1946, 1933 & 1952
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 1410
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library
Block 18, Building 7
|Including Coach House (Stable)||7B|
Perry, Shaw and Hepburn, Architects in Charge. Walter Macomber, Resident Architect.
|Block||Building||Restoration Started||Restoration Completed|
|18||7||Ludwell-Paradise House||January, 1931||December, 1931|
|18||7A||Ludwell-Paradise Kitchen||February, 1932||July, 1932|
|18||7B||Coach House (Stable)||February, 1932||July, 1932|
|18||7C||Ludwell-Paradise Smokehouse||February, 1932||July, 1932|
|18||7D||Ludwell-Paradise Wellhead||February, 1932||July, 1932|
|18||7E||Ludwell-Paradise Privy||July, 1936||December, 1936|
|18||7F||Ludwell-Paradise Woodshed||July, 1939||December, 1939|
Archaeological data on outbuilding locations by H. S. Ragland, dated July 31, 1930.
Architectural drawings for house by S. P. Moorehead, George S. Campbell, Richard Walker, Milton L. Grigg, Washington Reed. Coachhouse by Everett Fauber; Kitchen by S. P. Moorehead and Francis Duke; Smokehouse and Wellhead by Lucien Dent; Woodshed by Alfred A. Kluwer; Privy by John W. Henderson.
This report was prepared by Singleton P. Moorehead, March 13, 1993.
Report typed and illustrations added, March 31, 1952.
Block 18, Building 7
Recorded by S. P. Moorehead, March 13, 1933
The character of this house has peculiarities which very definitely affected the restoration of it. Lack of funds or other circumstances altered the design of the building when half finished by dwarfing what was doubtless intended as a deep rectangular brick house with two stories, a hipped roof, and end chimneys centering on the two shorter elevations—East and West, respectively. Instead of the intended building, the result was a two-story part over the front portion (South) with a one-story lean-to roof over rear portion (North) causing the the chimneys to be off center of the front, two-story part, and building the north wall of frame construction. This obvious outting down on a proposed scheme had very definite effects on the interior which became thereby extremely barren and plain—far more so than is to be expected within so pretentious an exterior. (See later notes in Interior.) The above facts are uncontrovertible and must be constantly in mind when considering the following notes.2
In mass and in general the exterior retained its 18th century, original conformation. First floor windows, entrances and porches, north wall and openings in east and west walls, roof and cornice cyma, chimneys had been altered from time to time, more particularly by the College of William and Mary a few years ago. The problem of restoration was easily accomplished by inspection, and after stripping the interior, by checking exterior evidences with interior.
The decision of restoration authorities and Advisory Board of Architects to make this house an exhibition or museum building caused its restoration to be very painstaking in reproducing as far as possible its original 18th century condition within and without in all visible parts most particularly. Cost and diligence were not counted in achieving this result. Woodwork was wrought into approved shapes by hand labor. Materials were selected with great care—and wherever possible were culled from 18th century houses and buildings in this vicinity. Hardware and painting were executed according to methods employed customarily in the 18th century locally. The result is undoubtedly the most accurate piece of restoration so far completed in the Williamsburg Project—since such care was expended in reproducing the character, flavor and detailed effects known to have formed the original condition and shape of this house.
Reference is made later to "antique" brick pool. Ancient brick was bought in quantity from 18th century foundations and chimneys—much of it in small lots. These fell into classification by size and texture naturally—and like was piled with like 3 regardless of origin. Gradually a large part of the old brick was so arranged—and is called brick "pool" for convenience in these notes. After brick was purchased in larger lots for specific use, when such is mentioned, the source will be given by name.
Besides the brick "pool" a similar plan was provided for antique flooring—called flooring "pool." Since old 18th century flooring commonly falls into one class or type, such a scheme became perfectly obvious—and the "pool" drawn from regardless of origin.
Some brick used on this job was made by hand of local clay by "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Corporation"—an organization founded by the project for the purpose of supplying carefully selected units for use on the various jobs as needed. This plant is the only one in America capable of imitating the color, texture, character and glazes of local 18th century brick.
All woodwork on this job either actual shapes from colonial houses in vicinity or else wood reworked by hand to detail from same general sources. The sources are: (1) "Teddington," Charles City County, Virginia, (2) "Springfield farm," New Kent County, Virginia, (3) Old house in Sussex County, Virginia, (4) Bolling House, Petersburg, Virginia, (5) House at Clay Bank, Gloucester County, Virginia, (6) Old House in Nansemond County, Virginia, (7) Old Tobacco Warehouse, Richmond, Virginia, (8) House on Boush Street, Norfolk, Virginia, (9) Old house in Surry County, Virginia, (10) Old house near Edenton, North Carolina, (11) "Main Farm," James City County, Virginia, (12) Miscellaneous Sources—all 18th century buildings in this vicinity.4
Wherever actual molded members, panelling, doors, trim, etc., were used from these sources, the name and place will be given. However, for the material reworked at the woodwork shop of Todd and Brown—the source of this woodwork in building as erected is nearly impossible to give. First, because of a given amount of rough material supplied, only a small portion was suitable for reworking; second, because in this culling process the various lots of material were "pooled," and drawn from by the workmen at their convenience—thus losing, unpreventably, the original identity. In some cases the source can be given—but will be most commonly referred to as "miscellaneous."
In following notes reference is made to original, colonial hardware as having been procured from the "trade." This means local antique dealers, second-hand or junk dealers, or natives possessing such hardware and who are willing to dispose of it by sale—but meaning only that the pieces have lost their actual geographic identity.
On exterior and interior of exposed surfaces mortar was used which closely simulates typical 18th century kind of this locality. It was made by using marl, burned and mixed, from beds along the James River—formerly used by colonial builders. Hidden brickwork was repaired and patched with modern, commercial materials—exposed brickwork treated in colonial manner, while all painting and bonding was copied from that in adjacent brickwork. See Specifications.
Modern methods are far more exacting, precise and definite than those employed in colonial times. A considerable amount of concealed flashing was used, consisting of sheet copper. Whenever exposed, flashing was of lead coated copper—to simulate the typical lead flashing of colonial times. In the following notes no further mention will be made of this feature, since it is to be understood that all possible, necessary points have been so treated. See Specifications for detailed information.
See notes under shingles on South Elevation. Roof framing was repaired, strengthened with old material from miscellaneous sources. About 4% of original roof framing was so treated. The boarding was in very bad condition and was largely replaced with new boards of common pine—of course building paper and insulating materials were also installed from purely convenience reasons.
Colors referred to below are designated by a number which indicates a sample on paint sample board in keeping of architects. These are authentic 17th century colors—gathered with aid of several authorities and checked by actual ancient colors of the period found locally.
Trim - #91-S.
Body (North Elevation) - #97-S.
Front and Back Doors - #88-S.
North Blinds - #139-S.
It was intended to retain the slate shingles placed on roof by College in its recent renovations, but framing and boarding of roof were found in poor repair. The difficulty of repairing the latter and also remounting the shingles was so great that it became more feasible to reshingle with "Mohawk" Asbestos shingles, Williamsburg type—a composition shingle which simulates old wood ones in color and texture, developed specially for the Restoration and generally used by it. Insulation—Cabot's Quit—inserted under sheathing.
Original cornice practically intact except for cyma mold.
This was replaced with a typical local type as evidenced in this sort of cornice with modillions: i.e., "Apothecary Shop" just east of Paradise House. This was made new by heart yellow pine. Where necessary at various places—original cornice was patched and repaired.
All materials for frame-trim transom sill-doors of antique material reworked by hand to the details as drawn by the architects. This material from following sources:
Basement Windows. By careful inspection of exterior and interior original openings and arch arcs were determined. Arrangement of grille as at Carter's Grove modified to fit the smaller opening of the Paradise. The use of plaster in the arch 7 President's House. Portland stone steps are typical in Williamsburg and nosing as well—Wren Building, President's House, Governor's Palace, West House.
By inspection within and without the original brick opening and arch were determined after first removing wood pilasters and pediment erected over door by College in its recent renovations of this house. A simple double molded frame, transom and double valved door were inserted. The ground arch is self supporting, but steel inserted in place of old wood lintels to support interior brick at bead at head. Double door as at Blair and Lindsley Houses. Molding of panel as at Wythe House. Frame and transom as at Wilton on James—pegs as at Little England, Gloucester County. Transom molds as on old transom found at Van Garrett House. Trim mold similar to those at Wilton on James, Wythe House, etc. A typical form in this vicinity.
By inspection original first floor opening was determined. Frame, trim, sash, sill were all made by hand according to architects' details of ancient material from same sources as Front Door. The first floor openings were originally lower and arches touched belt course, thus beads and sills of windows had to be raised and lowered and existing sash frame and trim built by College ripped out. Second floor openings were original as were sills, frames and trim, but the frames had to be discarded due to poor condition and it being impossible to reuse the trim and sills for a like reason, all frames, trim, sill and sash were made new of ancient material by hand. Frame and trim copied from originals left in building. Muntin as at Wythe House, Tucker House, etc., being typical colonial for this vicinity. All arches were repaired with ancient brick. 8 above frame has precedent at the Henley Estate near Walkerton. Within the frame was rebated for a glazed sash to keep out weather from basement by applying an extra piece to inner face of frame. The sash is a convenience only—but was constructed along colonial lines nevertheless. Originally there was no sash here. Stools were made of old material and typical wood beaders inserted, although some of these were original.
A brick gutter was provided about the base of the building to take off roof wash into drains, supplied at suitable points. The information of this feature followed that at the Wren Building—disclosed in the foundations there. The brick were selected from "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company" and laid in mortar on a small concrete slab concealed below ground. Brick manufactured by "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company."
Patching and repair of brickwork necessary chiefly about windows and entrance. Ground brick in belt course and watertable were patched with ancient brick from brick pool—elsewhere brick were removed from innerwall surfaces. Glazed beaders were replaced with selected new ones from "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company" run by the "Restoration."
Porch built by College recently, removed. Excavations for original foundations revealed nothing, but basement wall of building showed line of steps by careful examination of painted and unpainted mortar joints. These—the present east and west flights—were discovered and replaced. The curved iron rail is typical in Norfolk, Petersburg and Alexandria colonial steps of brick and stone. The brass finial was copied from Georgian English precedent. The shapes of rail and uprights have precedent in rail at?
None. (Being a brick building in colonial times shutters appeared only in interiors.)
The wall was patched and repaired where necessary, chiefly around cellar windows and steps. Where bricks were needed for patching they were obtained from interior wall surfaces in the building.
These were modern therefore taken down to old portion just below roof and rebuilt. Their original form and design was indicated by remaining ancient work just below roof as well as a 19th century photograph in the Coleman Collection. The exposed brick were selected for color and texture match as closely as possible the original brickwork in walls, from manufacture of "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company."
Other than cornice cyma, window frames, sash, trim and first floor basement window openings—front door and steps—and certain patching and roofing—and brick of chimneys—this elevation is now as it was in the eighteenth century.
Patching and repair necessary chiefly about window beads and wills along a vertical crack frame watertable to peak of shed roof—and in blocking a window opening inserted in shed portion by the College alterations. Unglazed brick was removed from interior wall faces and used for repairing and patching, while glazed brick were manufactured new by "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company."
First Floor window: Original frame repaired, back band replaced made of old material. Sash made new of antique material. Material (antique) from same sources as for Front Door.10
Second Floor window: New frame, sash, trim of old material—see preceding page for source. All worked by hand to architects' details.
Rake and its back band are original colonial molded material from miscellaneous material gathered in the "Tidewater." The back band has to be pieced out with portions made by hand of antique material to match profile of original colonial parts. See General Notes, Exterior, on sources of material.
See South Elevation. Sheathing under shingles new of common pine—properly protected with building paper and insulation. Many of original rafters retained, but about 50% new of common pine inserted from necessity to strengthen. Cabot's quilt inserted between rafters and sheathing as necessity.
Flashing applied at all points where necessary. At points hidden from eye, copper used; at points exposed, lead coated copper used to simulate 18th century lead flashing.
For that on second story, see South Elevation. The shed cornice mold is a colonial crown mold from "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia. The back board (beaded) is from same source as weatherboards. With bead run by hand to architects' detail. This type of cornice for a shed portion is authenticated by precedent at (1) Ritchie House at Tappahannock, (2) "Main Farm," James City County, Virginia.
Of antique boards from wrecked house on Boush Street, Norfolk, Virginia. The bead was run by hand, being typical for colonial 11 weatherboards in this section almost everywhere. The wall surface erected by the college was not typically colonial and was therefore removed.
Original foundations uncovered indicating plan. Posts adapted from old porch on Midlathian Pike, west of Powhatan. Rail copied from Toddsbury, Gloucester County, Virginia—apron typical. Balusters adapted from Elizabeth Coleman House, Williamsburg, Virginia. Brick stoop follows foundations and brickwork is of selected material from kilns of "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company," to match old brickwork in building. All wood used is ancient, worked by hand to detail. Source from miscellaneous material gathered from colonial buildings in vicinity. Further precedent for balusters from Brady Civil War photo showing porch on colonial brick house.
Door colonial from house at Clay Bank, Gloucester County, Virginia. Frame and trim to detail by hand of antique material from miscellaneous sources in vicinity. The frame and trim are typical of Colonial Williamsburg work as at Barlow House, Lindsley House, etc.
New to detail, made of antique material from miscellaneous material from colonial buildings. Low "stud" of this wall indicated windows of short heights. The detail of sash-frame, sill, blind stop follows such Williamsburg original colonial models as in (1) McCandlish House, (2) Ryland House.
The windows inserted by College were removed as being nontypical of colonial type and as not expressing known original plan.
Made by hand to detail of antique material from miscellaneous material gathered from colonial sources in vicinity. Colonial 12 prototype at Clerk's Office, Tappahannock, Virginia. The shutters built in by College were stock, modern and therefore unappropriate.
Rebuilt exposed brick selected from kilns of "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Company," for color and texture to match tone of existing original brick. The wall was refaced and repaired to produce a typical colonial effect and bonding, altered by College work. An acess door to space below floor and future plenum chamber was inserted by necessity. It was fabricated by hand to detail of old material from sources as under basement windows. Prototyped (Colonial) at (1) Fauntelroy, Ceyletts, Virginia, (2) Ritchie House, Tappahannock, Virginia.
See South Elevation.
Corner boards are original from colonial house—miscellaneous material gathered in vicinity. See West Elevation for rakes.
This elevation was completely changed from what probably was its original conformation by the College. Its mass remained unchanged, but porches, windows, trim and weatherboarding all had to be scrapped, in restoring. From several interviews with people of the town who could have remembered the original arrangement, Stubbs of the College seemed to recall more clearly that it was symmetrical, a fact borne out by the original plan of rooms behind and the centering of the entrance on this facade. Also, it seemed convincing that a symmetrical spacing of windows should fit into spaces between the small number of original studs left after the College alterations and that this spacing should satisfy aesthetic and practical demands.
See South Elevation.
See South Elevation.
See South Elevation.
See notes on South Elevation for source of brick used in repairing and patching. Repairing and patching chiefly around windows and between grade and watertable. Also basement door has been altered, and original jambs were repaired.
Original opening was indicated by brickwork, but part of opening had been blocked up by College alterations, and an imitation colonial door hung. These were all removed, and original opening repaired. Frame and doors made new from old material to detail; material came from "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia. Doors adapted from an original at Fairfield (debris), Gloucester County. Studs made by hand to colonial model by local craftsman. Frame and trim typical colonial—adapted from that at (1) Montpelier, Surry County, (2) Tuckahoe, Goochland County.
See Wall Surfaces on preceding page.
See South Elevation.
See West Elevation.
See General Notes on Exterior. Evidence exposed on the interior by stripping off lath plaster-trim, etc., applied by College showed that all the rooms were finished very simply and the stair was also simple. The evidence of former trim indicated only base, chair rail and possibly simple cornices. Mantels were also indicated. The decision to make an "exhibition" or museum house of this building modified a true restoration of the two main first floor rooms. Some excellent panelling became available, sufficient to completely finish the east and west ends of these rooms, respectively. It was decided, after consulting the opinion of the "Advisory Board of Architects," to use these ends—since they would form a more typical background for the exceptionally fine furnishings procured for the interior—more typical since so plain an interior, as indicated by the evidence, is a typical example of two story brick colonial houses in Tidewater Virginia. The old ends conformed very closely to the rooms that were to and were of a period contemporaneous with the Paradise House; in fact, having trim almost identical to some found in the building. The treatment of the windows has precedent at Wilton-on- Pianketank and the Abbington Glebe, Gloucester County, Virginia, where simple rooms have slightly elaborated windows.
The alterations performed by the College changed much of the interior and must have removed much original finish and trim. Partitions were inserted, although not all this changing can be attributed to the work done by the College, for inspection seemed to indicate that during the latter half of the 19th century trim 16 and some partitions were altered and renovated in the style of the period. On the whole, therefore, all the trim, finish, doors, etc., were inserted by the restoration project. Floors were original for the most part—much of the stair, a few doors, and a few door frames. All the new work inserted was either finish removed from old colonial buildings or else wood from like sources reworked by hand to details by architects.
The designation of rooms was purely arbitrary, although suggested by plan and room titles were assigned according to a decision of W. G. Perry.
All doors in Banquet Room #1 and Living Room #2 were colonial doors and probably original with building. At some later date original trim was removed, new frames applied over original one and the doors cut down top, bottom and on one side to fit the constricted new opening. This fact rendered the doors unfit for use if original openings were to be restored and reused, since there is no practical method of piecing out rails and stelar so cut down. These doors were all discarded, therefore, and placed in the warehouse, new doors being acquired from colonial sources as noted below.
On second floor there were four colonial doors when building was taken over by restoration project. Three of these were cut down as first floor doors but one remained unchanged in its original position. This was retained, but the others had to be discarded, unfortunately.
Removable screens were applied at all openings. Resigned to be as unobtrusive as possible. It is believed that the 18th century saw the use of screens of some type but the method used has no claim or precedent.
Original for most part. Patching and repairing where needed here and there with 18th century flooring from "pool."
Where new ones were needed, antique hand wrought nails were used, sources being miscellaneous. See General Notes, Exterior.
Original floor beams in good shape and were retained—small repairs being performed.
Fully panelled west wall. East, north and south walls of plaster with wood base, chair rail and cornice. Walls strapped with 2 x 4's on south—with 7/8" pieces on north—covered with metal lath and plaster, skim coat being brought to an antique finish which simulates local 18th century texture. The strapping was employed on brick walls to provide an air space between wall surface and plaster—this being essential to prevent sweating—especially on exterior walls—where moisture. Otherwise, it is often transferred through wall and plaster in wet weather. This is a departure from colonical methods (where plaster was applied direct to wall faces) but necessary under modern construction knowledge and technique. It meant, also, narrowing the strapping near original door frames which were slightly widened to receive the added over-all thickness of the strapped walls.
Plaster on metal lath—skim coat brought to antique finish. This meant removing modern lath and plaster inserted at time of College alterations.
Modern base removed when building was stripped for inspection. Original colonial beaded base inserted from miscellaneous sources.
Original rail on panelled end came with it—some extra left over which was employed and pieced out at minor points by portions copied from original by hand of old material from "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia, and Old Tobacco Warehouse, Richmond, Virginia. The back board was made up from original old base board from miscellaneous sources.
Cornice mold came with panelled end pieced out in minor portions as was Chair Rail. The back board was made up in same way as that of Chair Rail. The use of a ceiling board as well as wall back board has precedent at "Belle Farm," Gloucester County, Virginia.
See General Notes. Panelling from Bolling House, Petersburg, Virginia. Slightly altered in minor dimensions. Certain pieces and parts patched and repaired. All such work done with old material from "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia, and Old Tobacco Warehouse, Richmond, Virginia.
See notes on Basement and Fireplace, Banquet Room #1.
The contemplated heating was to have been accomplished by a forced draught arrangement—heating unit being without the building in an outbuilding, a conduit leading heat into the plenum chamber (see basement) where air was to be heated and washed with proper humidification before passing through the blower and thence into the ducts leading to the various rooms. Exhausts were to be concealed in fireplaces and in basement. The cold air return was to have been in Stair Closet, Hall #8, First Floor. Air from exterior was to come in under North stoop to plenum chamber. The only work performed on this system was to install all ducts in masonry and provide all cutting, etc., therein. All duct openings were then capped and covered until such time as their use became necessary.
See Specifications. An "Aero Automatic Fire Alarm System" was installed, with tube circuit at juncture of ceilings and top fillets of cornice cyma molds. The closets have the tubing coiled into rosetted behind small wire cages above doors near ceiling. The detector sets, transmitters, annunciators, bells, batteries, chargers, etc., are located in first floor hall #8 in the closet below the stairs. The "break glass" manual station is located under the stairs, also. The system is hooked up with fire station to give a special alarm for this building in case of fire.
See Panelling, preceding page. Mantel consists only of trimmed opening—original with panelled end. Certain repairs and patching was performed as opening was disfigured and charred in portions. This was done by hand with old material.
Original fireplace was larger than that permitted by panelled end. The original one was restored—within it was built the smaller of old brick from "Tetington," Charles City County, Va.—hearth of selected units from "Williamsburg Brick Corporation." A movable panel provided for inspection of remaining area of original fireplace. A covert iron damper was inserted and plaster smoke chamber and terra cotta flue lining. These features comprise modern construction, inserted because so much more efficient and practical. The College had already removed original throat and flues. These features are hidden—the fireplace itself being of colonial materials copied from known colonial models—Barlow House, Blair House.
Below underfire is an exhaust direct of the heating system—now capped with a steel plate and the underfire laid over it. 20 Although the system was not constructed, all ducts in masonry were provided ready to be "hooked" up in case the plant is installed in the future. If used the damper will be closed tightly—the duct exposed—logs laid high on andirons permitting the exhaust to force from out the fireplace pre-heated air.
Below Hearth and around it fireproofing provided with mineral wool pocking.
(Sash trim and frame and metal work) See notes, South Elevation. Also panels, shutters stool made by hand to architects' details of old material from (1) Soring Field Farm (2) Tobacco Warehouse (3) Old House near Edenton, North Carolina (4) Miscellaneous sources. Trim and panel molds copied from those on panelled west end.
Wood lintels had been destroyed by alterations of original openings. In restoring hidden steel lintels inserted simply as most sound structural move to make. Although the windows had been considerably changed from their first form, they had stools, trim and shutters. Precedent for the arrangement adopted (1) Little England, Gloucester County, Virginia (2) Wilton-on-Pianketank (3) Abbington Glebe, Gloucester County, Virginia.
The nosing mold of the window stool came from precedent at "Carter's Grove," Virginia.
All windows on first floor and north second have small brass pivoted catches in jambs which can be operated to lock sash in position when closed—not colonial, but necessary to safeguard building and contents.
For trim, see Living Room #2.
Floor original, slight repairs and patching. Base as else-where—walls and ceiling as elsewhere. Original shelving inside and repaired. Window trim as in Banquet Room #1; also nosing. Jambs are plain boards indicated by old frame. See West Elevation.
Door (11) east wall - from house at Clay Bank, Gloucester County, Virginia. Trim copied by hand of old material after trim of windows—material from miscellaneous sources. Detail copied after original frame found elsewhere in building. See General Notes, Interior.
Door (7) north wall from same source as (11). Trim ditto. This opening was found when building was stripped. The original poplar frame was found, but had to be considerably repaired, now very little of original left.
Door (17) west wall. When it was decided to insert panelling on this wall, the original door did not fit, and was discarded. Although there was already a door in the panelled end which was used. A new frame copying that of original door was made of old material from miscellaneous sources. The trim was part of panelled end—but in such poor condition as to necessitate considerable patching. The door original with panelled end was rearranged in position slightly.
Door (6) north wall frame same source as door (11). Trim ditto. Frame original repaired.
All doors in this room have brass rimlocks, keys and knobs made by modern manufacturer after colonial models acquired in this locality from dealers. Hinges are original H & L's, bought from local dealers and from this vicinity, being attached to doors with 18th century wrought iron nails.
One base plug east wall in baseboard and painted in with its background. This is for watchman's aid, vacuum cleaner and for possible emergency requiring such an electrical outlet. See Fireplace for notes on heating ducts. For fire alarm, see General Notes.
Woodwork - sample #110-S. Plaster dado painted same color. Fireplace plaster face painted black. Closet same as for main room. Floor natural and waxed. Walls and ceiling flat white like whitewash.
In this room original wood nailing pieces in brickwork - nail holes in stud partitions indicated wood base, chair rail and possibly a simple cornice. No evidence was found indicating panelled west end. Especially so, since an original door was found in situ south of fireplace to closet whose frame was such that its narrowness could not have received the added projection of panelling. A long stringer appeared in brick chimney breast several feet above fireplace—a typical feature in colonial chimneys—and even it showed no traces of nail holes.
For Floor, Floor Nails, and Beams, see Banquet Room #1. See also Stairs and Closet for Beams.
Original north wall removed; weight of brick above being badly supported with wood lintels. By inspection original conformation of brick wall determined and so put back west wall frame and original. East wall ditto of brick and was repaired and 1½ round steel tie rod inserted in chase - anchored to north and south walls and tightened with turn buckle to overcome loss of bond between this wall and north wall. The latter had begun to spin outward - 23 the condition had become very serious, and it was fortunate that the central second story portion of north wall hadn't collapsed. For lath, plaster and strapping, see Banquet Room #1.
For Ceiling and Baseboard, see Banquet Room #1.
To detail from old material from miscellaneous sources. Old Tobacco Warehouse and "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia. The detail was adapted from rail at Rolfe House, Surry County Virginia—dependent on second floor windows. Backboard as for Banquet Room #1.
As for Banquet Room #1. Ditto for backboard.
Under stair. Modern basement stair removed, as framing indicated none there originally. Flooring antique - nailed with antique nails. Material from flooring pool. Beaded wood base as in Banquet Room #1. Ditto for plaster walls and ceiling.
West door (11) see Banquet Room #1. Closet door (10) original colonial door from old house at Clay Bank, Gloucester County, Virginia. Trim as for door (11)—ditto frame. Door (8), north wall same as door (11), and frame copied from door (6). Steel lintels concealed above door to take weight of brick above. Door (1) south wall see South Elevation. For notes on trim see Living Room #2.
See same note under Banquet Room #1 - applying to doors in this room.
Woodwork - sample #84-S. Also dado of plaster same color. Wood floor natural, waxed. Walls and ceiling flat white like whitewash.
One base plug east wall - north end. See notes under Banquet Room #1. For fire alarm see General Notes, Interior.
In this room wood blocking for base and chair rail found in brickwork and evidences for same on frame partition. No evidence was found for panelling even on cheek of stair rise. House of the period, although often quite simply treated, usually has panelling at this point. Such a lack in the Paradise House simply strengthens the obvious conclusion that the interiors here were remarkable for their utter plainness.
Frame, posts, rails, part of string and carriage of stair original. Modern additions removed and old parts missing replaced. Marks left in paint gave original profiles of missing parts—so that the restored stair is an accurate reproduction of the original.
Treads natural. Rail dark chocolate brown, other woodwork same as for Hall #8. Plaster dado painted same color. Closet under stair flat white like whitewash.
Modern risers and treads removed and colonial type inserted worked by hand out of antique material from miscellaneous sources. Profile of nosing was determined by marks left in paint by originals, falling into a common type on colonial stairs in this vicinity, Wythe House.
Posts and caps and rails original. Were repaired at minor points. Worthy of note that they fall into common type in colonial houses of the vicinity.
A clear trace or profile of these were found against posts, since the posts had half-balusters tacked against them originally. New balusters were made by hand to this profile of old material from miscellaneous colonial sources in the vicinity.
All original except nosing on second floor string and back band on architrave mold on strings on rises of stair. Both these profiles were shown in the paint against posts. They were copied by hand of old material.
Closed — see above.
Drop indicated on original post at top of stair. One was detailed adapted from that at Wythe House - turned from antique material. Floors of landings and other features were treated as for rest of stair. See notes on rail, balusters, gallery board, etc.
For Floor, Floor Nails, Beams, Ceiling, Baseboard, Chair Rail, Cornice, Panelling or Wainscot, Mantel, and Fireplace and Hearths, see Banquet Room #1.
East Closet wall had been removed but was clearly indicated on old floor. Ceiling joists and adjacent brick walls. Otherwise walls treated as in Banquet Room #1. Peculiar opening discovered in north wall which was left as found. East Closet wall restored.
For South windows see Banquet Room #1. East window in closet new frame - stool - trim of antique material from miscellaneous source copied from that on South windows. For hardware and metal work see Banquet Room #1.
See Closet, Banquet Room #1. Shelves were inserted, copied from originals in Banquet Room. Closet from antique material by hand. Floor was original and so repaired. For plaster see reference.
The trim for windows here is original colonial molded trim from miscellaneous sources. This trim was used as typical trim 26 for rest of jobs—but is only actually molded colonial in that room—elsewhere it is of old material worked by hand to this detail.
Door (12) west wall from House at Clay Bank, Gloucester County, Virginia—frame original repaired - trim as for door (11). Door (9) north wall from Clay Bank - frame of antique poplar copied from door (12) by hand - Trim as for door (12). Door (18) east wall same as door (17) Banquest Room #1. See General Notes, Interior.
See Banquet Room #1.
Woodwork - natural finish. Ditto for closets. Plaster walls and ceiling painted flat to imitate whitewash with light warm buff. Floor natural - waxed.
Ditto. For fire alarm, see General Notes, Interior.
Same as for Banquet Room #1.
Original floor in bad repair at several points. This was mended and patched with old material from flooring "pool."
See Banquet Room #1.
The beams here and under all the lean-to portion had fallen into decay due to the fact that basement did not extend under this area and termites had got in their work. Also the College ripped out a good many - replacing with modern material. For structural safety in restoring many more old beams had to be replaced, but a residue was left as a record.
The replacements were made with antique material from miscellaneous sources.
West wall built new of old framing - for sources see General Notes, Exterior. The position of this partition was clearly indicated in flooring - on south wall and ceiling joists - but had been removed by modern alterations. North wall had parts of its original framing, although much of it had been altered by College renovations. East and South walls are original. For further notes on north wall see North Elevation.
An existing partition in southwest corner forming a serving pantry and attendant fixtures were removed being modern. Wall surfaces are plaster on metal lath as for Banquet Room #1. See same reference regarding strapping.
For lath and plaster see Banquet Room #1. Joists were in bad shape and had to be replaced in large part - done with common pine lumber.
Original beaded base from colonial miscellaneous sources.
Rail to detail of old material from miscellaneous sources. Actual profile from Main Farm, James City County - but the original chair rail from this source was finally found to be too rotten for reuse. Backboard as for Banquet Room #1.
Cornice made by hand to detail - copied from that in Banquet Room #1 of old material from miscellaneous sources. Backboard on wall only - but same as for Banquet Room #1.
Original colonial mantel from Old House in Nansemond County, Virginia. The mantel was for a rectangular fireplace opening—so rail next top of opening was altered and head run to a segmental shape. Top shelf was missing to a new one made to detail from old material from miscellaneous sources.
On stripping building original openings were cleared and rebuilt with antique brick from Tetington, Charles City County, Virginia, since their condition was very bad. Hearths were relaid with selected brick from "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Corporation." For Heating duct, see Banquet Room #1.
See notes on North Elevation, window trim made by hand of old material from miscellaneous sources. The shape was copied from same source as windows in Living Room #2. Ditto for metal work.
Door (5) west wall an original colonial door from Clay Bank. Trim same as for windows—frame same as for door (11). See also notes on windows, Living Room #2, for "essay" on trim from which the trim is here copied of old material by hand.
Hardware as for door (11).
Woodwork - sample #83-S. Plaster dado same color. Walls and ceiling flat white like whitewash. Fireplace face black. Floor natural - waxed.
One base plug on west wall, south of door near corner. For reasons and further notes, see Banquet Room #1. For fire alarm, see General Notes, Interior.
Floor, Floor Nails, Beams and Ceiling, see Chamber #6.
For south wall see Hall #8. For north and east walls see Chamber #6. West wall original framing and door opening. New lath and plaster - see reference for these.
Baseboard made by hand to copy that in Banquet Room #1 from old material from miscellaneous sources—for which see General Notes.
Rail as for Chamber #6 - backboard same as base in above note.
Same as for Chamber #6 - backboard same as that for chair rail and base in above notes.
Same as for Chamber #6. For metal work see Banquet Room #1.
Door (4) west wall in original opening. Otherwise same as for door (11). Door (2) north wall, see North Elevation. Trim same as for door (4). See Chamber #6 for door (5). See Hall #8 for door (8). See also Windows, Living Room #2, for further explanations on trim.
Door (2) and (4) same as for door (11).
Same as Hall #8.
One base plug on west wall - north of door near corner, for reasons see Banquet Room #1. For notes on fire alarm system see General Notes, Interior.
Original floor gone - new floor laid of old material from flooring "pool."
Antique flooring nails used from miscellaneous sources.
See Chamber #6.
A modern partition in south part of this room was removed.
Otherwise all walls original - for lath and plaster see Banquet Room #1.
Base as for Hall #7.
Same as for Chamber #6. For metal work see Banquet Room #1.
See Hall #7 for door (4). Door (3), west wall ditto. See Banquet Room #1 for door (7) - all trim in this room as for door (4). For "essay" on trim - see windows, Living Room #2.
As for door (11).
Same as Banquet Room #1.
One base plug - east wall, south corner - for reasons see Banquet Room #1. For fire alarm, see Banquet Room #1.
The designation of this room might be otherwise. The plan seems to suggest this title - and such a decision was rendered by W. A. Perry. Other possible uses: closet, dressing room, bath room, etc. If Room #3 were a dining room, Room #1a Banquet Room, this small chamber would be a service room.
Same as for Pantry #5.
All walls original - for covering see Banquet Room #1.
See Chamber #6.
See Hall #7.
Ditto. Except backboard old, original colonial number made up as in Banquet Room #1, from miscellaneous sources.
Same as for Chamber #6.
For door (3) see Pantry #5. For door (6) see Banquet Room #1. Trim on these doors and frames ditto. For "eassay" on trim see under windows, Living Room #2.
Woodwork - Sample #92-S. Plaster dado same color. Walls have paper authentic 18th century pattern, modern hand block printed. Ceiling to imitate whitewash - lighter tint of #92-S. Fireplace face painted red-orange or brick color. Floor natural, waxed.
One base plug on east wall near corner with north wall. For reasons see Banquet Room #1.
See those on Pantry #5.
See Banquet Room #1.
Framing by crossed summers and joists. Main summer was found to be failing structurally where second summer was tenoned into it. It was strengthened with steel plater - the tenons of the other members had, therefore, to be cut and these members then supported with metal hangars slung from summer. Rather than discard this fine original framing the above repairs and adjustments were performed.
As for Banquet Room #1 except no panelling. There were several walls in this room, proved not original with building which were removed—they formed a bathroom, closet and dressing room.
As for Banquet Room #1. Ceiling joist had to be strengthened and replaced here and there, but the majority of the original framing could be retained.
Base is about 40% original colonial beaded base from miscellaneous sources—the remaining 60% pieced out with base made by hand from old material from miscellaneous sources. For remarks on sources see General Notes, Exterior.
Same as in Hall #8. This form was used so that top member could form a back hand for stool and rest of molds to continue across stool at windows. This has precedent at Rolfe House, Surry County. See also notes under windows, Pantry #5. Back board in part actual colonial member, pieced out here and there in old material.
Cornice has old parts in shape as in Banquet Room #1. Back board partly original colonial member from miscellaneous sources. Piecing out for cornice and backboard done by hand with old materials from miscellaneous sources.
Adapted from one at Wilton-on-Pianketank, made to details by hand of old material. Architrave made up from actual colonial moldings from miscellaneous sources. Old wood for other portions from same sources.
When building was stripped original opening was uncovered with later fireplaces built in it. Its repair was very bad and so it was rebuilt with old brick from Tetington, Charles City County, Virginia. Hearth was outlined in old flooring and so replaced with selected brick from "Williamsburg Colonial Brick Corporation," being insulated between bottom of hearth and joists by mineral wool - simply a modern building technique precaution.
See notes on South elevation. For trim see Windows, Living Room #2 - was found when stripping building to warrant insertion 33 of plain board slays. Stool was so designed as to continue the torus of the chair rail - the top mold of which breaks in around splay - while the bottom mold continues across as nosing mold for stool - a trick copied from first floor windows at Rolfe House, Surry County, Virginia. All material used was wrought to detail by hand and was old wood from miscellaneous sources.
Beaded wood base copied by hand of old material from miscellaneous sources from actual colonial beaded base used elsewhere in buildings. Walls covered as for Banquet Room #1. Old hook strip and pegs from miscellaneous source inserted.
Door (14) east wall from Clay Bank - trim as for door (11). Frame ditto. Door (13) original door (west wall closet) and frame retained - new trim on room side applied - same trim as for door (11). See General Notes, Interior, in regards to door (14).
For doors (13) and (14) same as for door (11).
Woodwork - sample #79-S - plaster dado same color. Walls - flat white to imitate whitewash. Floors natural, waxed. Fireplace face black. Closet same as room.
One base plug on east wall - south of door - for reasons see Banquet Room #1. For fire alarm system see General Notes. Ditto for Closet #12.
See Banquet Room #1.
Ditto. East, South, North, West walls all original. Only covering new by restoring. See also Bed Room #9.
As for Bed Room #9 and references therein stated to other pages.
For door (14) west wall see Bed Room #9. For door (15) east wall see Bed Room #11.
Same as for Hall #8. First floor.
One base plug on west wall stair rail. For explanations see Banquet Room #1.
For stairs, which land in north end of this hall, see Halls #8 and #10.
See Banquet Room #1.
Several late partitions forming two closets, bath, dressing room and attendant fixtures were removed as not being original with building. The east wall forming Closet #13 has disappeared but evidence in floor, walls, ceiling joists showed its original position clearly. It was put back. Wall covering as for Banquet Room #1.
As for Banquet Room #1. See also Bed Room #9.
Same as for Bed Room #9.
See Bed Room #9. The trim is old original colonial molded members, repaired and used here.
Same as closet in Bed Room #9. Except no shelves or book strips in ceiling was provided as access door to attic space—being made of old material from miscellaneous sources. See General Notes below, also Walls.
Door to closet from miscellaneous collection at warehouse. It is a colonial door. Trim same as for windows. Frame copied from an original elsewhere in building. Closet door in Bed Room #9 is original with building and this matches it fairly closely.
As elsewhere in building.
Woodwork - Sample #90-S. Walls - Sample #81-S and plaster dado. Floor natural, waxed. Fireplace face black. Closet same as room.
One base plug just south of door on west wall. For notes see Banquet Room #1.
The closet in this room had disappeared but was put back as explained under Walls and Wall Surfaces.
Brickwork - framing - chimneys - practically all original and in original condition. All openings had been altered except interior doors. There was a furnace in Room #14 - a bulkhead cut through southeast window of Room #14 and a flight of stairs in Room #13 cut through floor framing. The actual original condition of the basement (rooms 12, 13, 14 forming it) was easily determined from inspection. All later portions where removed and the original 36 repaired and restored. Under shed portion was a partially excavated area with dirt floor which was original with the building.
In the unexcavated portion - under the shed roof - there is to be a future plenum chamber, which was not inserted at this time. On a line continuing that of east and west walls of Room #13, respectively, were built in two concrete piers - 5 feet long and 1'-6" wide. Their purpose was to strengthen the bond of the north wall of Room #13 and the above east and west walls. The condition of the brickwork on stories above this section of north wall also affected the bond here in the basement. It was proposed to continue these walls with smaller width to north wall of unexcavated portion - installing concrete floor - for a plenum chamber for forced draught system. The battresses were inserted only - the plenum chamber was not constructed. See notes on heating system. Necessary outlets, electrical and water, were provided, so that in future, the system may be more easily installed with minimum of cutting, etc.
Original floor was brick as stated by Mr. Charles and other older natives of the town. Later a concrete floor had replaced this. Rather than rip it up a brick floor of old material from Tetington, Charles City County, Virginia, was laid on it, with a cushion of 1" of sand. Brick laid in common bond running east and west as at Tucker House cellar.
Repaired and patched - otherwise original. Back wall of arched reveal is false wall - lessening original depth of reveal in order to install ducts of forced draught heating system from plenum 37 chamber in unexcavated portion. Three of these ducts lead up through mass of chimney to fireplace exhausts in Bed Room #9, Dining Room #3 and Banquet Room #1. One exhaust is from the false wall into Room #12 by leaning out beaders. See remarks under General Notes, Interior, on heating system.
See notes under South Elevation. Stools of antique material from miscellaneous sources. Frames and trim made by hand of old material from the "Springfield Farm," New Kent County, Virginia. One original stool was found in southwest window of Room #14 which was model for others in basement. Concealed above wood lintels at heads are concealed steel lintels to take weight of brick wall above with safety.
All original - but were repaired here and there.
Door (21) east wall made by hand of old material (from "Spring-field Farm") to detail. For frame precedent at Tucker House basement. For door see East Elevation. The iron grille was considered, arbitrarily, a necessity for allowing circulation of air from one room to another when door was shut. The grille has no direct precedent but it was known that the Paradise Basement was at one time used as a shop or store and that whatever doors were there would have been strongly secured against thefts of provisions.
Hasp and staple. Made by local craftsman after colonial examples bought from "the trade" in this vicinity. Ditto fro strap hinges on pintles.
Ceiling framing original and in good condition. Minor repairs made. See Banquet Room #1. The beams were left exposed.
Only equipment consists of a wall plug halfway up north wall, besides exhaust near east wall. For reasons see Banquet Room #1.
Same as Room #12.
Same as Room #12. East and west walls had considerable patching done, especially around doors #20 and #21. In north wall some headers were left to provide another exhaust for forced draught heating system. This entirely due to modern necessity but no less obvious and yet practical solution being possible.
For door #20 see Room #14. For door #21 see Room #12.
See Room #12 - notes under Stairs.
Besides exhaust on north wall no equipment appears.
Same as Room #12.
Ditto except ducts up distribute to fireplace exhaust in Living Room, Chamber #6 and Bed Room #11.
See Room #12.
Door #20 same as for door #21. Door #19 see East Elevation. Wood steps were inserted, very simply detailed and made up of old material from miscellaneous sources.
Upon stripping building an interesting fact came to light - that the wall from the sill of the first floor window above this door to the door head was but 9" thick. This was done, apparently, to relieve the weight of masonry on the door head. Just inside the head the first joist was shallow in order to provide for a sloping boarded area for head room - this was repaired and rebuilt. Over 39 head of this door were concealed some steel lintels since the brick of this point had fallen into bad repair and needed a firm support.
Same as east door in Room #12.
As for Room #12.
As for Room #12 - wall plug on north wall half way up new west wall.
Window arches on the front were three courses too low, and in study of the building when stripped were found to have been higher - thus the original window size on the first floor was determined. On the west side a modern window opening was blocked up.
Careful study of brickwork divulged steps running both ways from the door. The traces of the runs were found on the basement wall and became apparent after the modern steps were removed and rain had washed down old surfaces of the wall. The design was executed after study of similar steps in Alexandria, details in Williamsburg, Norfolk and Petersburg, Virginia.
The rear porch was determined by foundations uncovered by excavating - indicating the shape as well as the fact that this stoop was of wood.
The front door opening was original, defined by ground brick jambs with closers and ground brick arch, indicating a door with a transom, the details for which were determined after careful study and measurements of similar conditions at:
Part of original stair in place. Original turned balusters had disappeared but on newel posts, by carefully scraping off top paint coat, the actual profile of a half baluster originally applied against the post was found.
Thus, the shape of the baluster was definitely established. Thus, the fact of half engaged balusters was definitely established at the posts.
By stripping off all plaster and modern work the position of original partitions was determined and modern partitions revealed themselves as such, making it possible to define the original layout of the rooms. This was accomplished by:
(NOTE: See outhouse sheets of Montague House in sample record. In general give approximate age of outbuilding, record-character, and its former site if moved to its restoration location from another place. If "original" on the site, record it briefly as you would a house. If new, give authority or precedent for its design. If new - or moved from some where else - but standing on an old foundation, mention the fact and also note what formerly stood there.)
Eighteenth century partially ruinous and filled with debris found in excavating for foundations of outbuildings. The college had placed a modern well head arbitrarily elsewhere on grounds which was removed. The well house as designed was built of old material at all points exposed to eye from old material from some sources as for Smoke house. See miscellaneous sources, General Notes, Exterior.
The design is adapted from two sources - 1) As shown on Brady Civil War Photo of Culpepper Court House, Virginia. 2) Old well head in Hanover County, Virginia. The sheathing treatment was adapted this model. 3) Well head at Falmouth, Virginia. The well was not cleared out but a concrete, reinforced slab was laid 2'-0" below grade to cover old fill and have firm bearing on adjacent undisturbed soil. Upon this were erected brick foundations of old material from brick "pool" on these were laid a new sill and framing below well door. In gable portion framing of old material sources as noted above. Sheathing both roof and exterior old material 44 Ditto for lattice work which was rough sawn from old material. Shingles are old wood ones from miscellaneous sources.
Wrought iron hook for the pulley attached to ceiling framing made by hand by local craftsman after colonial model procured in vicinity. c.f. ancient well head at Arlington, Virginia, for precedent. Hinges, hasp and padlock furnished by architects and gathered in this vicinity.
The brickwork was built as if for an actual well - sp that until it terminates at the r.f. concrete slab the circular shape of well interior is followed in like dimensions to original one.
This outbuilding is designed on the above precedent to fit existing eighteenth century foundations. See notes under Exterior regarding Paradise as an exhibition house. This policy applies as well to the Smoke House.
This building was placed in its position because evidence of old paths of brick leading from Kitchen indicated some structure at this point. Documentary evidence showed that the Paradise House was accompanied by the usual cluster of outbuildings - a smoke house invariably formed a part of such groups in Williamsburg. Arbitrarily, it was decided to use this position indicated by the path for the smoke house.
The design of this structure is based on that of the Tazewell Hall Smokehouse, but a steeper roof pitch was used as at the Van Garrett Smokehouse. The finial is adapted from one on a smokehouse at Port Royal, Virginia. The shingles are Mohawk Asbestos "Williamsburg Type." This shingle is noted on South Elevation. Cornice adapted closely to that on Tazewell Hall Smokehouse. Siding is of beaded weatherboarding. Old, original, Colonial molded 45 material from "Oakland," Surry County, Virginia. Cornice and finial are made to detail by modern mill workers of new material. Corner boards and door trim ditto - are both typical, colonial details. The door trim was used to give the building a richer flavor as at Mount Vernon, Virginia. Door itself made of old random width boards, assembled with beaded, diagonal joints on outside - vertical joints plain inside and colonial wrought iron nails in pattern on outside with ends clinched over on inside. This door has precedent in smokehouse near Belle Farm, Gloucester County, Virginia. The old material cause from miscellaneous sources. The hinges and bar were copied from those on Tazewell Hall Smokehouse by hand by local craftsman. As colonial stone step found on site was placed on foundations at door. Foundations of brick, concealed below grade for structural security. The door frame was made as trim, see above, but is mortised, tenoned and pegged.
Brick foundation wall of old brick laid in English bond - of colonial brick from brick pool. For notes on mortar, etc., see General Notes, Exterior. This bond used because foundations of kitchen were so laid.
Ceiling framing copied from Smokehouse near Belle Farm, Gloucester County, Virginia. Roof framing after Van Garrett Smokehouse, Williamsburg, Virginia. All interior framing is of ancient material from following sources. 1) Main Farm, James City County, Virginia 2) Tetington, Charles City County, 3) Liberty Hall (mostly). Neat suspensions pegs as at Claremont Smokehouse, Surry County, Virginia. The studs and are as at the Gloucester County source. Roof sheathing of old material from miscellaneous sources. Although the framing is all of antique material, it was not put together with mortise and 46 tennon but is all spiked with modern nails. This was done to save money at the request of restoration officials. It was felt permissible since the ancient method of joinery is not disclosed to the eye even where used.
The floor is brick - laid on sand bed. The brick are ancient and from the brick pool. Precedent for a brick floor is to be found in eighteenth century builders' accounts preserved in the Department of Research and Records of the restoration project.
See General Notes, Exerior, regarding Paradise as exhibition house. This policy applies, as well, to the smokehouse.
Block 18, Building 7B
This Report was prepared by Singleton P. Moorehead, August 23, 1946.
The only evidence of a stable in the group is an advertisement of sale of the lot and buildings, which mentions a "fine large stable and coach house." In addition, stables and coach houses usually comprised a part of outbuilding groups accompanying substantial residences in Williamsburg of the eighteenth century. No conclusions could be made from foundations so that the demands of authenticity made by the decision to create the group as an exhibition one had to be answered by careful adherence to other known colonial stables and coach houses of Virginia.
The design comprises two parts: 1.) a brick stable with a 2.) wood coach house wing. The brick stable portion was adapted from the brick stable at the old Tavern of Gloucester Court House, the brick stable at King William Court House, and certain details were derived from a brick storehouse at the Henley Estate, near Walkerton. The wood coach house was adapted very closely from a similar edifice on the Annie Catlett place, Port Royal, Virginia.
Old material such as timbers and brick came from a variety of eighteenth century Virginia structures. These were delivered 48 to the job or the wood working mill, making it convenient for pieces to be culled from the lot for specific uses. Unfortunately, tag and chalk marks were lost so that the identity of locality of origin was lost.
The following are places from which materials were derived:
|1.||Brick||Clapton House, Charles City County, Va.|
|Jones Farm, James City County, Va.|
|2.||Framing||Clapton House, Charles City County, Va.|
|Tettington, Charles City County, Va.|
|Liberty Hall, Hanover County, Va.|
|3.||Siding||Clapton House, Charles City County, Va.|
|4.||Flooring||Clapton House, Charles City County, Va.|
|Mostly from Oakland, Gloucester County, Va.|
All exposed brick is of the eighteenth century, from above sources. It is laid up in Flemish bond on the outside, English bond on the inside. The joints are as at the Ludwell-Paradise House. The mortar is made so as to simulate the customary, local type of the eighteenth century. This is done by the use of burned marl for lime. The marl is removed from the deposits along the banks of the James River - the same source used by the colonists in this locality in the eighteenth century. Bricks not exposed to the eye are common brick of modern manufacture.
Exterior doors and shutters are painted shade #69-s as listed at the Warehouse. Trim and finish are painted with a cold-water paint similar in effect to whitewash. The cupola is painted with white lead and oil.
The sample mentioned above is in the record sample files in possession of the architects and is an authentic eighteenth century color used in the vicinity. Ditto for the white.
Mohawk Asbestos shingles, Williamsburg type. Developed especially for the Williamsburg Project to be fireproof, yet imitate a weathered wood shingle. Insurance and zoning requirements specify roofs to be fireproof. Roof boarding of antique material in Stable - new common pine over Coach House. A thickness of roofer's felt was inserted under the shingles. This was necessary because shingles are other than wood. The sheathing had, therefore, to be tight with close butt joints. This is in no sense a colonial method of roofing but was done here because of the kind of shingle employed. It does not offer a contradiction to a colonial appearance on the exterior. The old material for sheathing over the stable was used because the hay loft was to have been for exhibition purposes; therefore, rafters were of antique, colonial material and the exposed sheathing likewise had to be old. It was taken from Clapton House, Charles City County.
This was adapted and simplified from Bremo Barn cupola. This was made of new material to architects' details. The wood is heart cypress and southern yellow pine. All sheathing and boarding are rough sawn with hand saw so as to simulate a rough hand-worked texture.
On Coach House was adapted very closely from precedent at Port Royal and from a small barn on the Annie Catlett place.
On stable of brick from source (1), preceding page. See notes on brickwork. At points on the surface headers were omitted 4" 50 deep to simulate the putlock hole so customary in colonial brick outbuildings. Precedent: 1. Carter's Grove flanking buildings, 2. Shirley barn, 3. Stratford barn.
On Coach House flush boards were used, forming a smooth surface about the two entrance doors. This is of antique material from Clapton House, Charles City County.
Stable door #1, random width boards with capped beaded joints on Z battens. Simple, heavy frame. Adapted from old Tavern Stable, Gloucester Court House. Made of old material from sources (2) and (3) in Exterior, General Notes. Ditto for above hay-loft door. Flat arch of headers on edge above brick openings is adapted from precedent at 1. Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable, 2. brick outbuilding at Henley Estate, near Walkerton.
Coach House doors #3 and #4 - double leaf doors of vertical, random width boards, capped, beaded joints on Z battens. These are of old material from sources (2) and (3) in Exterior, General Notes. Frames are cased around stud posts as at Port Royal barn. The doors are adapted from the Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable and from Mount Airy Stable. The treatment of wall surface and frame is with bead as at Port Royal barn. A post is driven into the ground at center line of doors #3 and #4 to serve as a hooking base as well as a bottom stop for swing.
Door #1 is wide and high to accommodate the passage of horses - the dimensions following Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable. Wood frames and wills of these openings in brick walls are joined by mortise tenon and pegs. The wide frames conceal steel angles 51 at the heads of openings. These are inserted as a modern safety measure to prevent failure of brickwork above them.
The method of closing door against frame, rather than rebating frame to receive it, is as at Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable. The method is also mentioned in eighteenth century stable specifications in the possession of the Department of Research and Records.
No basement under the Stable portion. Foundation wall under Coach House high enough to free siding from contact of earth at grade and is a 9" thick wall in English bond. It is broken by the Coach doors #3 and #4. The wall is of antique brick culled from source (1) in Exterior, General Notes.
On Stable the barge boards are of old material from source (3) and (4) in Exterior, General Notes. They are beaded and taper towards a peak as at brick outbuilding of Henley Estate, near Walkerton. The cornice stops are flush with these and are an adaptation from the above precedent.
Coach House - corner boards are of old material, copied from precedent at Port Royal barn.
None. For Cupola, see North Elevation.
The cornice on the Stable is of a slightly different type than the one on the Coach House to indicate a different building. It is made of new material, heart cypress, run by modern milling methods to detail. Precedent for the beaded facia is the Annie Catlett Barn, Port Royal. The bed mould is adapted from the Ludwell-Paradise House. The cyma is practically typical for wood mideighteenth century cornices in this vicinity.
Brick. See North Elevation for Stable. Coach House does not appear on this elevation.
No windows but narrow, vertical openings appear, splayed on inside. These have direct precedent at 1. Shirley Barn, 2. Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable, 3. King William Court House Stable. Of these examples, (2) was followed most closely.
Stable - none showing; Coach House - see North Elevation.
Stable - see North Elevation. Coach House - random width boards with joints lapped and running horizontally. All of old material from source (3) in Exterior, General Notes. The precedent for such treatment is the small barn on the Annie Catlett place, Port Royal.
The first floor of the Stable has opening with infill of simple frame and square crossbars set diagonally and running horizontally, the whole opening having a sheathed shutter with Z battens. This treatment is specifically mentioned in the records of the Governor's Palace Stable and is further borne out by precedent at 1. Stratford Barn, 2. Shirley Stable and Barn, 3. Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable. Bars and frame are made up of new southern yellow pine to detail by modern mill manufacturing. The shutter is of old material from sources (2) and (3) in Exterior, General Notes.
On the second floor or loft and in the gable is a louvred opening - louvres and frame were new; see note above on frame and crossbars of first floor windows. Precedent for such treatment: 1. Brandon Brick Storehouse, 2. louvred openings - Bruton Church, Williamsburg, 3. Port Royal Barn. Both frames and sills are joined with mortise, tenon and pegs. For brick treatment about these openings, see North Elevation; also for steel lintels.
None for Stable. Coach House, see note on North Elevation.
Same as for North Elevation.
None. For Cupola, see North Elevation.
None. Overhanging gable on Coach House closely adapted in detail from Annie Catlett Barn in Port Royal, Virginia.
Stable - door same as for that on North Elevation; window same as for that on South Elevation. Coach House - door in gable loft or gallery is a sheathed, beaded door on double Z bettens - sheathing as at Annie Catlett Barn, Port Royal, Virginia. Battens as at Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable. Frame and trim, etc., as at Port Royal Barn. All of old material from source (3) in Exterior, General Notes.
No windows. Dove-cote openings as at Annie Catlett Barn, Port Royal, Virginia. See note on stable window above under Front Door.
For stable window, see under Windows, South Elevation.
Stable - none. Coach House - see North Elevation.
Barge boards on Coach House as at Annie Catlett Barn, are of old material from sources (2) and (3) in Exterior, General Notes. Ditto for corner boards and cornice stop.
None appear on the Stable in this elevation.
See Exterior, General Notes, regarding the decision to make this building an exhibition structure. The original intention was to have the interior open for exhibition. Thus, the whole interior of the Stable was treated as original and the space below the loft in the Coach House was also given a finished and original appearance. To accomplish this end, old materials were used in all parts of the building which were to be exposed to the eye. The Stable was to have its stalls, fodder rack, posts and harness pegs, loft ladder and trap door and access for tossing fodder to the racks in the stalls below. The floor in the Stable was to have been brick with a drain gutter flowing out of the area through splayed openings in the exterior brick walls. Upon this basis complete drawings were made, the various details following closely known precedent at 1. Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable, 2. King William Court House Stable, while the floor and gutter were authenticated wall outlets uncovered on the outbuildings and dependencies of the Governor's Palace. The Coach House interior was to have a tamped earth floor and exposed framing - all of it being very simple. This was completed as indicated and planned on the drawings, but a final decision of the Williamsburg Holding Corporation to complete only those portions of the Stable necessary for the structural requirements of the building postponed the insertion of most of the Stable equipment until a future date to the time of this writing. In the following notes, the various portions of the interiors completed will be mentioned only.
Cinders. See General Notes on Interior.
Brick in English bond. Brick are old from source (1) in Exterior, General Notes. Precedent for exposed brick in English bond, Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable.
Of exposed joists and random width board floor. The former from source (2), the latter from source (4) in Exterior, General Notes. Precedent, Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable, King William Court House Stable.
See South Elevation. Metal work consists of hand wrought hook eye to fasten shutter when closed. No trim on opening - same within as without. Hook eye hand wrought by local craftsmen after original colonial model bought from dealers.
The narrow openings are splayed on inside and have their heads and jambs coated with mortar as at Gloucester Court House Tavern Stable. See further notes on East Elevation. The shutter has 2 strap hinges on pintles driven into frame. These are copied by hand in wrought iron by a local craftsman after original colonial 57 hinges bought from antique dealers.
Doors #1 and #2, see North Elevation. Door same within as without except is out. Door #5 to Coach House similar to exterior doors #1 and #2 - made up in same way and follows same precedent.
Doors #1 and #2 have 3 strap hinges, the top and bottom having elbows. These are from same source as window shutter hinges noted above. Each door is equipped with padlock, chain and staple and hasp on frame. Same source as hinges.
Door #5 - 2 strap, pintle hinges, same source as hinges on window shutters above. A wood latch operated with rawhide pull and a wood keeper are used to shut door. These are copied in old material from an original colonial one bought from antique dealers in vicinity.
Ladder to loft - this is made up of old material from sources (2) and (3) in Exterior, General Notes. Precedent follows that in King William Court House Stable. Some details being after the basement ladder at St. George Tucker House, Williamsburg, such as beading the tops of the stringers.
See Interior, General Notes.
Tamped earth. See Interior, General Notes.
See Interior, General Notes. Framing of studs, sills, corner posts, knees and braces are exposed, but constructed in colonial technique of framing after known precedent: 1. Mount Stirling Barn, Charles City County, 2. Annie Catlett Barn, Port Royal. The material is old from source (2) in Exterior, General Notes.
Same as in Stable, first floor.
For Coach doors #3 and #4, see notes on North Elevation; since there is no trim within, except cased rebate, the above reference is fully explanatory. Door #5 to Stable, see Stable, First Floor.
Coach doors #3 and #4 have same type hinges as doors #1 and #2 in first floor of Stable. Ditto for locks. The active valve has a hook which serves a staple in the wood stop post at grade. Hook from same source as window shutter hinge.
All exposed surfaces whitewashed.
This room is fully completed as indicated on the drawings - see notes on Interior regarding this matter.
Random width, rough boards from source (4) in Exterior, General Notes. For further notes and precedent, see Ceiling, first floor of Stable. Since stalls were not built on the first floor, the access to the stall racks for tossing fodder was not provided.
Modern cut nails, which simulate colonial wrought iron nails except for hand hammered surface.
See notes under Ceiling, first floor of Stable.
Roof rafters are antique from source (2) in Exterior, General Notes. Roof boarding from source (3) in Exterior, General Notes. These consist of wall surface.
For louvred window in south wall, see under windows in South Elevation. Only metal is a hook eye to fasten shutter when closed. This is hand wrought by local craftsman after original models procured from dealers in vicinity. The interior is similar to exterior in treatment.
Door to outside in north gable, see North Elevation. This is similar on inside to the outside.60
Trap door to ladder from first floor - see Interior, General Notes. This is adapted very closely to a like feature in King William Court House Stable.
An access is provided by a batten sheathed door to loft over Coach House. This made up like trap door.
Gable door to outside has 2 strap, pintle hinges and a wrought hook and eye - all from same source as window hook above noted. Trap door has 2 strap hinges with T butts. Same source.
Floor left natural; other surfaces whitewashed.
See Coach House, first floor, ceiling. Same as Stable, second floor.
See references under Floor.
Made of new material since this area is not considered exhibition.
Two boxes built up of new material for dove-cotes - access doors provided. These made to provide space for birds but to keep them from any access to rest of loft. There is no precedent for these nor attempt to follow any.
For gallery door, see West Elevation, Front Door.
H and L hinges and wought thumb latch. These from same sources as window shutter hardware.
All surfaces whitewashed - floor natural.
Since this portion was not intended to be for exhibition, the roof framing and boarding and the dove-cote boxes were therefore made of rough sawn common pine.
Documentary evidence indicated a stable on the lot. No foundations existed, however. In order to make the design conform with colonial practice, the following examples of eighteenth century stables were photographed, measured and served as precedent:
The design as executed is based on the above - more particularly items A, B and E.
Block 18, Building 7A
This report was prepared by S. P. Moorehead, no date was given on original.
The original kitchen had vanished, having been wrecked at the time of renovations made by a previous owner. These occurred shortly before 1930, when the College of William and Mary acquired the property and renovated the house and its dependencies somewhat along colonial lines. See General Notes for the Ludwell-Paradise House. The over-all dimensions of the old kitchen could be determined and the building was built new, of new material at the East side of the lot for a garage. But the men who worked on the job discovered that the mass of the new garage was a close reproduction of that of the old kitchen. They further observed that the chimney was missing except for the base; the brick from it were used for the brick entrance flight of steps at the street side of the main house. The previous builders also wrecked most of the foundation walls but the east line of these remained. The restored kitchen was erected here according to the former position as pointed out by them. The site was further established by convergence of brick paths and paving and the indication of the latter towards a possible door in the building.64
It was decided by restoration authorities, at the time, to make the kitchen an exhibition or museum building on the first floor and exterior and to provide living quarters for a watchman on the second floor. The exterior was therefore constructed of antique material where possible. Shingles, window sash, frame, trim, door frame and trim, cornice, dormer were of new material, to detail. Because of the difficulty of reusing these members, they were new of old material and the use of antique material in exhibition work where possible was considered appropriate to convey the character of age, especially in outbuildings.
The sources of antique material will be stated in the following notes wherever possible. The fact that a given amount of antique material supplies only a small per cent of its whole, built in on the finished job, causes the need for filling out parts with a few pieces from other sources. These small lots were culled from the Warehouse, then a storehouse of building parts, and their identity was lost. For brevity such materials are referred to as from miscellaneous sources. This does not alter the fact that the material was authentic colonial and of the eighteenth century. In other words, small lots lose their identity when being moved about, built in, and reworked on the job by workmen - chalk marks and labels disappear. The material wrought to architects' detail was so made by modern milling methods. To do so by hand was so costly as to be prohibitive.
The design of the kitchen is a repetition of a known mass and size. Its detail was typical of mid-eighteenth century work of the colonial period in the vicinity. Precedence for the various parts will be given in the following notes.65
See Specifications. No exposed flashing is visible. All of it consists of heavy lead coated copper - used because of its value in keeping out weather. Colonial flashing was very simple and generally not employed at all on small frame structures such as this. Unexposed flashing consists of heavy copper on this building.
All exterior surfaces except as later noted are whitewashed. Those portions made new are painted to match the whitewash. The exterior door is painted sample #262 on outside. The designation of paint colors is by sample - referring to record sample filed in the Paint Department. Such colors are authentic reproductions of extant colonial examples within the vicinity.
Mohawk Asbestos Shingles, Williamsburg Type, made especially for the Williamsburg project so as to imitate as closely as possible aged wood shingles and being fireproof at the same time. They are of a cement composition material because of zoning fire laws of the city which preclude the use of wood shingles. Shingles are laid on roofing felt, which covers sheathing of common pine. Cabot's quilt insulation was inserted between rafters and sheathing. All modern building methods - and used because not visible on any exposed surfaces.
Of a type commonly found in this vicinity as at 1.) Casey's Gift, Williamsburg, Virginia, 2.) Outbuildings at Claremont, Surry County, Virginia, 3.) Houses near Croker, James City County, Virginia. Sash are new of white pine to detail adapted from above 66 sources. Frame of heart yellow pine, mortised, tenoned, pegged. Trim of Heart Gulf Cypress, new to detail. Rakes made to detail from old flooring - miscellaneous sources. Sheathing made of antique material from miscellaneous sources arranged to detail. Flooring as for main house. Concealed copper flashing at points where necessary - sill, eaves, ridge, joints with roof. Cornice mold of Heart Gulf Cypress to detail of new material. See above precedent.
Of new material to detail - material is cypress. Detail adapted from colonial precedent in outbuildings at Tuckahoe, Goochland County, Virginia. The framing of the cornice follows modern carpentry technique since it is all hidden. No attempt was made towards colonial joinery technique. See General Notes.
None at eaves. A brick drip was provided at grade with bricks laid flat to break spatter of drip from eaves along west wall, since the brick paving along east wall covers this need. Material used is James River Colonial - Bruton size - by E. T. Mankin, Richmond, Virginia - new brick to simulate colonial. Bricks are laid on 2" mortar bed. A brick spatter or drip was common usage in eighteenth century in this vicinity to prevent washing of earth on a line with eaves.
Of colonial beaded weatherboards partly from Clapton House, Charles City County, Virginia and Col. George Dillard House, Sussex County, Virginia. Some had new beads run to match existing beads. Weatherboards are laid on Cabot's Quilt insulation - between them and studs. Relation between bottom of lowest weatherboard and line of first floor being carefully maintained as in previously mentioned precedent.
None. A stone fragment serves as door step. This is an eighteenth century piece found on site of Virginia Gazette, east of Ludwell-Paradise House and is English oolitic limestone. It was probably imported.
Frame and trim are new of heart yellow pine to detail which has precedent at 1.) House at Goochland Court House, Virginia, 2.) House at Croker, James City County, Virginia. Door itself is of old material from miscellaneous sources, reworked to detail, precedent for it at 1.) outbuildings at Marmion, King George County, Virginia, 2.) old stable at Mount Sterling, Charles City County, Virginia, 3.) outbuildings at Greenway, Charles City County, Virginia. It consists of beaded vertical sheathing in random width boards held by three molded battens on inside face. Hand wrought nails are in five spot pattern clinched on batten side.
The windows are entirely new material, worked to detail. Precedent for long, narrow openings in small frame buildings: 1. Colonial house, corner of Boundary and Prince George Streets, Williamsburg, Virginia, 2. houses near Croker, James City County, Virginia, 3. Tuckahoe outhouses, Goochland County, Virginia. The sash is of white pine to detail from above precedent. Glass is of cheap quality to simulate bubbly eighteenth century glass. Frame is of heart yellow pine to detail from above precedent and is fully morticed, tenoned and pegged in colonial method. Trim is of same wood. Sill is beaded to continue bead of weatherboards - as at McCandlish House, Williamsburg. Back band or trim is as at Mount Vernon and Tettington, Charles City County, Virginia. Use of back band precludes use of outside shutters; wood throw - bolts 68 provided as rest for bottom sash. Upper sash fixed in usual colonial manner. A small wrought iron peg hung on rawhide string attached on jambs of interiors to fit hole in upper sash at meeting rail to lock window. No precedent for this but forms an attempt at colonial character in a small necessity.
None. See Windows.
Made of old material from Clapton House, Charles City County, Virginia on exposed surfaces. Hidden portions of common brick. Bond is English - this being evidenced by fragments of original foundation wall. Jointing and painting adapted from that of original work at Ludwell-Paradise House. Mortar simulates eighteenth century oyster shell kind on exposed surfaces. The oyster shells or marl and sand being local and from same sources as used by masons in this locality in eighteenth century.
Corner boards made to detail of old flooring from below sources. The detail is typical for colonial frame buildings in Williamsburg, as at Tucker House, Van-Garrett House, etc. For barge boards and cornice stops, see North and South Elevations. Sources are Clapton House and Hubbard House, Charles City County, Virginia.
Not enough detailed information was available from those who wrecked the original kitchen to place the fenestration and door, but dormers were recalled. The paving indicated a central door, however, and a window was placed on either side in a symmetrical composition. The mass of this elevation follows that of the kitchen by way of the present garage which is said to be a copy of it.
At several points headers were omitted to allow venting to space below floor - but screened for protection against rats. This method for venting partially excavated portions is common local practice in colonial outbuildings of Virginia. Marl was burned before mixing as lime into mortar.
Same as East Elevation.
A small eight light window at second floor. Construction of frame and trim same as for East Elevation. Sash same as for dormers, East Elevation. Small gable windows like this are a common colonial feature as at 1. Mercer Shop, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 2. house at Dumfries, Virginia.
See East Elevation.
Beaded and tapered barge boards to detail from antique flooring from Clapton House, Charles City County, Hubbard House, Charles City County. Detail is typical for such examples as Galt Cottage, Casey's Gift, Williamsburg, Virginia; outbuildings at Greenway, 70 Charles City County, Virginia. The method of terminating cornice with a stop board is not used, but the weatherboards terminate soffit and facia while the rake covers the cyma and the bed returns on self at its side of the corner board. This method has precedent at Captain Orr's Dwelling, Williamsburg, Virginia, Tettington, Charles City County, eighteenth century outbuilding at Hampstead, New Kent County, Virginia.
See East Elevation.
See East Elevation.
See East Elevation.
See East Elevation.
See East Elevation.
See East Elevation.
Same as for East Elevation, except no door.
Shingles on shed at chimney same as for East Elevation.
No main cornice. Cornice of shed next to chimney consists only of cyma mold - same as for main cornice. Precedent for such shed treatment: 1. Greenway, Charles City County, Virginia, 2. House at Ayletts, Virginia, 3. House near Barhamsville, New Kent County, Virginia. The use of this type of small shed has precedent as for (2) and (3). The cyma molding is now and is of Gulf cypress to detail. See East Elevation for precedent.
Same as for East Elevation. Ditto for shed.
None. For shed, see under Cornice, this page.
Same as for East Elevation.
Exact design of original is unknown. So much brick was removed from its base by college workmen that the superstructure was totally destroyed. It appears to have been large and followed common form for the locality. As rebuilt, it is an adaptation of harmonizing features of several eighteenth century models: 1. Tucker House Kitchen, Williamsburg, Virginia, 2. House at New Kent Court House, 3. Montague House, Williamsburg, Virginia. It was built of old reused brick from Clapton House, Charles City72
County, Virginia, laid in Flemish bond throughout, as in the Tucker House Kitchen. Shoulders, details, slopes, cap, etc., appear as in all the above precedent. Only the exposed surfaces are of antique brick. The inside brick are common manufacture. For mortar see Basement Wall, East Elevation.
The rake on shed are as for those on kitchen. See North Elevation.
In general, the first floor and stair have been considered as suited for exhibition. The second floor was designed to house a caretaker. Thus all portions exposed on first floor, where possible, are built of antique material, the sources of which will be enumerated in the following notes.
The design of the interior on the first floor follows known mid-eighteenth century precedent, utilizing the general character and details which seemed harmonious from the following colonial examples. 1. Marmion Kitchen and stair, 2. Mount Vernon Kitchen, 3. Tuckahoe Kitchen.
Paint colors are referred to by sample numbers of the date when this report was written. The second samples of all paints used are preserved in files of the supervisor of painting. They are based on known eighteenth century colors collected from extant buildings in this locality.
In following notes reference is made to original, colonial hardware as having been procured from the "trade". This means 73 local antique dealers, second hand or junk dealers, or natives possessing such hardware and who are willing to dispose of it by sale - but meaning also that the pieces have lost their actual geographic identity. Where original hardware was not obtainable, then reproductions of old hardware were used.
Consists of old, reused flooring from following colonial houses: 1. Clapton House, Charles City County, 2. Hubbard House, Charles City County. Selected pieces were used and laid in colonial manner.
Stock modern cut nails with heads hand hammered by local craftsman to simulate hand wrought, colonial nails.
Beams supporting first floor are modern 2 x 10's of pine in modern carpentry technique. Due to extreme cost of framing this unexposed portion in colonial methods, the modern usage was followed.
Framing of walls (exterior) with common pine 2 x 4 studs in modern carpentry technique - since such framing is hidden from the eye and to provide colonial joinery here would be excessively costly. All portions of wall surfaces not sheathed (see below) are plastered on metal lath undercoats being done by modern methods - the skim coat being brought to an antique finish by use of small trowels and rough texture. Their finish simulates, closely, customary eighteenth century local methods.
All of south wall is sheathed to ceiling except on brick of chimney breast. It is similar to the sheathing of west wall 74 wainscoting. Such a treatment follows that at Marmion Kitchen.
Second floor beams and board floor remain exposed. See Second Floor, under Beams.
Actual colonial base, beaded, inserted about this room. It was pieced out with members from miscellaneous sources. It occurs only under plaster, in other words, in those portions of wall sheathed up and wainscoted form their own base.
On west wall is a high wainscot of horizontal, random width beaded boarding collected from miscellaneous sources. The top board and little mold are original colonial molded members from Jones Farm, James City County. The bead was applied by hand with a sharp instrument used to act as running template. The joints are T. and G. - simply for tightness and to keep out draughts, although not contradictory to colonial technique.
None. But fireplace opening has large wood beam as lintel, which extends across whole chimney breast. It is a colonial wood piece from miscellaneous Virginia sources. Precedent for this treatment at 1. Carter's Grove, 2. Marmion Kitchen, 3. Westover Kitchen, 4. Tuckahoe Kitchen, 5. Mount Vernon Kitchen.
These follow the above precedent but particularly the known precedent of the Tucker House Kitchen, especially for the oven and its treatment. The doors from room to oven and fireplace to oven were omitted to be made at future date.
Bricks for the above are from the Clapton House, Charles City County, and are authentic eighteenth century and are hand 75 made. Brickwork is laid in oyster shell mortar. See notes on brickwork, etc. Only the exposed surfaces of the basement wall are of old brick - hidden parts being built up of common brick of modern manufacture. The breast and fireplace are laid in the Flemish bond with the joint kept flush. The hearth is laid in a typical pattern with a crowned, heavy joint, as at Marmion. The breast was laid in Flemish because of dating, mid-eighteenth century use of English bond on this being a local anachronism.
A modern practical throat, consisting of a stock cast iron damper was inserted as well as a sheet iron slope continuing from the front slope of damper to the base of wood fireplace header. This was coated with asbestos insulation on its rim face to protect the wood member. Although this fireplace was considered as an exhibition one and was therefore to follow colonial precedent closely, the impracticality of a huge vent open to rain and weather was considered sufficient excuse for making the throat in the modern way. Also, these features are hidden from the eye.
(Sash trim and frame and metal work): See under Windows, East Elevation. Sash trim and frame are of new material, to detail. Interior trim arrangement has precedent 1. Mount Vernon Kitchen, 2. Casey's Gift.
At side of fireplace - has precedent at Marmion. See notes on South Elevation. The flooring, wood base, and plaster walls are as in main room. West wall consists of brickwork of chimney. Possible shelving left to future date.
Door #1, see notes concerning Front Door for precedent. Interior trim of new material to detail after above precedent. 76 Door #2 to closet of antique material. Precedent same as for Door #1. Door #3 under stair original, colonial and from miscellaneous source. Trim for these doors follows precedent at 1. Marmion Kitchen, 2. Greenway Office. All doors are batten doors of lapped jointed sheathing. Batten nails are arranged in five spot patterns and clinched on batten side.
Door #1 is original, with colonial H and L hinges and wood rim lock procured from the "trade." Door #2 is old, colonial H and L hinges procured from dealers in vicinity - wood bolt made of old material copied after an original colonial model bought in the local trade. Door #3 has original wood hinges. Wood lock same as for Door #1.
Door #1 - trim, natural; window trim, natural stain; plaster walls, sample #259. All other woodwork is natural. Sheathing and doors and flooring are waxed and rubbed down. Ceiling joists and under side of floor left as they were found.
A trap door is provided in closet under stair to allow access to plumbing, etc., in space under floor beams. In this closet also, on north wall, there is a meter and service switch. At jamb of Door #1 is switch to operate single outlet in ceiling as well as switch at foot of stair. Another at this point operates a circuit to the second floor. The switches are flush with plaster and painted to match it, the tumblers thus being the only noticeable parts. This equipment was provided only as a necessity. It is made as inconspicuous as possible. The ceiling outlet was omitted until such time if and when the building is used by a caretaker.
Closet under stair: wood floor and base is the same as in the main room, walls plastered as in the main room. At the moment the electrical equipment is not connected to operate.
The sill section is not like a colonial one but the usual colonial relation between bottom of weatherboard and finish first floor is maintained.
Original, colonial risers and treads from Clapton House, Charles City County. There are slightly reworked and repaired.
None. The entrance to the stair is simply trimmed so as to take plaster and receive the sheathed enclosure of the stair as at 1. Marmion, 2. Claremont Quarters, 3. stair in George Semple House, east wing, before alterations. Beaded trim pieces for opening to stair were cut down from some colonial beaded floor joists from the Hubbard House, Charles City County.
None. Stair is enclosed as at Marmion and Claremont Quarters. This is the typical method of handling a stair in outbuildings of frame in the locality in colonial times.
Stringer is hidden. No string board ornament since stairs are enclosed. On sheathed side no string board but on north wall is one made up from antique material obtained from miscellaneous sources. It repeats the bead of the first floor and has a colonial base that is carried to the second floor. The same applies for inside face of south stair wall.
Stair is enclosed, so this item does not apply.
(Floor, windows or openings on, if any, posts, handrail and balusters, "Gallery Board"): There is no landing on the run of the stair. There is a closet under, which was a convenience, in order to conceal certain electrical equipment. The stair wall is plastered - same as on the first floor. On the ceiling near top of stair there is an electric outlet with simple pan fixture operated by switch from head and foot upstairs. Near head of stair on south wall is a small access door. This was a necessity in order to provide entrance to bath tub fixtures of the adjacent bath room. It was made up after like details in 1. Wigwam, Amelia County, Virginia, 2. the local McCandlish House, 3. Galt Cottage - all having cupboard doors under or set into cheeks of dormer window. The typical detail of first floor doors and battens was followed. Two H hinges by local craftsman after colonial models served as hardware with a pull and a button catch of wood.
Stairs are finished natural - plaster walls being painted as on first floor.
Of old material from Clapton and Hubbard Houses, Charles City County. Old material was used here because the parts are exposed on the first floor, which is designed as "exhibition."
See First Floor.
Original - are colonial members from Clapton and Hubbard Houses, Charles City County.
Plaster is applied on metal lath. For further remarks regarding plaster, see notes elsewhere in this report.
Made new of southern yellow pine copied after original colonial base as used on the first floor.
Made of old brick as for the first floor fireplace. Fireplace and hearth are small and are typical as for second floor of small, colonial frame houses with outside chimney. This is nearly always invariable. The material from same sources as for first floor fireplace and hearth. Precedent at Casey's Gift.
(Sash trim and frame and metal work): See East Elevation for dormers. Both sash are movable by use of sash balances and bronze parting strips - all painted in with frame. These features are a concession to modern convenience.
North door is the same as closet doors, first floor, and bathroom doors.
(Latch, hinges, door knob, fastenings, etc.): Door #4 has original H and L hinges bought from local antique dealers. Lock on bedroom side. This door represents a demarkation between exhibition and non-exhibition parts of the building - the lock is an iron rim lock with brass knobs and iron key all of modern 80 manufacture, along known colonial lines. Door #5 has H and L hinges made by local craftsman are new after originals used elsewhere in building. Lock as for Door #4.
Base of wall is painted black. Other finish samples #260. Walls and ceiling are painted white to simulate whitewash. All paint is flat finish. Floors are natural, waxed and rubbed down.
Electrical consists of two base plugs and switch as operating ceiling fixture. All these are inserted purely as convenience and as inconspicuously as possible. See notes on Equipment, first floor.
This room is not strictly or typically colonial in character due to the jog into it of the bathroom, a feature necessitated by future use of the second floor as caretaker's quarters. All the finish and various details are authentically colonial, after eighteenth century known precedent in the vicinity.
Near the bathroom is provided a scuttle as access to attic - simply constructed with beaded frame to stop plaster and with a sheathed batten door. Precedent for this was adapted from sources as for access door in stair well. It is made up of new material and painted to match the ceiling.
Same as for bedroom except secondary floor, raised, was built above it to provide a hidden space for the concealment of supply and waste pipes of the bathroom fixtures. This added floor of tongue and grooved southern yellow pine with linoleum fixed to it as a finished surface.
Sub floor nails, same as for Bedroom.
Sub floor beams, same as for Bedroom.
Same as for Bedroom.
(Sash trim and frame and metal work): See East Elevation.
(Latch, hinges, door knob, fastenings, etc.): Ditto.
Woodwork painted, sample #261, glossy. Plaster walls and ceiling painted, sample #261, glossy finish. Base painted black.
Stock, standard tub, lavatory, medicine cabinet, and w.c. with base plug and wall outlet for electrical attachment. These are modern conveniences.
Architecturally, this early eighteenth century house (built about 1717 by Philip Ludwell of Green Spring) presents a unique problem. The first floor plan is typical of many two story buildings in Virginia. Apparently after the builder had commenced work, or even before, he made changes to the plan that omitted two rooms on the rear of the second floor, and the first floor rooms beneath this space were covered with a shed roof.
The house is unquestionably built of brick burned in a local kiln, because the color of the brick is so typical of that which results from burning the clay in this part of the Peninsula. The bricks are laid in Flemish bond. The glazed headers that form a bright pattern on the walls were the bricks which had been subjected to direct fire in the kiln. The intense heat fused the sand and certain minerals in the clay, and produced a greenish, and almost transparent glaze at the ends of the bricks, and the glazed bricks were employed by the builder in laying a patterned wall.
The decision to make this house an exhibition or museum building caused its restoration to be painstaking in the reproducing as far as possible, and as clearly as possible, its early eighteenth century character, within and without; in all visible parts most particularly. Infinite pains were taken to achieve this result.
Woodwork was wrought into approved shapes by hand labor. Materials were selected with great care, and wherever possible were salvaged from deserted eighteenth century buildings in the immediate vicinity. 2 The locks, hinges, and other hardware are either eighteenth century or were carefully reproduced by hand. Paint colors are similar to authentic samples found on contemporary woodwork of the Colonial period found in Tidewater Virginia.
Stripping the interior of its latter-day wood trim and plaster revealed many significant facts. Again it seemed that the original ambitious plan for a handsome two story brick house had been changed to a more modest one, for blocks had been set into the brick walls to receive panelling, but no panelling had been nailed to them.
The availability of some handsome contemporaneous panelling of the proper dimension, and the desire to reproduce the builder's initial intention, was responsible for the decision to panel the east and west ends of two of the lower rooms. The old panelled ends came from the Bolling House, Petersburg, Virginia, that was dismantled several years ago and the interior woodwork had been stored in a barn loft where it was discovered. The floor boards are original; but where age or other damage has occurred, replacements were made with old flooring salvaged from local colonial buildings. Iron nails, carefully copied from the old floor nails, were hand wrought by a local craftsman.
In some modern renovation the balusters and all trim, with the exception of the newel posts in the staircase, had been replaced with modern material; but a clear outline of the original balusters was found against the newel post on the first turn, which originally had half-balusters nailed to them. New balusters were made by hand to this old profile.
Also, during this most recent renovation, the door from the 3 dining room to the serving pantry had been closed up and was not discovered until the plaster was removed during the archaeological survey of the building.
On October 17, 1753, Philip Ludwell decided to lease two of his town houses, and advertised them in the Virginia Gazette, describing this one, "...also one other very good Dwelling-House well accommodated with Out-Houses, Garden, Well, fine large Stable, and Coach-House, &c., situate on the Main Street, the lower side of the Market-Place".
Some years before the Restoration started, the original kitchen had been torn down and a replica of it erected in another place, but information as to its original site—which was confirmed by excavations—enabled the architects to rebuild it where it was first located, using typical colonial Tidewater kitchens as a precedent for the design.
No data came to light as to the character or exact location of the stable and coach-house, so an adaptation of known colonial buildings of like nature was made and a location for it chosen that conformed to local colonial precedent. Among the models followed were a brick stable at the Old Tavern at Gloucester Court House, a brick stable at King William Court House, and a frame stable at Port Royal.
Harold R. Shurtleff
Part of original stair in place. Original turned balusters had disappeared but on newel posts, by carefully scraping off top paint coat, the actual profile of a half baluster originally applied against the post was found.
Thus, the shape of the baluster was definitely established. Thus, the fact of half engaged balusters was definitely established at the posts.
By stripping off all plaster and modern work the position of original partitions was determined and modern partitions revealed themselves as such, making it possible to define the original layout of the rooms. This was accomplished by:
Documentary evidence indicated a stable on the lot. No foundations existed, however. In order to make the design authentic, the following examples of 18th century stables were carefully photographed, measured in detail, and studied at considerable expense in time and effort:
The design as executed is based on the above - more particularly items A, B, and E.