mentioned, and one is specifically referred to as "Mrs Southall Room door". The location of this room would logically be where the inaccurate stair hall is currently located. We can see from the Lossing drawing that there is a door leading into the area that we propose as a bed chamber. We also know from Lossing's written accounts that there was an exterior entrance door into the Apollo from the east elevation of the room in addition to interior entrances from both sides. (See Lossing drawing.) It seems logical that the exterior entrance to the Apollo would be accessible to the outbuildings while also visible from the barkeepers vantage point. The evidence strongly supports the presence of this exterior door into the room modified as a hallway and considering the fact that reference is made to exterior doorways into two bedchambers, this is a likely candidate.

The Hay inventory is consistent with other tavern inventories in the presence of these downstairs bedchambers. We suspect that as more research is compiled from inventories, what will emerge is that these bedchambers were primarily used by people associated with the tavern, or by special customers. The bedchamber which we suspect was located where the stair hall is now, would have been a convenient room for the wife of a tavernkeeper. There is no mention of record keeping equipment found here and it is possible that this was the location of the "14 colored prints". This room, having an exterior entrance would be more private than the other side of the tavern, since the Apollo would not have been in constant use, and the room on the other side we have interpreted as more of a semi-private dining room. One final point is that from our archaeological evidence, the fireplaces currently found in the bar and gentleman's room, were originally in the form of 4 diagonal fireplaces, the other two omitted in the reconstruction.

As previously mentioned, there was a womens role in tavern life allowing us to argue that a downstairs chamber for the wife of the tavernkeeper is presumable. Pat Gibbs cites specific instances where women were involved.

"Tavern keeping was not solely a man's occupation, for a number of women operated taverns--notably Susanna Allen, Christianna Campbell, Anne Sheilds, and Jane Vobe. Widows continued to operate the taverns which their husbands had kept. For instance, Mary Bowcock, whose husband, Henry Bowcock, died early in 1730, received an ordinary license in July, 1730. In 1767 Sarah Coke, widow of John Coke, gave notice to the "Gentlemen who were so kind as to favour her deceased husband with their custom that they, may depend on receiving the same entertainment as formerly."21
One couple, Richard and Mary Davis, jointly operated a tavern. Their business began in 1770 when Mary Davis advertised that she intended "to accommodate Ladies and Gentlemen with private lodgings." Sometime before October, 1772, they were operating a tavern at the Brick House; however, by January of the following year they had moved."22"19

The vast quantity and value of the textiles found in the inventory is further indication that Mrs. Hay was likely highly involved in the tavern functions.

The next grouping of furniture comprises both the Apollo and the Daphne Room. There are 22 tables listed and 33 chairs. The Daphne Room we propose as the location for the Billiard table. Being a private room, and billiards was a private game, this room seems a logical choice. The size is appropriate for the table. Surprisingly enough, after walking off the Apollo Room we believe that the remaining 21 tables and chairs would fit in that space. It is also interesting to note that with the presence of an exterior door into the room, there is exactly the correct number of positions for the "11 Brass Sconces". This room was added to the tavern at the time when assembly and ballrooms were fashionable. The closer that one examines the appearance of this room in relation to the activities that took place, the more closely it relates to the concept of the Assembly Room.

We have attempted to formulate some new concepts concerning our view of 18th century tavern life and to incorporate them with the Hay inventory of the Raleigh. After discussion and revision of these thoughts this memo will be reworked.

11 April 1983
To: Mr. Nicholas Pappas
From: Pat Gibbs
Subject: Whether to Tack or Paste Handwritten Notices on Walls at the Raleigh, Wetherburn's, and the Operating Taverns (Campbell's, Chowning's, and the King's Arms)

As you know, the Operating Taverns Committee, has approved posting ordinary rates and other handwritten notices beside the bars and in major rooms where guests are served and recommends the same be done at the Raleigh and at Wetherburn's.

Presently handwritten copies of incorrect ordinary rates and notices are tacked onto plaster walls at the Raleigh and a different set of incorrect ordinary rates are tacked on wood paneling beside Wetherburn's bar.

Recently when I mentioned to Margaret Pritchard that the Operating Taverns Committee wanted ordinary rates and notices attached to walls at the operating taverns and suggested the same be done at Wetherburn's, she said that Architectural Research had not allowed notices to be posted at Wetherburn's in the past.

Please explore ways to preserve the walls and woodwork of our buildings yet also make exterior tavern doorways and interior walls better fit Johann Schoepf's 1784 observations of Virginia taverns:

…It is not always the custom to hang shields before taverns, but they are easily to be identified by the great number of miscellaneous papers and advertisements with which the walls and doors of these publick houses are plaistered; generally, the more of such bills are to be seen on a house, the better it will be found to be. In this way the traveller is afforded a many sided entertainment, and can inform himself as to where the taxes are heavy, where wives have run away, horses been stolen, or the new Doctor has settled.

Several enclosed prints [Take my word if you can't see for yourself on the poorly reproduced copies.] show notices tacked to wooden paneling or in the case of the Lehman engraving possibly pasted on a plastered wall above the fireplace.

In 1889 a workman found several printed papers--including a fragment of a 1752 Williamsburg playbill, an invitation to assemble at the Palace before Botetourt's 16 October 1770 funeral procession, fragments of an "Association" broadside, and a 1774 proclamation of Honorable William Nelson-pasted on plastered walls, under several coats of whitewash, at the Ludwell-Paradise House [William and Mary College Quarterly, 1st series, 5(1896): 169-170].

March 31, 1986
To: Edward Chappell
From: Willie Graham
Subject: Billiard Room Book, Petersburg, Virginia

I discovered in the Petersburg clerk's office, a book that had originally been used as a ledger for a tavern billiard room. The 8¼" by 12½" book had a leather spine with marbled covers and across the front was handwritten "Billiard Book.". On the inside of the cover was written "Billiard Room Book Feby 13, 1787 L" in addition to a lot of period doodling. The only tavern entries in the ledger were at the rear of the book, and unfortunately most of these pages were torn out.

In 1803, the book was used to record the minutes for the Board of Exemption (from military duty) for the City of Petersburg. In 1787 the Petersburg Hustings Court was still meeting in taverns, and possibly this ledger was accidentally taken away along with the court records.

The ledger is helpful in several regards. First of all, it is interesting to know that separate ledgers were kept for billiard rooms. The entries reinforce the notion that gaming rooms existed and could be profitable additions to taverns. At this tavern people were paying to play cards, billiards and games. Drinking possibly went on in the same room as the games-and almost certainly the dining room was used for drinking. One wonders if the persons playing these games were local, as the entries indicate that up to ten days of gaming was being charged at one time.

W. J. G.

Copies to:
Harry Bradley
Peter Brown
Pat Gibbs
Ron Hurst
Nicholas Pappas
Orlando Ridout V
Mark R. Wenger
Research Files

October 19, 1989
To: Mr. Dennis O'Toole
From: Betty Leviner
Subject: Re-examination of Anthony Hay Inventory

As we discussed on the telephone yesterday, the Collections Division this fall proposes re-examining the inventory of the Raleigh Tavern taken at the time of Anthony Hay's death. We decided that the timing for such an analysis was a good one given the fact that the tavern will be closed for six months for maintenance and this closure was prompting the Department of Historic Interpretation to reconsider its interpretation of the building.

To this end I would like to enter into preliminary discussions with both Pat Gibbs and Mark Wenger to get their respective department's thinking about the Raleigh. Let me emphasize that we are by no means considering a full-scale overhaul of the tavern's furnishings. Rather, what we hope to accomplish is a refinement of those objects already there and the spaces that they occupy so as to bring the Raleigh closer in line with our current understanding of the 1771 inventory. This information would then be passed on to DHI so that it might be incorporated in any reinterpretation that they consider implementing at the time of the tavern's reopening on May 1, 1990.

If you have any questions or comments about this proposed re-examination, please call me at ext. 7513.


Copy to:
Mr. Cary Carson
Mr. Edward Chappell
Mr. George Collins
Mr. John Sands
Mr. Earl Soles

RR163752Assembly Instructions for Raleigh Tavern Billiard Table

November 1, 1989
To: Betty Leviner
From: Jon Prown
Subject: Assembly Instructions for Raleigh Tavern billiard table

Betty -

The enclosed hieroglyphics represent the Raleigh Tavern billiard table (1965-77) as it was marked and disassembled today. Every bolt, screw and pocket that was removed from the frame was individually marked and wrapped. I have sent copies to all involved in the project so we are sure that someone will have these directions come springtime. I will also ask Margie to put a copy in the file.



copies to:
Ron Hurst
Leroy Graves
Albert Skutans
Carey Howlett
Kim Funke
Margie Gill

February 26, 1990
To: The Files
From: Kimberly S. Funke
Rebecca Fass
Subject: Survey of "Beds and Mattrasses" in Inventories in Conjunction with the Refurnishing of the Raleigh Tavern

The entry, "34 Coloured Prints 20/. 1 Mattrass 40/ 3.0.0", in the Raleigh Tavern inventory of 1771 appears in what is believed to be a passage context. In trying to determine exactly what type of mattress this could be, Rebecca Fass studied the York County inventories for Williamsburg. (See attached). The following is a summary of what she found.

Out of a total of 121 inventories, 120 entries were found for "feather beds", with 100 (out of 36 inventories) found before 1740 and only 20 (out of 85 inventories) found after 1740. This may suggest that by the second half of the eighteenth century, "bed" had become synonymous with a feather bed. Only two entries were found to separate the price of a feather bed from the other bed furniture, "2 old feather bed" at 2.0.0 and "a small feather bed" at 0.15.0. other entries of interest are:

feather bed and cattail beds5.10.0
1 very old bed0.12.6
1 servs. Bed0.7.6
1 bed 1.5.0
1 bed 2.0.0
3 old beds 1.10.0
3 beds 3.15.0
1 bed 3.0.0
2 beds 6.10.0
2 beds 0.40.0
1 old flock bed and rugg 1.0.0
1 flock bed 0.10.0
1 bed and bolster 1.15.0
1 bed and bolster 2.0.0
1 bed and bolster 3.10.0
1 good bed and bolster 5.0.0

Five entries were found that separated the price of "mattrasses" from the other bed furniture:

1 mattrass 3.0.0 (1769)
1 mattrass 2.10.0 (1772)
4 hair mattrassess 6.0.0 (1775)
1 hair mattrass 1.0.0 (1766)
1 matrrass 2.0.0 (1771)

The average cost of these "mattrasses" is just a little over 1.16. which means that the mattress in the Raleigh Tavern valued at 2.0.0 is above the known average cost for mattresses between 1769 and 1775. We are also safe to assume from this that Page 2 the mattress was made of hair as opposed to straw or some other cheaper stuffing. If indeed this mattress is in a passage context (and not storage), it has been speculated that it was intended as bedding for a servant or slave. The question still remains whether bedding of this value would have been furnished for a slave or servant.

March 13, 1990
To: Mr. Graham Hood
From: Betty Leviner
Subject: Some Thoughts on the "One and the Four"

For some time we have puzzled over the Humphrey Harwood reference to whitewashing "ye One & ye Four 5/"(copy attached). We have wondered if this referred to one particular room known by a numeralistic name.

Last fall Jan was doing some tavern research and found two references in Kim Rice's tavern book to a Boston tavern that had one room called "the Eight" and another called "the Ten" (copy attached). Then two weeks ago I was looking at the 1742 Henry Bowcock inventory from the York County records and noted that it started off with "No. 1." which was followed with "2," "3," "4," "5," and "6" (copy also attached).

Is it possible that the "One" and the "Four" are two of the bedrooms upstairs, especially since the following entry is "To do [whitewashing] passage Below"? Any cognitions on this? I am sending a copy of this to Mark to see what his reaction is, as well.


Attachments (3)
Copy to:
Mr. Mark R. Wenger Betty,
This is the only sensible and reasonable suggestion I've yet heard!
[illegible] 3/14

[deleted]or 24] To labourers work 7/6 & white-washing 11 Rooms £
up Stairs a 4/6 2.17.
To white-washing ye passages up Stairs 22/6 1. 2. 6
To do 4 Rooms ye Bar & portch below at 4/6 .18.
To do Back Room in ye Kitchen 4/6 & ye Apollo 7/6 .12.
To do ye Daphne & new Room 6/ . 6.
To do ye One & ye Four 5/ . 5.
To do passage Below 13/6 .13. 6
[deleted]il 3To 270 bricks a 3 ½ pr 6.5 bus of lime 5/. & 1¼ days labr 3/11 .16. 1½
To Repairing Kitchen Chimney & Stove 9/ . 9.
To 2 bushels of Egg-shell Wheat a 5/ .10.
Dr Brought Over£
[deleted]or 14th To ½ bushel of Morter 6d & Mending plastering 1/6 £ . 2.
To ½ days work 9d . 9
[deleted]cmr 5To ½ bushel of lime pr Betty 6d/ . 6
[deleted]r 11To 4 bushs of lime 4/. Mendg plasterg & 2 grates 3/. & labr 2/. . 9.
January 14To 1 bushel of whitewash 2/. And whitewashing 5 Rooms a 4/6 1. 4.
24To whitewashing a passage down stairs 4/6 4. 6
To do necessary 2/. & do ye Bar 3/9 5. 9


Camblet Cloak and Morning Gown 2-5-0
A trunk contg Sundry Cloathing49-0-0
A pr of Gold sleeve buttons2-0-0
A pr of Silver shoe buckles, knee [buckles] a breast pin4-10-0
Trunk & contents0-15-0
A Japan'd dressing case & lanthorn1-10-0
4 canes 1/10/0 2 Wiggs 1/[illegible] 2 pr Shoes 37/63-7-6
Liquors &c &c
10 Gall. Port Wine at 10/65-5-0
10 do brandy11/35-12-6
20 do Mad[eir]a18/918-15-0
5 do Spirits10s2-10-0
40 do Madeira18/937-10-0
25 do do20s25-0-0
6 doz Claret45/13-10-0
7 loaves of lump sugar41 lb at 2/4-2-0
5 Gall Lisbon Wine 10s2-10-0
131 bottles Am. Porter9/4/2 p.doz5-2-5
114 do Cyder8/3-16-0
20 do Ale8/614-10½-0
1 large & 1 small Binn1-2-6
25 Wt English Cheese2-10-0

Appendix B

"An Inventory of the Goods & Chattels of Mr Thomas Selby Deceased late of Boston in the Province of the Masstts Bay in New England taken & appraised by us whose names are under written this 21th. day of october 1727" [Vol. 25, pp. 530-36, Suffolk County Probate Court Record Books, copy, PPIN Research Files]

In the Garrett £-S-d
One pair of Iron Grates a parcell of old Iron a parcell of Feathers, one Crest back one old Table, one Chest & a parcel of Lumb [illegible] 5-15-0
In the back Chamber
one Bedstead with Sackcloth Bottom 4-17-6
One Compass Rod with Camblet furniture, one Chest with Drawers, one window Rod 0-16-0
In the fore Chamber
One bedstead with Sackcloth Bottom, one Compass Bed with blue Cheney Furniture 9-0-0
The holy Bible, the History of the Bible with utts one Dictionary One Common prayer Book, the Bulwark Stormed, The Barrien Treaty Vindicated, Bret on Church Government, Practice of Piety, the whole Duty of man, Miscellaneous Tracts, Beveridges Sermon in 2 Vom. a Short & Easy method with the Deist, Meditations & Vows in folo. Sacheverall's Tryall in folo. 16 small Books 16 Pamplets Stitch'd 10-7-6
One Jappand Table one Jappand Chest with Draws 5-0-0
One Looking Glass 2-10-0
Two sad [?] Colour Ruggs one Coverlid one Spotted Coverlid, one Stript'd Coverlid, one Green Rugg four Blankets, one Spotted Rugg four old Quilts 10-19-0
No. 1. One Small Strip't Flanders bed & Bolster wt. 74 lb. at 4/ p. lb. 14-16-0
No. 2. One broad Strip't west, Bed & Bolster & 3 pillows wt. 62 lb. at 3/9 p. lb. 11-12-6
No. 3 One old Flanders Bed & Bolster wt. 69 lb. at 3/7 p.lb. 12-7-3
No. 4. One Flanders small Strip't Bed & Bolster, three Pillows broad Strips Wost Tick wt. 61 lb. at 3/ 10 p. lb. 11-13-10
Four old Flock Beds, Two Bolsters, three Pillows 3-15-6
In the Middle Room
One Bedstead with Sackcloth Bottom, one Compass Rod 1-15-0

Early American Taverns

In the Eight
One Oval Table 1-10-0
One Stove Grate, one Iron Back one Fender 1-10-0
22 Small Brass Cocks 5-4-0
One Racking Cock 0-15-0
One Bell 0-5-0
Two Racking Cranes 1-0-0
One Large 1 Small Funnel 0-19-0
In the Ten
One Oval Table 1-10-0
One Iron Grate & Fender 1-5-0
2 Prints 0-6-0
In the Kitchen
15 Dishes, 62 plates, 1 Cheese plate, 1 porringer, 1 Bason wt. 147 lb. at 3/ p. lb. 22-1-0
Six pair Brass Candlesticks 3-0-0
2 pair Do. 0-12-0
2 pair Do. 0-16-0
1 Warming pan 0-10-0
1 Dripping pan 0-12-0
One frying pan, Two Iron Candlesticks 0-4-6
66 Copper & Brass at 2/ 6-12-0
12 ½ lb ...Do... at 3/ 1-17-6
40 lb ...Do... at 4/ 8-0-0
One Jack as fixed, Pulleys & Leaden weight, 2 Spitts 9-0-0
One Iron Crane fixed with four Trammels [pothooks] 3-0-0
One pair large Cast Dogs 1-0-0
Three andirons 1 large fender 1-18-0
Two Box Irons four Heaters 1-10-0
One Cheese Toaster 0-6-0
One Clever, 1 Iron Goose 0-15-0
One Iron pot 0-9-0
2 Gridirons 0-12-0
A parcel of old Iron one Iron Candlestick 0-17-0
One Pepper Mill 0-12-0
One Brass Ladle 0-12-0
2 pair Tongs, one Iron for a Stove 1-0-0
One plate Rack 3 Iron Skewers 0-15-0
Twenty two Knives, Eighteen forks 0-14-0
A parcel of Earthen Ware 1-0-0
In the Barr Room
One Bedstead with Sackcloth Bottom & Compass Rod 1-15-0
One Chest with Drawers 2-0-0
One Waniscot Desk 1-5-0
Two Large one Small China Bowls 4-5-0
One Picture 1-0-0
One Looking Glass 6-10-0
One Iron Grate & Fender 1-0-0
Twenty two Coffee Dishes 1-12-0
Forty two Drinking Glasses, Six Glass Cruitts 2-8-0
Seven pints, one Quart Glass Decanther 1-11-6
One Silver Kilted Sword 6-0-0
One Ivory Memo. Book with Tortoise Shelf cover 0-18-0
Eight Silver Punch Bowls wt. 74 oz.- 17 dwt at 15/6 p.p.oz. £58-0-2 Two Silver Tankards wt. 65oz. 50-7-6
2 Muggs, 3 peper boxes, 1 Salt, 1 Sugar Dish, 1 Salver, 4 Spoons wt. 57 oz.-4 dwt. 44-6-7 2 silver porringers, 1 Salt, 3 Tea wt. 16 oz.-18 dwt. 13-1-11 ¼
In all 273 oz. 11 dwt. at 15/6 p. oz. 211-19-6
House Linnen
3 Diaper Curtains 1-0-0
9 pair of Sheets 5-19-6
38 Table Cloths 12-17-6
18 Napkins 2-9-6
14 Pillow bears 1-8-0
9 Towels 0-6-9
In the Crown Room
£l [?]0 pr. 6 lb. Sugar at £3.5/.p.o. 5-1-0
52 lb. loaf Sugar at 2/. p. lb. 5-4-0
4 ½ lb. Beeswax a 2/6 p. lb. 0-12-0
35 Bottles of Stroughtons Elixer at 2/.p. Bottle 3-10-0
Half a barrel of York Biskett 0-15-0
One Jappand Scruitoire, Table & Looking Glass 24-0-0
One Eight day Clock Jappand Case 18-0-0
one large Oval Table 1-15-0
Four set of Crimson window Curtains & Vallans Lac'd with yellow lace 6-0-0
One old Bedstead & Sacking 0-12-0
Two Perspective Glasses one brush for Cloths, one Map of New York one pair of bellows 2-5-0
38 lb. of Coffee at 6/6 lb. 12-7-0
In the Middle Room
4 boxes Tobacco pipes qt. 7 Gro. p. Box at 9/6 p. Gro. 13-6-0
2 Groce New Pipes & Dirty & burnt Tobacco Pipes 4-5-6
One Large Top of an Oval Table 0-12-0
In the Globe
1 pt. [illegible] qt. 8 lb. Sugar at £ 4 p. lb. 4-5-4
One Looking Glass 4-10-0
One Oval Table 2-5-0
2 Sett Green Cheny Wiflo. Curtains & Vallans Laced with Scarlett & White 2-15-0
2 Pictures in Guilt Frames four Prints 0-18-0
In the Prince
1 Stove Grate & Fender, One Table, 6 matted Chairs 1 Bell 1-13-6
In the Parlour
One Oval Table, one Stove Grate with iron back 8 matted Chairs 1-5-0
12 high back Leather Chairs 5-8-0
23 Leather Chairs, Banister Backs 8-1-0
5 Cane Chairs Coloured 1-10-0
6 Ditto Black 0-18-0
One Rugg, 1 pr. of Blanketts, one pr. of Sheets 2 Towells, 1 feather Bolster 3-5-0
One pr. Small Blanketts 0-12-0
One Glass Lanthorn 0-15-0
[a list of wearing apparel follows]
In the Coffee Room
2 Looking Glasses, 1 pair of Glass Sconces 5-0-0
Two Iron Grates, 1 Coffee Stand, 1 fender, 2 Trammels, one pair of Tongs one ash Grate 7-0-0
One Time peice 8-0-0
Two Oval Tables 0-10-0
Ten painted pannels 7-10-0
Two pictures 5-5-0
Thirteen prints Glazed 1-10-0
Three prints 0-12-0
Two fire Bucketts & Baggs 1-10-0
One Coffee Mill 1-0-0
Five Tables & Benches fixed 0-15-0
1 Pewter Gallon Pot, 2 quart pots, 3 pint pots, 3 half pint pots 2-0-0
2 old Gallon Tin pots, Two tin quart pots 0-12-0
1 Copper Coffee Pott 0-15-0
One Case with 14 Bottles 1-10-0
The Barr with Sashes on each Side 12-0-0
The Sign & Sign Irone 8-0-0
four Negroes at £60 Each 240-0-0
In the Cellar
Eight Chaldron of Coales paid Mr. Tucker & Ganners 34-0-0
Twenty eight Dozen papers of Tobacco 1-8-0
In the Back Ware House
1 pt. [illeg] 3 qt. 10 lb. [illegible] of Sugar at £ 3-7-6 p.w. 6-4-1
Three Bushel & a half of Salt 0-14-0
One Cheshire Cheese wt. 48 lb. 2-16-0
168 lb. of Cheese at 3d. p. lb.2-2-0
In the Yard
One Compass Rod with Screws 0-15-0
12 Gro: 2 doz. & 1 quart Bottles at £ 3-10/ p. Gros 42-12-2
Two Dozen & Eight pint Bottles 0-9-0
One hand Screw, one ax, three tap boarers, 2 adds, 1 wheel barrow 3-16-0
Sundry Empty Casks belonging to the Estate 10-0-0
The House & Land adjoyning to the Crown Coffee House now in the possession of Mr. Robert Skinner & Mrs. Mehitabel Selby1000-0-0
[total: £2042-7-5]

[there follows a list of wines and other liquors belonging to Selbys' estate valued at £1537-18-4]

Appendix C

"Appraisement of the Personal estate of James Mitchell deced" [proprietor of the Swan Tavern], Yorktown, Virginia, 1772 [York County (Virginia) Wills, Inventories, Vol. XXII, pp. 104-106, in Hershey, "Historic Furnishing Plan," pp. 194-195]

One Negro Man Named Paul 75-0-0
One Negro Woman Named Betty 60-0-0
One Ditto Boy Named Lynn 30-0-0
One Ditto Girl Named Rose 50-0-0
One Ditto Woman named Jeane 40-0-0
One Ditto Ditto named Grace55-0-0
In the Rooms Upstairs Viz.
One bed, bedstead, Bouister, Pillow, a pr. Blankets Coverlid Sheets Curtains & Matrass 10-0-0
1 Bed furnished as the above £10 10-0-0
1 Ditto 10-0-0
1 Ditto 11-0-0
1 Bed with furniture without Curtains or Matrass 8-0-0
1 Ditto 8-0-0
1 Matress 30/. 12 pr. Sheets £14 15-10-0
3 Counterpanes £3.10 18 Pillow Cases 40/ 5-10-0
5 large Damask Table Cloths 7-10-0
2 large pine Cloths Presses 5-0-0
1 large Screen 50/ 1 small Ditto 20/3-10-0
In the large room next the Street below
12 Leather Bottom Chairs 6-0-0
1 large Oval Walnut Table 4-0-0
2 Mahogany Tables (Oval) 6-0-0
1 other Mahogany oval Table 2-10-0
1 Walnut Corner Table 1-0-0
1 Mahogany Table for Cards lined 4-0-0
1 Iron Grate with Brass Front 2-10-0
1 large looking Glass 3-0-0
12 Prints of the Seasons Glazed & framed 4-10-0
1 large Map of Virginia1-0-0
In the Billiard Room Viz.
1 Billiard table 45-0-0
4 pr. Billiard Balls 1-5-0
6 Green Silk Pockets 15/ 2 pine Forms 20/ 1-15-0
6 Tin Sconces1-0-0
York County Wills & Inventories #19, 1740-1746, pp. 114-115

Inventory & appraisment of the Estate of Henry Bowcock late of York County decd. taken 29 June 1742.

No. 1. A Feather Bed, bolster, pillow, pr. Blankets, sheets, pillow Case Counterpane, 2 bedsteads, old ticken Mattras & Field Curtain£8. -. -
2 Another Do. Pr. Blankets sheets pillow Case green rug, Bedstead Cord hide & Field Curtains¾6. -. -
3 Another do. Pr. Blankets sheets pine bedstead Cord hide Quilt old flower'd Curtains£5. -. -
4 Another Do. Pr. Blankets Sheets Quilt bedstead Cord Matt and Field Curtains 7.10. -
5 Another Do. Pr. Sheets Quilt bedstead & Cord 4.10. -
6 A Small old feather bed -.15. -
a black Walnut Desk & book Case 3.10. -
1 Do. Corner Cupboard 1. 6. -
1 Do. large Oval Table 40/. 1 Do. small round Table 18 2.18. -
1 Do. small Table 14/. Another Do. 22/6 1.16. 6
1 black painted Table & looking glass 1. 6. -
1 black walnut dressing Table 60/. 1 large looking glass 50/ 5.10. -
2 doz. Leather Chairs f9.12.- 11 rush Chairs f2.1512. 7. -
4 small pine Tables 20/. 1 large old Trunk 2/6 1 do. better 7 1. 9. 6
1 pr. Doggs 2 Tongs & 2 Shovels 26/. A parcel of China 30/ 2.16. -
a parcel of Glassware 26/. Pr backgammon Tables 25/ 2.11. -
Two Guns X 60/. 1 Gun scraper, powder horn, Shot bag & some powder & shot 20/ 4. -. -
4 Tea Chest & Cannisters & Tea board -. 7. 6
Some Earthern ware 2/. Tin Cannisters & other Tin Ware 10/ -.12. -
A Saddle bridle & two housings 40/. Whip 2/6 2. 2. 6
Pr boots 15/. 3 pr. New Shoes 21/. A parcel of old Cloaths £9.1011. 6. -
2 Wiggs Wigg box & Hatt 18/6. 1 large Flasket 3/ 1. 1. 6
8 diaper Table Cloths 40/. 18 Do. Napkins 20/. 3. -. -
12 Coarse old Towels 3/6 16 pillow cases 16/ -.19. 6
2 Cloaths brushes & 1 hair broom 4/6 1 Coffee Mill 5/ -. 9. 6
4 xxx pewter Measures & a Tea pot 10/. Frying pan 2/. -.12. -
11 pewter dishes 2 basons & 29 plates wt. 66li. At 8d 2. 4. -
1 Copper fish Kettle 21/6 1 large brass Kettle 40/ 3. 1. 6
a Skillet Gridiron & 2 Chafing dishes 10/. Two Copper Sauce pans 8/ -.18. -
1 Tea Kettle 5/. 3 Iron pots 2 pot racks 25/ 1.10. -
Ladle flesh fork Skimmer & flower box 3/. 2 Copper Coffee pots 15/ -.18. -
a Jack, Weights, Chain & Spit 2.10. -
4 Candle Stiks 15/. A Clea[ner?] 2/6 -.17. 6
Carry'd up- £103.14. 6
Brot. up--- £103.14. 6
1 Iron Candle Stick & 2 pr. Snuffers 2/. 1 doz Knives & forks & Knife basket 13/ -.15. -
3 old do. 2/6 1 large pine Table 8/ -.10. 6
3 pails & 1 Piggin 5/6 4 Tube & 5 Trays 7/ -.12. 6
3 Stone butter pots & a water jugg 6/. A spade, rake, ax & Hoe 10/ -.16. -
parcel Lumber 2/6 two Cows & a Yearling 50/. A large bay Mare £1012.12. 6
Harry a Negro Man f14. Moll a Negro Woman & her Child £28. 42. -. -
Nancy, a negro Girl £17. 120 Gall. Rum at 3/. £1835. -. -
Warming pan 6/. pr. Bellows & Candlebox 9/ -.15. -
Stone jugg 2/. Spice Mortar & Pestle 5/. 2 boxes Candles 50/ 2.17. -
Pr. Brass barrel pistols 50/. Box Iron heaters pr. Flat Irons 1 hammer 7/6 2.17. 6
4 Chamber pots 1/. Shoe brushes & a Girth belt 4/ -. 5. -
[Rice?] 7/6. Salt 10/. Coffee 10/. 49 Oz. New plate 6/3. £15.6.316.13. 9
27 Oz. Old plate 5/. £6.15. Silver watch old £4.1011. 5. -
Cash in the house13. 4. 8

Henry Tyler Admr.

In Obedience to an order of the Court of York County We the Subscribers being first Sworn have appraised the Estate of Henry Bowcock decd. Amounting to Two hundred forty three pounds Eighteen shillings and Eleven pence as above
June 29th. 1742

James Wray
Andrew Anderson
Joseph Davenport

At a Court held for York County
July 19th. 1742

This Inventory & appraisement of the Estate of Henry Bowcock decd. Was this day retd. To Court and Ordered to be recorded.


Matt. Hubard Cl. Cur.

March 15, 1990
To: Mr. Lawrence W. Leslie
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

The small northeast room off the Billiard Room in the Raleigh Tavern will be reinterpreted as the barkeeper's room. The inventory, I am told, leads to this conclusion.

As it is today, the room has a rather elaborate overmantle and the woodwork is painted a cream color, which accents the mouldings of the overmantle. Since this room would have been considered an inferior space, it would probably not have had such fancy paneling. And, being inferior, it would probably have had a cheaper paint color or perhaps not be painted at all. However, the fancy woodwork exists in the room and it is painted. Consequently, at the suggestion of Betty Leviner, we would like to repaint it Spanish Brown, Color No. 5192. This would not only underline the lesser quality of the room but would serve to downplay the design of the paneling as well.

Would you please see that this is done before the Tavern is reopened? Thanks.

N. A. P.

Copies to:
Mr. E.A. Chappell
Ms. B. Leviner
Mr. M.J. Wenger
Mr. A. Lucas

March 19, 1990
TO: N.A. Pappas and Betty Leviner
FROM: Edward Chappell
SUBJECT: Modern Fittings Visible in North Second-floor Passage, Raleigh Tavern

The following is a list of modern fittings that would be visually intrusive if the north second-floor passage at Raleigh is viewed from the south door. I have suggested remedies when they are evident.

The closer on the south door should be removed.

There is a modern lock in the south door. I wonder if this lock could not simply be removed. Is it needed for security? If not, we should patch the mortise visible in the edge of the door as well as the holes for cylinder and turn knob.

A light switch is located just to the left of the south door. If this has to be left in place, a coat or some object needs to be hung over it.

There is also a fire extinguisher and hanger to the right of the south door. It would be simple to raise this to chest level, move it 10" to the east, and hang another piece of clothing over it. Otherwise it needs to be kept elsewhere.

The corner of the screen in the southernmost window may be visible. Should it be removed?

The face of the cylinder locks in the first and second (southern) side doors will be visible. I suppose oval covers should be put over them, though this is not a very successful solution. Is there a chance that office-holders could use relatively large keys for the case locks also on the doors?

There are three new electrical casings and two heat grilles in the passage ceiling. I assume the former are for detectors. All these will be visible, though perhaps unavoidable. Nick, I wonder if three detectors were needed and, if so, did you approve them?

There is also wiring for what I assume are two sconces and perhaps a thermometer on the west wall, as well as a light switch south of the small stair. Betty, will a piece of furniture block the view of the switch? If not, let's hang 2 clothes over this too, if acceptable. I prefer the former solution.

The cylinder lock in the door at the north end is so far away that it can simply be painted out.


April 5, 1990
To: Graham Hood
From: Ron Hurst
Subject: Upholstery in Taverns

Betty tells me that you have some questions about the amount of leather upholstery we have used at the Raleigh. She asked that I assemble for your review the research on which we have based those decisions. As I think you will see, we have excellent documentation for leather upholstery in our taverns, and should probably be using more of it at Wetherburn's.

I compiled the information below in 1980. It is taken from the estate inventories of twenty-seven tavern keepers in Williamsburg and Yorktown, and two in Norfolk, all recorded between 1716 and 1782. Within these twenty-nine establishments were a total of 1,085 chairs, and of that group, a specific upholstery material was mentioned in 502 cases. of that number 328 chairs were covered in leather, 133 had rush or flag bottoms, 31 were caned, 12 had haircloth, and 12 had "blue bottoms." Two thirds of the taverns examined had leather chairs of one kind or another.

Clearly, leather was the most popular material for tavern seating in eighteenth-century Virginia, probably because of its durability. The next largest group of material, flag and rush bottoms, were probably associated with inexpensive ladderbacks. Neither Wetherburn's nor Hay's inventory indicates the presence of ladder-backs, suggesting that they may have been used in less august circumstances.

I hope this provides the information you wanted. Please let me know if you have any questions.

R. L. H.

copy to: Betty Leviner
Linda Baumgarten

April 13, 1990
To: Mr. Graham Hood Mr. Ron Hurst
From: Betty Leviner
Subject: Traffic Patterns and Reproduction Needs for Raleigh

This memo is to confirm decisions reached in yesterday's meeting of the Raleigh Tavern Reinterpretation Team regarding new routes for groups and reproduction seating needs for the tavern.

It was agreed that the new traffic pattern would involve the public walking through the Club Room and Bar Room, with Collections' reservations being noted about the reduced furnishings this implies. To compensate for this reduction, it was agreed that the public will be directed along the east wall of both the Daphne Room and new Billiard Room. This will allow Collections to add accessories that the former traffic pattern did not permit in these two rooms. I have left a message for Gary Brumfield about some unused stanchions in the Gun Shop. If this does not pan out, I will see about having C&M fabricate several.

As for reproduction seating for visitors, it was agreed that as a temporary measure I will go back to Sarah Caramia to see if we can use 12 of the Palace Advance chairs to tide us over until Collections can procure 24 Virginia Craftsmen chairs. Ron hopes this will take no longer than 2-3 months. Also, we will proceed with ordering hand-made reproductions from the Hay Shop, a process which will take a considerably longer time.

If you have questions about any of the above, please let me know as soon as possible.


Copy to:
Mr. Gary Brumfield
Ms. Robyn Scouse
P.S. Sarah just called back to say we cannot use Palace chairs. Any ideas of where we go from here?

April 23, 1990
Via: Mr. Lawrence W. Leslie
To: Mr. Thomas Peck
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

In accordance with our discussion Friday, the following changes must be made in the light fixtures:

  • 1.Paint the hanging lanterns on the rear porch and the one over the stairway flat black, including chains, canopies, etc.
  • 2.Install one of the double brass sconces now located in the second floor north passage in the north stair in lieu of the tin sconce specified.
  • 3.Get a second tin sconce matching the one specified for the stair (CW 13162, electrified), paint both flat black and install in the passage in lieu of the brass sconces.
  • 4.Tag the remaining brass sconce (this is one of the originals used in the reconstruction) identify it on a tag and store. Mark tag that this is not to be reused without the Foundation Architect's approval.


N. A. P.

Copies to:
Mr. E.A. Chappell
Ms. B. Leviner
Mr. W.E. Gwilliam
Mr. M.J. Wenger

April 23, 1990
Via: Mr. Lawrence W. Leslie
To: Mr. Michael King
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

Confirming our discussion Friday regarding the second floor north passage, the following changes have to be made in order to open the passage to visitors' view:

  • 1.Remove the mortise lock on the door at the south end of the passage (leading to the southwest stair), patch as required and paint to match door.
  • 2.I know I didn't think so at the time, but I now feel we should remove the cylinder lock on the most southern door on the west wall. Patch as required and paint to match door.
  • 3.Remove the cylinder lock on the second door from the south on the west wall, patch as required and paint to match door.
  • 4.Paint out cylinder lock on the door at the north end of the passage to match door.
  • 5.Can we put the fire extinguisher somewhere else?

N. A. P.

Copies to:
Mr. E.A. Chappell
Ms. B. Leviner
Mr. W.E. Gwilliam
Mr. M.J. Wenger

April 23, 1990
To: Ms. Betty Leviner
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

I think we are in process of making all the changes we can in the second floor north passage in order to exhibit it. I will leave up to you how to camouflage such things as:

  • 1.Light switches (hang a hat or something over them?).
  • 2.The thermostat at the north end (another hat?).
  • 3.The fire extinguisher if it cannot be put in one of the rooms or somewhere where it cannot be seen (could you put a chest or some such on that wall and stick the extinguisher in the corner?).

There is nothing we can do about the grilles and smoke detectors. These were all approved (and, I think, installed) before I heard anything about the passage being interpreted. I'm afraid they are necessary because there are offices up there.

N. A. P.

Copy to:
Mr. E.A. Chappell

April 24, 1990
To: Mr. Lawrence W. Leslie
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

The reinterpretation at the Raleigh has necessitated another change. Due to the new furniture arrangement on the second floor the barrier between bedrooms 3 and 4 has to be removed. Would you please have someone do this and patch and touch up as required? If there is any question, please call Betty Leviner (ext. 1513).


N. A. P.

copy to:
Ms. B. Leviner

May 2, 1990
TO: Betty Leviner
FROM: Edward Chappell
SUBJECT: Raleigh Tavern

I talked with Nick today and he agreed that the runner should be removed from the north passage. He will ask Lawrence to have it taken up.

Thanks for keeping after all this.

E. A. C.

May 7, 1990
To: Raleigh Tavern Interpretive Staff
From: Linda Baumgarten
Kimberly Funke
Subject: New Installation of Bed Furniture in Raleigh Tavern

Although we do not have a room by room inventory of the Raleigh Tavern, Anthony Hay's inventory of 1771 provides us with a listing of furniture which-can be broken down into logical room groupings. We have used these room groupings to select the textiles and bed furniture newly installed in the tavern. The following are the inventory references and information on the antique and reproduction textiles selected.

Bar Keeper's Room

"1 Press Bedstead, 1 Bed, 1 Bolster, 1 Matt, 1, pair sheets 3 Blankets £5.0.0"

The press bedstead is shown down, furnished with a reproduction wool blanket which was woven by Historic Trades weavers. The linen bolster case is a reproduction. A reproduction blue work apron suggests the bar keeper's presence. During the winter season two additional reproduction blankets will be installed.

Bedchamber #1 (Southeast Bedchamber)

"1 Bedstead and striped Holland Curtains, 1 Bed 1 Bolster 1 Pillow 1 Hide £7.0.0 ..."

The bedstead has been outfitted with a light brown striped commercially-woven linen ("Holland"). The style of the bed furniture was taken from a bed depicted in a print in the collection (1971-486). The linens are reproductions. In the winter months a reproduction blanket made by Historic Trades weavers will be installed. The blanket is a reproduction of antique blanket, 1970-160 which will be shown in Bedroom #2.

This room has been furnished with accessories to suggest the occupancy of a burgess from the western part of the colony.

Bedchamber #2 (Northeast Bedchamber)

"1 Bedstead, 1 Bed 1. Bolster 1 Pillow, 1 Matt £4.10.0..."

The absence of curtains in this entry indicates a low post bed rather than a high post bed. Although this reference does not include a bed covering, the inventory takers later grouped all of the bed coverings together as "35 Counterpains £35.00". (At the same time blankets, sheets, and pillow cases were listed. No quilts were listed for the entire tavern.) We Page 2 have selected a white cotton pattern-woven antique (Gl968-198) for this bed. This type of coverlet was woven in Virginia over a long period of time from the second half of the 18th century into the 19th century. The linens are reproductions. In the winter an antique blanket (1970-160) will be installed.

This room has been furnished with accessories in such a way as to suggest that the occupant was sitting on his bed preparing to shave.

Bedchamber #3

"2 Bedstead and red strip'd Curtains 2. Beds 2 Bolsters 2 Pillows and 2 Hides £14.0.0 3 Window Curtains 7/6..."

The red striped cotton and linen fabric for these two beds was woven by Historic Trades weavers. The pattern was taken from a ca. 1750 swatch at Musee des Arts Decoratifs, illustrated in Florence Montgomery, Textiles in America, Plate D-28A. The style for the bed furniture on the high post bed was taken from a print in the collection (1971-486). The linen counterpane is a reproduction. The style for the "throwover" or one-piece field bed furniture was copied almost exactly from an antique set of field curtains in the collection (1966-7, 1-13). The patternwoven cotton coverlet is a reproduction.

Although the inventory calls for only three window curtains, four have been installed to outfit all the windows in the room. The new linen window curtains and iron rods are typical of very simple window treatments used in the 18th century.

Bedchamber #4

"2 Bedsteads and blue Check Curtains, 1 Hide, 2 Beds, 2 Bolsters, 2 Pillows £13.0.0..."

A blue check cotton and linen fabric sold in Colonial Williamsburg's reproduction line has been used here to fulfill the inventory requirements. The bed furniture on the high post bed includes shaped upper and lower valances and a reproduction plain blue linen counterpane. The field bed's coverlet is a pattern-woven cotton produced by the Historic Trades weavers. During part of the year the field bed will be shown "undressed" with its bed furniture removed for cleaning and its original "sacking bottom" visible.

Bedchamber #5

"l Bedstead 1 Bed 1, Bolster 1 Pillow 80/..."

The self-striped pattern on this counterpane is again typical of pattern weaving during the period. This is a commercially-woven reproduction.

Page 3

Bedchamber #6

"2 Bedsteads, 2 Matts, 2 Beds 2 Pillows 2. Bolsters £8.0.0..."

The counterpanes on these two beds can both be described as cotton pattern-woven coverlets. The one to the left as you enter from Bedroom #5 was handwoven and is typical of the type of coverlet woven in Virginia from the second half of the 18th century into the 19th century. The other coverlet is a commercially-woven textile taken from an antique in the collection (1972-91).

Should you have any questions, Linda can be reached at ext. 7508 and Kim at ext. 7518.


K. S. F.


Copies to:
Mr. Robert Birney
Mr. Cary Carson
Mr. Ed Chappell
Mr. George Collins
Mrs. Margie Gill
Mrs. Conny Graft
Mrs. Mary Keeling
Mr. Lou Lamanna
Mr. Dennis O'Toole
Mr. Nicholas Pappas
Ms. Julie Reilly
Mr. WIlliam White
Ms. Mary Wiseman
Curators and Assistants

May 22, 1990
To: Ms. Betty Leviner
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

I have received your telephone message that the brass wall sconce removed from the second floor north passage of the Raleigh Tavern has been tagged and stored on the third floor of the Governor's Palace. This sconce was part of the original 1930's reconstruction of the Tavern and should be accorded the same care as any other artifact. I hope the tag reads that the sconce cannot be removed or reused without the express approval of the Foundation Architect. If it does not, would you please add this?

Storing it in the Palace is perfectly acceptable to me until such time that the foundation Architect has a suitable storage facility for such artifacts.

Thanks for taking care of this for me.

N. A. P.

Copies to:
Mr. D.A. O'Toole
Mr. T.H. Taylor, Jr.
Ms. M. Keeling

May 23, 1990
To: Mr. Tony Notaras
From: Nicholas A. Pappas
Subject: Raleigh Tavern - Block 17, Building 6A

As we discussed last week, it is perfectly all right to extend the furring around the security device in the closet under the west stair of the Tavern (between the Barr and Apollo Room) to the ceiling of the closet and to raise the unit. It is also permissible to remove a portion of the plaster inside the closet so that the sensor can be against the back of the Apollo Room plaster.

I think you had a very good idea in raising the sensor rather than having Collections move the chair. This gives considerably more freedom for rearranging furniture in the future.

N. A. P.

Copies to:
Mr. L.W. Leslie
Ms. B. Leviner

[No digital Image Available - Form of Transmittal, Architects' Office, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation]


^*Totals include dormers - no adjustments for other apertures
^*Source included if not recorded in house history
^*In 1780 and 1786 Humphrey Harwood whitewashed this room.
^1 Information supplied by Pat Gibbs--need to get her documentation.
^2 Author uncertain "The_Raleigh Tavern"--appears to be an early guidebook. We have also supplied the blueprints of the excavation from architecture.
^3 From Pat Gibbs--get documentation
^4 From Pat Gibbs--get documentation
^6 Macomber, Walter The Raleigh Tavern 1930, p.2.
^7 John Goodbody, Raleigh Tavern Interpretive Paper (1955), pp. 15-16. In the nineteenth century, with the capital removed to Richmond, the Raleigh's importance in history sharply declined. However, in 1824, when Lafayette returned to Williamsburg, he was tendered a banquet in the Apollo, with those present including Chief Justice John Marshall and John C. Calhoun. And, in 1859, by which time this room had been substantially altered and even included a gallery at the south end; the Apollo saw its last great affair. This was a dinner given for John Tyler, the tenth President of the United States.
Mary E. McWilliams, Raleigh Tavern Research Report (1941), p. 37.
'Interview with Mrs. Martha Vandgrift', April 23, 1932.
Raleigh Tavern - . . . The gallery was over the dining room, opposite the large fireplace. They called the room the Hall of Apollo.6 The gallery faced the fireplace. It was just a small gallery, almost like a porch. Note: Gallery could have been added during 1848 alterations. Mrs. Vandegrift's recollections do not always seem accurate.
^8 Gibbs, Pat Taverns in Tidewater Virginia 1700-1744 - c. 1968, p. 95.
^9 VIRGINIA GAZETTE, Purdie and Dixon ed., Aug. 29, 1766, 2:3
Wm. Rind ed, Sept. 5, 1766, 4:1 Advertisements.
A YOUNG man qualified to act as BAR-KEEPER, that can write a tolerable hand, and understand something of accounts. Such a one will meet with good encouragement from
WILLIAMSBURG, August 28, 1766."
^10 Gibbs, Taverns p. 44
from Virginia Gazette (Parks), November 2, 1739, p. 3; (Purdie and Dixon), December 15, 1768, p. 2; March 30, 1769, p. 4.
^11 Harewood Leger B, folio 59
^12 Harewood Ledger B, folio 59
^13 Harewood Ledger B, folio 59
^14 Gibbs, Taverns, p. 45.
^15 From the Harewood/Southall accounts, Southall was charged (over a period of 10 years) for setting up four and repairing 10 grates.
^16 Harewood/Southall Account December 9, 1780
"To Repairing Celler wall, and Steps and build pillers under ball Room 55/. 2.15."
^17 Check Mills Browns report for reference.
^18 Hurst, Ron Inventory Study: Taverns in Yorktown and Williamsburg 1716-1782, p. 14.
^19 Gibbs, Taverns, p. 142-3
^21 York County Orders, Wills, XVII (1729-1732), 77, (M-1-9); Virginia Gazette (Purdie and Dixon), January 31, 1771, p. 3.
^22 Virginia Gazette (Purdie and Dixon), March 22, 1770, P.4; (Rind), January 7, 1773, p. 3.