Governor's Palace Historical Report, Block 20Originally entitled: "Burial Ground In the Palace"

Prentice Duell

1930

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series - 1479
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library

Williamsburg, Virginia

1990

BURIAL GROUND IN THE PALACE GARDEN
Department of Research and Records.


September, 1930
Copy #2.

BURIAL GROUND IN THE PALACE GARDEN
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
I Archaeological Report.....Prentice Duell
II United States War Department Report.....Prentice Duell
III Library of Congress Report.....Prentice Duell
IV Catalogue of Skeletons.....Dr. Ales Hrdlicka
V Official Letters of the Governors of Virginia.....Mary Mordecai
VI Revolutionary War Hospitals In and Near Williamsburg.....Helen Bullock
VII Revolutionary War Hospital in the Palace.....Mary Mordecai
VIII Civil War Hospitals In and Near Williamsburg.....Helen Bullock

PREFACE

The following notes contain enough circumstantial evidence to establish that the Burial Ground was a Revolutionary War Burial Ground. Positive evidence of this theory, however, depends on finding just one link in this chain of circumstantial evidence, for the historical and archaeological evidence establishes:

The men were soldiers who died in bed, were laid out for burial, probably in shrouds, and were interred in coffins.

Civil War soldiers were buried in uniform and without coffins in this section.

There were a number of Revolutionary War hospitals in and near Williamsburg, and judging by the supplies ordered for the patients, and by reports of the wounded, they were well filled.

The hospitals were badly equipped and the mortality rate was high.

There was a hospital in the Governor's Palace.

The shortage of conveyances for moving the wounded and dying makes it apparent that those dying in the Palace Hospital would not have been carried for burial to some distant point, but would have been buried close at hand, especially when a nearby and vacated garden offered such opportunity for decent burial.

This is the circumstantial evidence, the only link lacking in the positive chain of evidence is a specific statement from some authority, that the wounded dying in the Palace Hospital were interred in the Palace garden. There is every reason to hope to establish this point through continued researches in Washington, according to the plan proposed in Mr Duell's report of the source material there.

DATE: September 26, 1930.

Department of Research & Records.
Director: Harold R. Shurtleff.
hb/

ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT ON THE CEMETERY
INCLUDING THE ANALYSIS MADE
BY DOCTOR ALES HRDLICKA WITH REGARD TO THE SKELETAL REMAINS.*

Of the one hundred and thirty-seven skeletons which have been located to date, sixty-six of that number were uncovered and carefully prepared for expert examination. Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, eminent anthropologist, arrived early in the afternoon of August 19 and began his examination almost immediately; he finished the next day about noon. The necessary implements and several laborers were on hand to facilitate the work and his verbal analysis of each specimen was put in writing by three different men. Doctor Hrdlicka examined fifty-eight of the skeletons minutely; of the remaining eight, all in a poor state of preservation, five were examined to the extent of identifying them as typical of the type of the others.

Doctor Hrdlicka stated that the cemetery is not an ordinary one in any sense of the word; it is a cemetery of young men ranging generally from twenty-five to thirty-five years of age; two young women were buried among them. All those buried in the cemetery were white and represented an excellent, attractive and intelligent English (British) type of medium statue and moderate strength. There is not an "American", in the strict sense of the word, among them. Several appear to have been of Irish extraction, but these lie well within the normal range of variation; there is no indication of Scotch, Welch or Scotch-Irish extraction. In fact, the homogeneity of the cemetery is remarkable and might well represent a group of people from a very distinct part of England.

These individuals were not the victims of an epidemic. In such a case, a fair cross-section of the population would be represented; here they are all young people and of an age which is the least susceptible to epidemics of any kind. It 2 may be added that no criminal type appears among them and that there is no evidence that any were hanged.

On the whole, the skeletal remains disclose no signs of violence; each individual appears to have died peacefully in bed and to have been carefully laid-out and buried; there is no evidence whatever of trench burial. With few possible exceptions, each individual was buried in a coffin and independently of the others. However, the burials may be said to be more or less contemperaneous and dating generally from the same catastrophe; the skeletons are all in the same condition and would appear to have been buried the same length of time. The teeth, in every instance are remarkable both for their excellent quality and preservation. There are few instances of decay and the only professional dental work is represented by cases where molars were extracted. The work was crudely done but not by the individuals themselves; the dentist was not to be commended for his skill.

Unfortunately, the skeletal remains give no evidence as to the date of the cemetery except to indicate that it is an old one and certainly not later than the Civil War. All traces of clothing have disappeared save for one small piece of cloth; a number of metal buttons, however, have been discovered. Like-wise all coffins have disappeared except for two examples and these are in a very fragile condition and exist only in part; the wood seems to be pine. Many nails have been found, some of which have portions of wood remaining about them.

The evidence indicates that the men buried in the cemetery were soldiers; in view of this the two women were likely nurses. The fact that they were young men would bear this out and on this point the archaeological evidence is practically conclusive. There are two instances where sword-points were found broken-off in the bodies and there is an instance where a fragment of cannon ball lay beneath the right hip of the individual buried. Furthermore, the buttons which have been found are a miscellaneous lot and would scarcely have been suitable for civilian 3 attire from the standpoint of burial; again, a number of small buttons found about the legs of one individual probably indicate leggings.

These soldiers, however, did not die on the field of battle but were definitely hospital cases. They could have died of wounds, but curiously there seems to be no instance of bones being shattered by bullets or any damage done to the head, a thing so common with men wounded in action. Doctor Hrdlicka stated that a bullet passing through the body would shatter the bones in the immediate vicinity. Although these individuals may have died of flesh wounds of one kind or another, it is likely that death resulted from various fevers and other illnesses contracted through exposure in line of duty. They died one by one in some hospital and were buried here. The two men with swords broken-off in their bodies are exceptions but since they were both carefully laid-out and buried it is likely that they lingered in the hospital for some time before death, or died under operation. In general, then, the individuals buried in the cemetery were not those who fell wounded in battle but rather those who died from indirect causes arising from warfare.

Since the age of the cemetery cannot be determined from the skeletal remains, the matter now rests with further literary research and excavation. From the archaeological standpoint, the cemetery appears to be older than the Civil War. The nails are of iron and crudely wrought by hand to varying lengths; for the most part they are badly disintegrated. It has been said upon good authority that wrought iron nails in Virginia ante-date the Civil War.

The fact that relatively few buttons have been found would indicate in most cases the use of shrouds, owing to the lack of uniforms in the Revolutionary War it is likely that many of the soldiers that died in hospitals were thus buried. In this connection, the War Department, U. S. A., insists that all Civil War soldiers, Union or Confederate, were buried in their uniforms, whether they died on the field of battle or in hospitals. This point is probably open to argument. One Civil War button, however, has been found, but it is likely 4 that it was plowed-under along with numerous other objects such as fragments of china and modern bottles; the area was under cultivation for a number of years. The buttons which have been found, some of polished metal and others of metal that had been covered with cloth, would most likely not have been worn in the Civil War but would seem to have come from uniforms of various kinds such as were worn by the soldiers of the Revolution. For the most part the buttons are rather large and flat, and excepting the Civil War button, none bears any military marking or decoration whatsoever.

The piece of cloth is coarsely woven, and has something of the appearance of unbleached burlap, save that is not so heavy. It could very well be the well-known "oznabrig", a coarse, home-spun fabric which was used in large quantities during the Revolutionary War, especially in the hospitals. "Oznabrig" was used for coarse cheap sheets and servants' clothes in Virginia during the 17th and 18th centuries. For the period of only one month during the year 1777, the Public Store Records show four orders of this material which total one thousand one hundred yards. In the hospitals "oznabrig", though rather rough, was used for sheets; it was widely used also for tents and haversacks, and for the miscellaneous clothing of the common soldier, which was for the most part lacking. It is very probably that the soldiers were buried in the "oznabrig" sheets of the bed in which they died, or shrouds were made of the material.

In conclusion, the fact that all the individuals found in the cemetery are pure British types would seem to point to the period of the Revolution or to a date before that time. It is true that somewhat similar types existed in Virginia at a later time but it would be a question as to whether any group could have had the homogeneity of this one period. Doctor Hrdlicka felt that the individuals had but little American history behind them; they were newcomers and, in fact, could hardly have been descended from the early settlers of the preceding century. Nevertheless, when one considers that the individuals buried here were soldiers 5 and that the Governors' Palace across the street was used as a hospital in 1781, the evidence certainly points to the cemetery as dating from the Revolutionary War. From all standpoints, the evidence is strongly in favor of this and largely against the Civil War.

At the present time, all the sixty-six skeletons are being examined for further archaeological evidence. Buttons and nails continue to be found. The two sword-points, both in a very bad condition, appear to be of excellent steel. They are being carefully cleaned and in the near future will be submitted to some museum for further treatment and expert examination. Likewise, the buttons are being cleaned and will be submitted to some authority for identification; likewise, the piece of cloth has been framed between two pieces of glass.

Each one of the one hundred and thirty-seven skeletons in the cemetery has been marked by a long, wooden peg which will project above ground when the cemetery is filled. Those pegs, on which numbers appear, indicate the sixty-six skeletons that have been examined and photographed; each number corresponds to a sack in the museum which contains the objects found with that particular skeleton. At some future time, the pegs can be replaced with suitable markers and the cemetery itself enclosed by an appropriate fence. A high wooden fence now surrounds the area and the place is under constant guard.

Prentice Duell.

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION IN THE WAR DEPARTMENT, U.S.A., AND IN THE
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, FOR THE PURPOSE OF GATHERING
INFORMATION ABOUT THE CEMETERY AND ALSO FOR ASCERTAINING
WHAT RESEARCH MATERIAL IS AVAILABLE.

The Army War College- Department of Research: Colonel H. L. Landers, Munitions Building.

This department was not able to give any information, though it pointed out the several divisions where research could be done, namely, the Cemeterial Division, Office of the Quartermaster General and the Old Records Division, Office of the Adjutant General. Both divisions and their branches were examined with the following results:

Cemeterial Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, Munitions Building:

The Division was of no help regarding the cemetery in question for its function is to keep in order the National cemeteries which are being maintained by the Government. However, one of the several reference books in the office relative to the Civil War contained information as to the number of bodies of Union soldiers that were moved from Williamsburg to the Yorktown National Cemetery. One mention, for instance, states that between the dates of July 13, 1866 and February 23, 1867, there were moved 212 bodies from four graves. (Obviously these were trench burials. The present cemetery contains no trench burials.)

The referenced book also gave the dates of the various battles at Williamsburg during the Civil War. As a matter of present or of possible future interest these may be stated here as follows:

May 4, 5, Sept. 9, and Nov. 22, 1862.
Jan. 19, March 29, April 11, August 26-29, Nov.9-10, Dec.12-14, 1863.
Jan. 19-24 and April 27-29, 1864.
February 11, 1865.
2 Battle at Williamsburg Road, June 29, 1862.

Old Records Division: Office of the Adjutant General, Munitions Building:-
A- Revolutionary War, (Subject Index) Frank J. Metcalf, Chief.

This material is in excellent order, cross-catalogued, and is in the hands of Mr. Metcalf, an able and well-known scholar. The material relating to Williamsburg is scant, but the various references should be copied at some time. The only mention of a hospital was contained in the letter (original) from R. Claiborne to Timothy Pickering, Quartermaster General, under the date of December 23, 1781, (Document #24752). It is as follows:

"The hospitals at Williamsburg, Todds-Bridge, and Fredericksburg are still in the greatest distress and I see no way of relieving them."

This information is not new. From both English and French sources we know that their respective hospitals were crowded and in a deplorable condition.
B- Civil War: R. R. Critchfield.

This material is abundant but not catalogued so as to be of any immediate use; the Confederate records are incomplete. The various regiments, both Union and Confederate, sent in monthly reports to their respective headquarters. However, while engaged in the making of history they did but little recording; during engagements the reports are very meager. To find any mention of the hospitals in Williamsburg, it would first be necessary to ascertain which regiments were at Williamsburg and then to go through their monthly reports. The Medical Returns might lead to direct results, but again the procedure would be much the same.

Army officers maintained that no Civil War soldier, Union or Confederate, was ever buried without his uniform whether he died in battle or in a hospital; this point, however, is probably open to argument. Also, it was generally agreed that among the Veterans now living in Washington who know the most about the Civil War, and are qualified to speak, are Major General J. L. Clem 1870 Wyoming Avenue, and Captain N. D. Hawkins, 3431 Fourteenth

3

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS - MANUSCRIPT DIVISION - THOS.P.MARTIN, Chief.

Much of the material has already been examined by Doctor Swem and a certain amount of the research material, now in our hands, has come from this source. Mr. Martin mentioned the following papers which may in some instance mention the cemetery or the hospital (Governor's Palace).

The Washington Papers, in many bound volumes, are card-indexed and could be examined. Doctor B. F. Fitzpatrick, former Chief of the Division, is editor of the Papers.

The Continental Congress Papers, War Department Series, is arranged and bound but not card-indexed.

Transcriptions of the French Archives, "Le Guerre Series." - A good part of the series is copied and is available in the Library. In this connection Mr. Sidney N. Shurcliff has just contributed the following extract from "Les Francais en Amerique", by Thomas Balch, Congressional Library, No. E 265 B 15, page 174:

"Le 12 Octobre 1781 il y avait a l'hospital de Williamsbourg Quatre cents malades ou blesses et treize officers, avec defaut complet de moyens. Il fallait, non-seulement des secours pour l'ambulance mais aussi pour M. de Choisy de cote de Gloucester. M. Blanchard diploya dans son service la plus grande activite et le zele le plus louable mais il avoua que si le nombre des blesses avait ete plus grande, il aurait ete dans l'impossibilite de leur faire les soins necessaires."

Claude Blanchard was Commissary of the French Army in America. The reference undoubtedly refers to the Wren Building, for we know that it was used by the French as a hospital. The cemetery in question, on the other hand, bears a definite relation to the Governor's Palace.

Prentice Duell.

CATALOGUE OF SKELETONS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF EACH
AS DETERMINED BY DOCTOR ALES HRDLICKA
AUGUST 19 AND 20, 1930.

No.Description.
1.Male.
About 28 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
2.In general, similar to that above.
3.Male.
30 or more years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
4.Male.
——
Medium stature; sub-normal in strength.
Abscess of jaw (bad tooth); both legs and thigh badly fractured probably causing death (probably run over); died in pain.
5.Male.
30 or 40 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
6.Male.
About 20-22 years of age.
About medium stature; about moderate strength.
7.Male.
25-30 years of age.
Medium stature; above average strength.
2
8.Male.
About adult age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
9.Male.
About 35 years of age.
Somewhat above medium stature; moderate strength.
10.Male.
About 45 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
11.Male.
35-40 years of age.
Somewhat above medium stature; moderate strength.
12.Male.
About 30 years of age.
Above medium stature; moderate strength.
13.Typical.
14.Male.
Probably over 30 years of age.
15.Female.
About 24 years of age, possibly less.
Medium stature; not strong.
16.Male.
About 22 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
3
17.Male.
About 25 years of age.
About medium stature; moderate strength.
18.Male.
26 years of age.
Above medium stature; moderate strength.
Evidence of abdominal distress.
19.Male.
27-28 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
20.Male.
About 35 years of age.
Sub-medium stature; below moderate strength, a rather weak type.
21.Male.
Slightly over 50 years of age.
Slightly above medium stature, about moderate strength.
22.Typical
23.Male.
Probably under 25 years of age.
About medium stature; about moderate strength.
24.Male.
About 35-40 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
4
25.Male.
About 28 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
26.Not examined.
27.Male.
About 21 years of age.
Weakling - sub medium strength.
Tuberculosis of the spine; leg amputated erroneously for tubercular knee.
28.Male.
40-45 years of age.
Above medium stature; strong.
29.Male.
25-27 years of age.
Slightly above medium stature; moderate strength.
30.Male.
About 30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
31.Typical
32.Male.
About 35 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
5
33.Male.
About 45 years of age.
About medium stature; about moderate strength.
34.Male.
Perhaps 45 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
35.Male.
Less than 20 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
36.Not examined.
37.Not examined.
38.Male.
50 years of age.
Sub-medium stature; rather weak.
Bones of lower limbs show marked evidence of rickets.
39.Male.
25-30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
40.Male.
About 40 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
First traces of probably syphilis.
41.Male.
About 40-45 years of age.
Medium stature; strong.
6
42.Male.
About 30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
43.Male.
20 or less years of age; adolescent.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
44.Male.
About 30 years of age.
Slightly above medium stature; moderate strength.
45.Male.
Over 30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
46.Female.
Under 25, and probably about 20 years of age.
Good type; very likely an attractive person.
47.Male.
40 or possibly 45.
Medium stature; excellent type.
48.Male.
About 35 years of age.
Physically weak; rather effeminate type.
7
49.Male.
A little more than 35 years of age.
Medium stature; physically strong.
Evidence of blow on head.
50.Male.
25-30 years of age.
Below medium stature; rather weak.
51.Male.
30-35 years of age.
A rather short man.
Copper or brass stain near glabilla.
52.Male.
About 20 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
53.Male.
About 30 years of age.
54.Typical.
55.Male.
——
Medium stature; very strong.
56.Male.
25-30 years of age.
Below medium stature; rather weak.
57.Male.
——
Slightly above medium stature; moderate strength.
8
58.Male.
About 50 years of age; possibly 55.
59.Male.
30-35 years of age.
60.Male.
About 50 years of age.
Sub-medium stature; moderate strength.
Traces of rickets; a rather small male with female characteristics.
61.Male.
Slightly over 30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
62.Male.
About 40 years of age.
Remarkably healthy and vigourous type; physically strong.
Probably died in state of coma.
63.Male.
About 35-40 years of age.
64.Male.
Something less than 30 years of age.
Medium stature; above average in strength.
9
65.Male.
Probably over 50 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
Teeth in very bad condition.
66.Male.
25-30 years of age.
Medium stature; moderate strength.
1

OFFICIAL LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR'S OF VIRGINIA.

Wednesday, Jan. 8, 1771-

Resolved, that Dr. James McClurg be appointed physician and Director General, of the Hospital to be provided for this State - and that he be requested to procure a place where to erect such Hospital as it may appear to him most convenient.

(From - Vol. I, p.88, Letters of Patrick Henry, 1776-1779.)

Wednesday, July, 24, 1776-

Ordered, that the Commanding Officer at this station be requested to order the Quartermaster, to remove the waggons and horses from the Palace as soon as possible and that he finish without delay the fence wanted for his own use and that allotted to the use of the public, supposed to contain two hundred acres of land.

(From-.Vol. I, p. 14, Letters of Patrick Henry.)

February 15, 1777-

Resolved, that Dr. James McClurg be allowed the sum of four dollars per day as a full compensation for his services as Physician and Director General of Hospital of this State.

(From- Vol. I. p.108, Letters of Patrick Henry.)

February 20, 1777-

Resolved, that John M. Galt be appointed Sergeon and Apothecary to the Hospital of this State..... Resolved, that the Director General of the Public Hospitals be empairered to appoint the proper 2 nurses for the said hospitals.

(From- Vol. I, p. 111. Letters of Patrick Henry.)

Sat. March 8, 1777-

The Board having resolved in persuance of the directions of the General Assembly to have a Hospital erected for the said Troops in the Service of this State, and the Director appointed for the said Hospital having recommended as a proper place for the purpose, the plantation where the public vineyard is, which by a resolution of the said Assembly is to be sold to highest Bidder; it is therefore ordered that Mr. Aylet be desired to purchase the said plantation if the same can be procured for 750.

(From- Vol. I, p. 117. Letters of Patrick Henry.)

March 15, 1777-

Ordered, that Mr. Powell be directed to fit up and repair the Barn on the plantation lately purchased by the public for erecting a General Hospital for the present reception of the sick soldiers of this state.

(From- Vol. I, p. 115. Letters of Patrick Henry.)

May 28, 1779-

Ordered, that Mr. Jefferson be added to the committee appointed to prepare and bring a Bill for removing the seat of Government.

(From- Vol. I, p. 377. Letters of Patrick Henry.)
3

May 29, 1779-

A list of articles purchased for the Palace. (The Palace in Williamsburg - former residence of the Royal Governors, now occupied by the First Governor of the Commonwealth.)

Viz:five large dishes£ 6. 17. 6.
one and a half plates£ 48 - 3. 12.
two basons£ 24 - 2. 8.-
one large bowl£ 2.8.-
3 de. smaller at365. 10. -
2 de.- de. at18 -1. 16.-
1 sugar dish30 -1. 10.-
1 sett cups and saucers3. 12.-
4 yds. carpeting90-18. -
45.13. 6
Deduct for one sugar dish 61.10. -
44. 3. 6

I certify that the within articles have been received by me from Mr. George Reid for the Palace on Public Acct.

(From - Vol. I, p. 377. Letters of Patrick Henry.)

(Signed). P. Henry.

June 1, 1779-

The Gentleman above named accordingly waited on Mr. Henry at the Palace and presented him with the resolutions of the Senate . . . June 1st, 1779. (Page 139.)

(Patrick Henry receives faithful discharge of that important trust as Governor of this Commonwealth.) (Page 379.)

(From - Vol. I, Letters of Patrick Henry .)
4

April 10. 1780.

After April 1780. Jefferson's letters come from Richmond.

March 25, 1780.

Notice is hereby given that the business of Government, in the executive department will cease to the transacted at Williamsburg from the 7th. of April next, and will commence at Richmond, during the 24th, of the next month. The Governor will be in Richmond, during the interval, to do such business as may be done by him without the Conccenence of the Public Boards.

(From - Vol. II, p. 115. Letters of Thomas Jefferson.)

January, 20, 1782.
Williamsburg, Va.

Dr. J. Menree to -
Colonel Davies

Dear Colo.

"My situation is rendered disagreeable by the improper direction of Public Affairs; Nothing to be done & hardly provision enough to keep the Hospt. from starving - Procuring wood for 60 or 70 sick rooms so difficult that they are often without.

I should be happy to hear that the determinations of our Assembly, news I suppose need hardly be related, as you are undoubtedly at the bounting hard - I am Dr. Collo with respect & well founded esteem.

Your friend & Hble. Sevt."

(From - Calendar, Virginia State Papers, Vol. VII: p.39, 1782-84

Williamsburg-
Novemb'r. 8th, 1781

Timothy Pickering
Q.M.G. to Gov. Nelson

Sir:

"On my arrival here, I found the American sick in a suffering condition; and I fear it will not be in my power to yield them adequate releif — Wood & straw are wanted at present, and the means of procuring them are hardly attainable— The extraordinary demand for upwards of fifty teams to transport military and other stores to the Southern Army & the death of our working oxen, have rendered it impossible to to leave a competent number of teams at this post for the supply of the hospital.

Unfortunately too, the sublartens command of Continental troops, which I requested might be stationed here for the service of the hospital, were withdrawn when the camp broke up, and the sick are left to shift for themselves. Doct. Treat informs me that there were three large rooms at the palace destitute of fire places; and the sick cannot remain in them unless stoves can be procured. Mr. Holt thinks these formerly belonging to the palace were removed to Richmond - As I knew not where to procure any, and these rooms are essential for our sick, I request your Excellency will be so kind as to cause the palace stoves to be sent hither as quick as possible, as the sick have already suffered by the cold."

..... I have the honour to be with very great respect, Sir, Your most ob. Servant.

From - Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 1781- Vol. 2, p.289.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR HOSPITALS IN AND NEAR WILLIAMSBURG.

Oct. 4, 1776- An hospital for the Continental Troops in America will be erected near Williamsburg, and will be let to the lowest bidder in front of the Raleigh Tavern. A plan of the same may be seen by applying to Wm. Rickman.

(M.F.G. Notes, Book II, Va. Gaz. p.46, P 3.)

Journal of the Council 1776-1777 - p.358. March 8, 1777 - It is recommended that the plantation on which the Public Vineyard is to be purchased as a site for a military hospital -

(M.F.G. Book I, Wmsb. Misc. p.25, P 7.)

March 8, 1777- It is recommended that the plantation which the public vineyard is to be purchased as a site for a military hospital.

(M.F.G.Book II,Minutes of the Council,p.6, P 5.)

Journal of the House of Delegates, 1776-1777. May 22, 1777, p.29. Several valuable buildings belonging to Wm. Lee have been damaged when used as barracks and a hospital, his agent asks for £ 500 for repair.

(M.F.G. Book I, Wmsb, Misc. p.23, P 3.)
Journal House of Delegates - 1776. (State Library Archives)

November 16, 1776 - (p.57)

Also a petition of Patrick Galt, setting forth, that before the appointment of a surgeon to the ninth regiment of regulars, be attended three companies of the said regiment, as physician and surgeon from the first day of February to the twenty-eighth of April following, which service was attended with a good deal of trouble and expense, as the sick were generally removed to places where they could be best accomodated, having then neither hospital nor covering, and praying such allowance as this House shall think reasonable.

Journal House of Delegates - 1777-80. (State Library Archives)

Friday, May 23, 1777 - (p.29)

A petition of John Ellis, agent for William Lee, Esq., of London, was presented to the House and read; setting forth that several valuable buildings and improvements belonging to the said Lee in the City of Williamsburg have been occupied by the soldiers as barracks and hospitals, by which they have been damaged to the amount of more than £ 500/0/0 as will appear by an estimate made by several honest workmen, and praying such relief as shall be thought just and reasonable.

Copy of the Original Petition of John Ellis, agent of William Lee of Williamsburg May 23, 1777 - (State Library Archives)

To the Honorable Speaker, the Speaker and Gentlemen of the house of Delegates -
The Petition of John Ellis, agent for William Lee, Est., of London, humbles shewith that several valuable buildings and improvements belonging to the said Lee situate in Williamsburg have long been occupied by the Soldiers as Barracks and Hospitals. That very considerable Impair and Damages have ensued by such Occupation, an estimate of which, taken by several very honest Workmen amounts to upwards of £ 500/0/0 which Estimate the Petitioner is ready to produce. He therefore humbly prays the Honorable house will take the premises into their consideration and allow the Said William Lee a reasonable Compensation for the said Impairs and Damages.

Journal House of Delegates - (p.108)

Resolved, That the Governour with the advice of the Privey Council, be authorized to adopt for the care of the sick soldiers of this Commonwealth, as far as circumstance and situation admit and render necessary the continual arrangement for the military medical department; and that the rank and pay of the director, surgeons and other persons employed in the hospitals of this State, be the same as those of the deputy directors, surgeons, and others employed in the service of the continent.

Journal House of Delegates - March, 1775 to May, 1776.
Journal of the Convention, June 15, 1776. (p.51)

Mr. Starke from the committee appointed to enquire for the reception and accomodation of the sick and wounded soldiers, reported that the committee had accordingly made the said inquiry, and that, at the instance of the committee, doctor William Rickman, lately appointed by the General Congress to be physician and director-general to the continental hospital, accompanied them to the college, palace places, and he advised, that, though the college has room enough for the purpose of an hospital, yet, by reason of the many partitions therein, it will not admit of that thorough passage of air so absolutely necessary for invalids; that the college has, at very considerable expense, been lately repaired, whitewashed and thoroughly cleaned, for the reception of the scholars, who are expected to their studies on Monday next, at which time the vacation closes; that there are a large and valuable library and apparatus in it, which might probably be damaged in the removal, perhaps totally ruined; that several young gentlemen in the country have been accustomed to receive maintenance and education there as scholars, on certain foundations established by different benefactors; that it also appeared, from examination of the palace, and the opinion of doctor Rickman that it is adapted in all respects without any alterations, of consequence for an Hospital. Whether we consider the size, situation, plan or necessary offices; that added to this there stands a public building in the centre of the park which may be taken as an appendage to the Hospital, whither epidemical or infectious Disorders may be treated.

The following private houses in Williamsburg may be purchased; Doct. Jas. Carter's which is but small, yet has many conveniences, outbuildings, which may be applied also to the purposes of the Hospital, and the which may be procured for the sum of £ 1000. Mr. James Hubard's which does not contain many rooms, but they are commodious and airy, this may be had for £ 1200. Also Mr. John H. Norton's which is airy and pleasant, but the outhouses are few, and not in good repair. This may be purchased for £ 1300; and that it appears from examination that no one of the three private houses above mentioned would be sufficient for the said purpose, though all of them together might; but adopting that method would necessarily enhance the expense, as an additional number of surgeon's surgeon's mates, nurses, mates and other assistants would be unavoidable; and that they had come to the following resolution there-upon: On the opinion of this Committee that the Palace and as many of the outbuildings as are necessary for the purpose be appropriated for the Public Hospital.

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #3, dated October 12, 1775 to October 17, 1776; Virginia State Library Archives.

Exp. Army - Dec. 2, 1775
To sundries purchased for the hospital —
2dz. delph plates @7/5/-
1dz. cups & saucers-/6/-
4mugs-/5/-
2mugs-/2/-
4green china teapots-/8/-
4stone bowls-/4/-

Exp. Army - Jan. 13, 1776
To 6 blankets to Doc. Galt for hospital @ 12/6

Exp. Army - Jan. 30, 1776
To sundries for hospital
270 yds. 0zb. @ 1/6
12 Dutch blankets @ 12/6

Exp. Army - Mar. 6, 1776
To 50 yds. 0zb. sent to Hampton for sick soldiers —

Exp. Army - Aug. 14, 1776
To Q. Mast. G. for 603 yds. of Ozna. del. Dr. Skinner for use of hospital at Suffolk —

REVOLUTIONARY WAR HOSPITALS IN AND NEAR WILLIAMSBURG

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #1, dated October 12, 1775 to December 24, 1776; Virginia State Library Archives.

Expense of Army - Nov. 25, 1775
To 240 yds. Ozna. for sheets for sick @ 1/6

Expense of Army - Jan. 24, 1776
To 15 yds. Ozna. @ 1/6

Exp. Army for hospital - Jan. 30, 1776
270 yds. Ozna. @ 1/6
12 Dutch blankets @ 12/6 - A. Middleton

Exp. Army for hospital - Feb. 16, 1776
Flesh fork & potrack —/7/6

Exp. Army - March 23, 1776
1 yd. flannel @ 2/6 for Doct. Galt.

Exp. Army - Aug. 14, 1776
To 602 yds. Oznabrigs del. to Dr. Skinner at the hospital at Suffolk - 45/3/-

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #4, dated October 16, 1776 to August 17, 1777; Virginia State Library Archives.

To Cash paid Carter Braxton, Esq. - Jan. 23, 1777
For a hhd. of Sugar 1300 lbs. net for the use of the Hospital.
65 lbs. of veal. Ord. Council - 65/0/0

Virginia Hospital - February 21, 1777 - Mr. Benj. Bucktrout 250 yds. Oznabrigs
42 yds. Check @ 3/9
24 hks. Thread @ 4/0
2 oz. Bro. Thread @ 6/0

Virginia Hospital - March 14, 1777
277½ yds. Oznabrigs @ 2/9
2 ox. brown thread @ 15/0

Virginia Hospital - March 17, 1777 - delivered to Benj. Bucktrout
84 yds. Check @ 3/9
8 yds. linen @ 2/6
1 oz. brown thread 7/6
24 hands thread -/14
283¾ yds. Ozna. @ 2/9

Virginia Hospital - March 22, 1777 - Benj. Bucktrout
6 new Ruggs
9 do.
288¾ yds. Ozna.

Virginia Hospital - March 25, 1777
Cash paid Col. Whiting for 1 loaf Sugar 3/9

Virginia Hospital - April 2, 1777 - to B. Bucktrout
To 12 Dutch Blanketts

Virginia Hospital - April 5, 1777
To 24 Dutch Blanketts
253¾ yds. Oznabrigs @ 2/9
1 lb. brown thread 7/6

Virginia Hospital - April 18, 1777
2 yds. Flannel - Dr. Galt.

Virginia Hospital - April 21, 1777
To John Craig for 2 Casks of Butter
Sent on Mr. Bucktrout's order 10/15/3

Virginia Hospital - April 29, 1777 - Benj. Bucktrout
570 yds. Ozna - @ 2/9
42 yds. Check @ 3/9
1¼ oz. br. thread @ 7/6
1 spade
7 Dutch Blankets @ 30/
9 Caders 2 Quire Paper

Virginia Hospital - May 14, 1777
To 2 Casks Jesuits Bark - 92 1bs. @ 48/0 - J.M.Galt

Virginia Hospital - May 26, 1777
3 Gall. French rum @ 10/0

Virginia Hospital - June 22, 1777
1½ yds. flannel @ 6/9 - J.M.Galt

Virginia Hospital - June 24, 1777
10 lbs. Sewing Twine @ 3/6

Virginia Hospital - July 1, 1777
2 lb. Coffee @ 4/0

Virginia Hospital - July 2, 1777
171¼ yds. Oznabrigs @ 3/-
2 lb thread 15/0 1½ yd linen @ 4/0
Rum 1 hhd #70 96/0/0
Coffee, 2 casks # 50, # 13 - 60/8/0 203 lbs.

War Hospitals

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #7, dated August 18, 1777 to September 30, 1778; Virginia State Library Archives.

Virginia Hospital - Aug. 30, 1777
To 1482½ yds. Oznabrigs @ 3/-
3 sc. best thread @ 11/6

Publick Hospital - Sept. 3, 1777
To 2 yds. flannel @ 6/10 - per. J.M.Galt

Virginia Hospital - Sept. 20, 1777
To 14 yds. bro. sheet @ 6/-

Virginia Hospital - Oct. 23, 1777
To Coffee for 1 Barrel 265 - 5/1

Virginia Hosp. - Nov. 8, 1777
To 10 m. nails @ 18/-
20 wh. lead @ 4/3

Virginia Hospital by order Governour - Nov. 19, 1777
To 20 Dutch blankets @ 40/-

Virginia Hosp. - Dec. 2, 1777
To Stoop Congress for sundry medicine & shop materials / 2647/12/7

Virg. Hosp. - Dec. 5, 1777
To 15 Dutch blankets @ 40/-
795 yds. Georges Linen for beds for sick —

Virginia Hospital - Dec. 5, 1777 by order Col. Morgan
To Sundries for 2 soldiers' sick children
8 yds Linsey Woolsey @ 6/-
9½ yds. Linen @ 5/-
12 hanks thread @ 40/-
1 horn comb 1/1 - 1 do. @ 4/6

Virg. Hosp. - by former ard. Governor - Dec. 9, 1777
To 699 yds. St. Georges Linen for beds -
15 Dutch blankets @ 40/6
6 Coffee Mills @ 20/-
Sundry old Wrappers - 40/-

Virginia Hospital - Dec. 11, 1777
To 50 blankets del. per order Governor for the use of the Hampton Station -

Virginia Hospital - Dec. 19, 1777
To 4 bohea tea @ 12/6

Virginia Hospital - Dec. 24, 1777
To damaged hose - 5/-

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #10, dated January to December, 1778; Virginia State Library Archives.

Virginia Hospital - Jan 7, 1778
1 lb 6 Nails ord. of Benj. Powell 15/0

Virginia Hospital - January 19, 1778

Molasses, 2 hhds - to the Virginia containing 170 Gall. - 51/0 - Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - January 22, 1778
Cash to Col. Furnie 23/6/8

Virginia Hospital - January 29, 1778
1 Cask no. 21 containing Jesuits Bark

Virginia Hospital - March 3, 1778 - by order Dr. Mc Clure(?)
21 yds sheeting @ 6/6
12 lbs. Twine @ 4/0
Rec. by Jos. Hay - Sp. for Bandages.

Virginia Hospital - March 7, 1778
To molasses for 25 Gall. - rec'd by Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - March 23, 1778
To Molasses, 14 Gall. - rec'd by Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - April 8, 1778
6 gimbletts 6 d.
1 Hammer - Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - April 15, 1778
Rum, 16 gallons - order B. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - April 30, 1778
4 Cases Oil @ 10/0
1 lb. brown thread for the State Hospital by Jos. Hay

Virginia Hospital - May 14, 1778 - To Doct. Galt
7 Roles 35 Ozs each Casteel Soap @ 3/1

8 lbs Bohea Tea
Virginia Hospital - May 22, 1778 - Doct Galt
8 lbs loaf sugar 5/12/0

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume # 11, dated June 1, 1778 to November 13, 1778; Virginia State Library Archives.

Virginia Hospital - June 1, 1778
To 37 Gallons Molasses

Virginia Hospital - June 22, 1778
To 189 lbs. brown sugar —
88 Gallons Molasses @ 6/1
2 bags to put sugar in @ 13/6

Virginia Hospital - July 3, 1778
To 1 case Clarett 16.10.8
Bottle white wine @ 10/11
1 case Clarett 16/10
2 Empty Rum Hogsheads

Virginia Hospital by ord. Bucktrout - Aug. 14, 1778
To 27 stone qt. mugs @ 3/9
23 stone chamberpots @ 4/6

Virginia Hospital - Aug 15, 1778
To 2 hhds. Molasses containing 217 G. to del.to B.Bucktrout / 3/11/3

Virginia Hospital - Aug. 24, 1778
To 27½ Gallons Molasses @ 6/-
Delivered Jacob Williams for same quantity furnished the soldiers under inoculation at Hampton Garrison agreeable to rec. from Henry Mann.

Lunatick Hospital - Sept. 2, 1778
To 24 yds. Linen @ 3/-
1 Bundle Thread 10/-
67½ yards Brown linen @ 3/9
2 lbs. Brown thread @ 7/6
for Shirts, Shifts Bead & for Lunaticks rec.by Jas.Galt.
The above at Soldiers prices.

Virginia Hospital per Mr. Hay - Sept. 8, 1778
To Rum for 12 Gallon French Brandy @ 30/-

Virginia Hosp. to cash paid Robt Prentes - Sept 11, 1778
For 4 lbs. Tea del. W. Bucktrout 16/10

Virginia Hosp. - Sept 28, 1778
To 25 lbs. Loaf Sugar @ 3/15 Rec. by Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hosp. - Sept. 30, 1778
To 1 Ream writing paper @ 2/2 per Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - Oct. 1, 1778
To 4 lbs. Twine @ 4/- delivered to Hay for the uses of the Shop
To 1 Barrel Coffee No. 29 - delivered Wm. Ellis for Benj. Bucktrout

Publick Hosp. - Oct. 5, 1778
To Blankets pr. order M. Clay
For one furnished Cap. Wright, to replace rug del. a
Surgeon Mate at Hampton - 6/18

Virginia Hospital - Oct. 10, 1778
To Sundries for the Negroes employed by the publick-viz:
To 40 yds. Tutaine - @ 7/6
6 shirts @ 27/6 - 4 pr. hose @ 18/-
Thread @ 4/- Recd. by Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hosp. - Oct 13, 1778
To Rum for 12 Gallons F. Brandy @ 24/- For Hay

Virginia Hosp. - Oct. 19, 1778
To Rum for 1 Hhd. F. Brandy @ 11/1/3 - part of Mr. Roper purchase recd.

by William Ellis — Benj.Bucktrout

Virginia Hosp. - Nov. 9, 1778
To 6 Keggs of French Brandy @ 66/7/6
Recd. by Benj. Bucktrout.

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #49, dated September, 1779 to April, 1780; Virginia State Library Archives.

The following doctors had regular accounts and received personal merchandise from the Public Store, apparently under the same credit system extended to Revolutionary War officers. In some instances their regiment was given, indicating that they were army surgeons.

Dec. 10, 1779Doctor Middleton
Doctor Duff, 6th Regiment
Dec 28, 1779Doctor Belmaine
Doctor Martin
Doctor Wallace
Thornton Taylor, Store Commissary
Dec, 1779Doctor Greene
Jan 29,1780Dr. J. Roberts
Dr. Charles Greene
Jan. 1780Dr. Carter
Dr. A. Skinner

War Hospitals-

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #14, dated November, 1778 to June, 1780; Virginia State Library Archives.

Virginia Hospital - Jan. 1. 1779 to Benj. Bucktrout
To 15 gal. Rum for the Yrok Garrison 7/10/0

Virginia Hospital - Jan. 7, 1779
To 2 gall. Rum @ 10/0

Virginia Hospital - Feb. 2, 1779
34 gal. molasses @ 3/0
100 lb. best brown sugar @ 120/0

Virginia Hospital at Portsmouth - Feb. 5, 1779
by order Purveyor General
1 bbl Molasses, 28 Gall @ 3/0 Rec'd by Benj. Bucktrout

Virginia Hospital - order Mr. Jameson - Feb. 10.1779
2 pieces Britania linen sent D. Pope @ 218/0
by Waggoner Harry, to be exchanged for rags for hospital - 4/16/0

Virginia Hospital - B. Bucktrout Feb...
13 gall. Molasses del to Wag. Smith @ 3/0

Virginia Hospital by B.Bucktrout - March 12, 1779
8 lb. Bohea Tea 8/0/0

Vineyard Hospital - ord. Thos. Russell - May 22, 1779
1 lb. brown thread del'd to Thos. Russell -/-/18

Virginia Hospital ord. Thos. Russell, purveyor - May 27,1779
323 lb. brown sugar @ 16/0
2 Bags @ 15/0 for holding the sugar (rec'd Thos. Russell)

Virginia Hospital - June 14, 1779
1 Bottle gin 1/4/- rex'd by Thos. Russell

Virginia Hospital at the Vineyard -ord.Thos Russell-June 17,1779
50 lbs. sugar brown @ 16/0 by Thos. Russell

Virginia Hospital - June 17, 1779
10 quire paper @ 5/0 for Dr. Walker -J.M.Galt.

Virginia Hospital - June 26, 1779
6 gal. Rum @ 10/0 rec. by Thos. Russell.

Virginia Hospital - July 31, 1779
1 bbl Wine Vinegar 32/13/0

Virginia Hospital - Nov. 24, 1779 Dr. Galt To sundry medicines purchased by W. Rose delivered in 1778 viz:

1 barrell & 1 case drugs341/15/6
2 casks Epson Salts460/10/0
1 Cask Glauber Salts27/0
44½ lbs. Jesuits Bark200/5/0 Total 1029/10/6

War Hospitals -

During the Revolution a Public Store was kept in Williamsburg dealing in general merchandise and military supplies. The following supplies for the war hospitals are from original volume #16, dated July 1, 1779 to July 12, 1780; Virginia State Library Archives.

Virginia Hospital - July 22, 1779
To Merch. acct for 25 yds. linen - del. Dr. Galt @ 41/8

Virginia Hosp. - July 27, 1779
To 6 doz Lancets @ 100/-
6 doz Lancets @ n150/-
4 doz Lancets @ 8/15
25 yds. linen Oz. for bandages @ 52/1

Virginia Hosp. - Aug. 5, 1779 - by order B.W.
To 3½ yds linen @ 52/1
1 barrel sugar wh. @ 20/-
30 Gallons Rum @ £ 8/
6 lbs. Tea @ 10/- by Thos. Russell

Virginia Hosp at York - Aug. 17, 1779 -ord. B.W.
15 Gallons Rum @ 10£ per Wm/ Mitchell, Q.M.

Virginia Hosp. - Aug. 20, 1779 per Thos. Russell
26½ yards flannel @ 6/8/4
30 yards flannel @ 6/-

Virginia Hosp. - Sept 17, 1779 - verb. ord. Dr.
To Gall. whiskey @ £ 7/17/6 - del. Aug 21st - D. Smith

Virginia Hosp. at the Vineyard - Oct. 5, 1779.
1 Quire Musket Cartridge paper - pr.ord. Doctor Galt

Virginia Hosp. ord. Gov. - Oct. 22, 1779

24 yds. coarse narrow cloth@ 20/
20 Scanes thread@ 6/
5 check Shirts@ £9/7/9
1 white Shirts7/10/
9 doz. vest buttons@ 4/-
10 Quire Paper@ 2/3
50 Gallons Rum@£10/2
200 lbs. brown sugar@ 20/
4 prs. shoes@£ 6/
4 prs. stockings@ 15/
10½ yds. coarse cloth@ 20/
Threadby ord. Thos. Russell

Virginia Hospital - Oct. 29, 1779 - by ord. B. W.
6 pairs Shears @ 20/10 pr ord. Dr. Galt

Virginia Hospital - Nov. 22, 1779 - at York -ord. Bd.War
6 Quires Musket Cartridge paper @ 1/ per Capt. Johnston

Virginia Hosp. - Dec 21, 1779 - by ord. Bd. War. For 12 lbs. bo heae Tea @ 10/-
350 lbs. brown sugar @ 20/-
3 lbs bo heae Tea @ 10/- per Thos. Russell

Mad House - March 18, 1780 - ord. Executive For 55 yds coarse cloth @ 20/-
1 lb Thread per Dr. Galt.

Virginia Hosp. - Mar. 29, 1780 - pr. ord. Bd. War
For 7½ yds Oznabrigs @ 21/6
6 Scanes Thread @ 6/
for the use of a Negroe woman in the hospital pr. Thos. Russell

Virginia Hosp. - April 8, 1780 per direction D.Rose, Esq.
For 1 Barr. Sugar wh. 1641 d.
for the use of the Vineyard Hospital per. Jno. Farquharson

State Apothecary - May 9, 1780 -ord. Dune Rose, Esq.
For 12 Bottles Sweet oil — per Fred Bryan.

The hospital at York - May 30, 1780
For 2 lbs. Green Tea del Dr. Pope, April 6, '80, for the use of Hospital

State Hospital - June 25, 1780
For 3 quires Cannon Cartridge paper per Dr. Dixon.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR HOSPITAL IN THE PALACE

Patrick Henry, the Governor of the Commonwealth, terminated his residence in the Palace in Williamsburg, April 7, 1780. After this time a Continental Hospital was established there as the following evidence shows, and as the records of supplies from the Public Store to a Continental or Virginia Hospital indicates:

Williamsburg, March 25, 1780- Notice is hereby given that the business of government, in the executive department, will cease to be transacted at Williamsburg from the 7th of April next, and will commence at Richmond on the 24th of the next month. The Governor will be in Richmond, during the interval, to do such business as may be done by him without concurrence of the Public Boards. —Official letters of the Govs. of Va. Vol.II, Letters of Thos. Jefferson pp.115.
Extract of a letter from Timothy Pickering, Q.M.G. to Gov. Nelson, headed, Williamsburg, November 8th, 1781......Unfortunately too, the subalterns command of Continental troops, which I requested might be stationed here for the service of the hospital, were withdrawn when the camp broke up, and the sick are left to shift for them-selves. Doct. Treat informs me that there were three large rooms at the Palace destitute of fire places; and the sick cannot remain in them unless stoves can be procured. Mr. Holt thinks those formerly belonging to the Palace were removed to Richmond. As I know not where to procure any, and these rooms are essential for our sick, I request your Excellency will be so kind as to cause the Palace stoves to be sent hither as quick as possible, as the sick have already suffered by the cold. —Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 1781- Vol. 2, p.589.
William Wirt's "Life of Patrick Henry", p.220. 1776. "The Governor's Palace together with the outbuildings having by a previous resolution been appropriated as a public hospital, was by resolution restored to its original destination, the sum of L 1000 was appropriated for furniture, including furniture already there belonging to the country".—M.F.G. Book #1, p.6, p 4.

CIVIL WAR HOSPITALS IN AND NEAR WILLIAMSBURG

"The College during the Civil War was used first by the Confederates, as a hospital, and storage place for quartermaster's supplies. After it fell into the hands of the Federals, it was used for a short time as a hospital to take care of both Union and Southern wounded. After the retreat of McClellan's Army, July 1862, the College was abandoned and was destroyed by fire in the following September.- (Mr. Charles' Recollections- p.52, P3.)
In the early part of the War the Academy on the Capitol site was used as a hospital by the Confederates, and later wounded soldiers from the battle fields of Williamsburg were put there.(p.52, P 3. ibid)
The present Baptist Church, built a few years before the War, had very much its present appearance, the addition on the south end being put there only a few years ago. It was erected during the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Young, so well and favorably known; and who was the pastor when churches were converted into hospitals, and civil courts were supplanted by provosts-marshal. The splendid house of worship was used, as already stated, as a hospital for Confederate wounded during and after the Battle of Williamsburg. (p.40, P 2, ibid)
Those defenders of southern rights, who died in this church were buried in big square pits dug in the ground on the western side of the church, very close to the basement windows. Those heroes of the Lost Cause were, after the War, removed to Bruton Church yard, where a granite shaft now marks their resting place. (p.40, P 3. ibid)

CIVIL WAR HOSPITALS IN AND NEAR WILLIAMSBURG

Diary of Miss Harriette Cary, kept by her from May 6, 1862 to July 24, 1862 - Williamsburg - Tyler's Magazine, Vol. 9, p.104.

May 8th, 1862 - p.105 - "Ventured to visit the Methodist Church Hospital, containing Confederate wounded only - but Federal soldiers were in attendance. I conversed with one or two patients who appeared cheerful and hopeful - discovered a few minutes after entering the surgeons engaged in amputating a leg - a shocking operation - although the patient had been rendered insensible to suffering - soon left.....

May 9th - p.106 - Mr. Vest's store is a sick hospital, and imagine very nearly filled - ambulances were discharging their burdens for several hours this morning - coming from the direction of Richmond.

May 11th - p.107 - Numbers are dying at the Hospital opposite, and consigned to rude interment in the yard of the same, as witnesses report. The result of the malaria is shocking to imagine.....

May 12th - p. 107-8 - I visited this morning the Episcopal Church and College hospitals, from which they were moving our wounded very rapidly to Fortress Monroe - the agonized countenances of the poor creatures as they were lifted from their cots, showed plainly their condition unequal to the fatugue they must undergo in the journey - their destination will be seen by few..... Very few of the wounded are left - only such as could not possibly be moved - those whose limbs have been amputated within the last few hours perhaps -

May 13th - p.109 - The Hospital opposite was vacated this morning I imagine from the number of ambulances in service.....

May 15th - The Confederate wounded have been concentrated at the Baptist Church Hospital - only such as were mutilated allowed to remain - Ambulances we hear are bringing the wounded from above, besides hundreds that have been sent by boats.

May 21st - p.112 - Nearly every family has one or more of the wounded whom it affords them great pleasure to nurse.

May 24th - p.113 - Visited the Hospital (Baptist Church) for a few minutes this morning, found one corpse, one dying, and some two or three very ill, but the majority improving - amputation is determined on without deliberation - consequently many limbs have been unnecessarily lost.

May 27th - p.114 - Our wounded are being moved to private houses, which can very well accomodate them, there being only eighteen living out of the sixty-one left.....Mr. Bland, with others, was carried this morning to Fortress Monroe, to which all prisoners are conveyed as they improve.

May 30th - p.115 - Lieutenant Richardson, carefully nursed at Mrs. Ambler's house, died last night, and was buried with much respect this P.M. at five o'clock - Another case of neglect.

Diary completed. - twenty-three typed pages at Virginia State Library containing nothing additional on hospitals.

Footnotes

^ *Catalogue of skeletons and the identification of each as determined by Doctor Hrdlicka is appended.